Bigraphical Models of Context-Aware Systems

  • L. Birkedal
  • S. Debois
  • E. Elsborg
  • T. Hildebrandt
  • H. Niss
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3921)


As part of ongoing work on evaluating Milner’s bigraphical reactive systems, we investigate bigraphical models of context-aware systems, a facet of ubiquitous computing. We find that naively encoding such systems in bigraphs is somewhat awkward; and we propose a more sophisticated modeling technique, introducing Plato-graphical models, alleviating this awkwardness. We argue that such models are useful for simulation and point out that for reasoning about such bigraphical models, the bisimilarity inherent to bigraphical reactive systems is not enough in itself; an equivalence between the bigraphical reactive systems themselves is also needed.


Location Model Ubiquitous Computing Operational Semantic Label Transition System Outer Face 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Addlesee, M., Curwen, R., Hodges, S., Newman, J., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Hopper, A.: Implementing a sentient computing system. IEEE Computer, Los Alamitos (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Becker, C., Dürr, F.: On location models for ubiquitous computing. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 9, 20–31 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birkedal, L., Debois, S., Elsborg, E., Hildebrandt, T., Niss, H.: Bigraphical Models of Context-aware Systems. Technical Report 74, IT Univ. of Copenhagen (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braione, P., Picco, G.P.: On calculi for context-aware coordination. In: De Nicola, R., Ferrari, G.L., Meredith, G. (eds.) COORDINATION 2004. LNCS, vol. 2949, pp. 38–54. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bundgaard, M., Hildebrandt, T.: Bigraphical semantics of higher-order mobile embedded resources with local names. In: Proc. of GT-VC (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Conforti, G., Macedonio, D., Sassone, V.: Spatial Logics for Bigraphs. In: Caires, L., Italiano, G.F., Monteiro, L., Palamidessi, C., Yung, M. (eds.) ICALP 2005. LNCS, vol. 3580, pp. 766–778. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Damgaard, T.C., Birkedal, L.: Axiomatizing binding bigraphs (revised). Technical Report TR-2005-71, IT University of Copenhagen (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Nicola, R., Gorla, D., Pugliese, R.: Basic observables for a calculus for global computing. In: Caires, L., Italiano, G.F., Monteiro, L., Palamidessi, C., Yung, M. (eds.) ICALP 2005. LNCS, vol. 3580, pp. 1226–1238. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Debois, S., Damgaard, T.C.: Bigraphs by Example. Technical Report TR-2005-61, IT University of Copenhagen (March 2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dey, A.K., Abowd, G.D.: Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In: Workshop on The What, Who, Where, When, and How of Context-Awareness (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hennessy, M.: Context-awareness: Models and analysis. Talk at 2nd UK-UbiNet Workshop (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henricksen, K., Indulska, J., Rakotonirainy, A.: Modeling context information in pervasive computing systems. In: Mattern, F., Naghshineh, M. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2414, Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jensen, O.H.: Mobile Processes in Bigraphs. PhD thesis (forthcoming 2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jensen, O.H., Milner, R.: Bigraphs and Transitions. In: Proc. of POPL (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen, O.H., Milner, R.: Bigraphs and mobile processes (revised). Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-580, University of Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leifer, J.J., Milner, R.: Deriving bisimulation congruences for reactive systems. In: Palamidessi, C. (ed.) CONCUR 2000. LNCS, vol. 1877, Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Milner, R.: Axioms for bigraphical structure. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-581, University of Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milner, R.: Bigraphs for Petri Nets. In: Desel, J., Reisig, W., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) ACPN 2003. LNCS, vol. 3098, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milner, R.: Bigraphs whose names have multiple locality. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-603 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milner, R.: Bigraphs: A tutorial. Slides (April 2005), Available at
  21. 21.
    Robin Milner. Pure bigraphs: Structure and dynamics. Information and Computation (to appear, 2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pierce, B.C., Turner, D.N.: Pict: A prog. lang. based on the pi-calculus. In: Proof, Language and Interaction: Essays in Honour of R. Milner, MIT, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Plato. The republic, book vii, 360 B.C. Translation by Benjamin JowettGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reppy, J.H.: Concurrent Programming in ML. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roman, G.-C., Julien, C., Payton, J.: A formal treatment of context-awareness. In: Wermelinger, M., Margaria-Steffen, T. (eds.) FASE 2004. LNCS, vol. 2984, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schilit, B., Adams, N., Want, R.: Context-aware computing applications. In: Proc. of IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmidt, A., Beigl, M., Gellersen, H.-W.: There is more to context than location. Computers & Graphics Journal (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weiser, M.: Hot topics – ubiquitous computing. IEEE Computer, Los Alamitos (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Birkedal
    • 1
  • S. Debois
    • 1
  • E. Elsborg
    • 1
  • T. Hildebrandt
    • 1
  • H. Niss
    • 1
  1. 1.IT University of Copenhagen (ITU)Denmark

Personalised recommendations