Extraction of Handwritten Text from Carbon Copy Medical Form Images

  • Robert Milewski
  • Venu Govindaraju
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3872)


This paper presents a methodology for separating handwritten foreground pixels, from background pixels, in carbon copied medical forms. Comparisons between prior and proposed techniques are illustrated. This study involves the analysis of the New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DoH) Pre-Hospital Care Report (PCR) [1] which is a standard form used in New York by all Basic and Advanced Life Support pre-hospital healthcare professionals to document patient status in the emergency environment. The forms suffer from extreme carbon mesh noise, varying handwriting pressure sensitivity issues, and smudging which are further complicated by the writing environment. Extraction of handwriting from these medical forms is a vital step in automating emergency medical health surveillance systems.


Carbon Paper Foreground Pixel Handwriting Recognition Lexicon Size Stroke Width 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Milewski
    • 1
  • Venu Govindaraju
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and RecognitionUniversity at BuffaloAmherst

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