Trends in Bioelectroanalysis pp 263-280

Part of the Bioanalytical Reviews book series (BIOREV, volume 6) | Cite as

Trends in Electrochemical Sensing of Blood Gases

  • Bastiaan van der Weerd
  • Rudolf Bierl
  • Frank-Michael Matysik
Chapter

Abstract

The monitoring of partial pressures of the blood gases carbon dioxide (pCO2) and oxygen (pO2) is of great importance in clinical diagnostics. The measure of pCO2 and pO2 provides essential information about the patient’s metabolism, gas exchange, ventilation, and acid–base homeostasis. The conventional electrochemical methods for clinical blood gas analysis are based on the potentiometric Severinghaus sensor for carbon dioxide and the amperometric Clark sensor for oxygen. These techniques are well established and are only shortly discussed in this overview. However, in recent years a variety of modifications of these classical sensor concepts and new approaches of electrochemical sensing of pCO2 and pO2 have been introduced. This review summarizes recent developments in this field and discusses the potential for future applications in clinical blood gas analysis.

Keywords

Blood gas analysis Clinical analysis CO2 sensor Electrochemical sensor Noninvasive blood gas sensor O2 sensor 

Abbreviations

ABG

Arterial blood gas analysis

AIROF

Anodically grown iridium oxide film

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

CBG

Arterialized capillary blood gas analysis

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Hb

Hemoglobin

ISE

Ion-selective electrode

ISFET

Ion-selective field-effect transistor

LIX

Liquid ion exchanger

MEMS

Microelectromechanical systems

paCO2

Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide

paO2

Arterial partial pressure of oxygen

pBDD

Polycrystalline boron-doped diamond

pCO2

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

petCO2

End-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide

pO2

Partial pressure of oxygen

ptcCO2

Transcutaneously determined partial pressure of carbon dioxide

ptcO2

Transcutaneously determined partial pressure of oxygen

VBG

Venous blood gas analysis

τ90/τ95

Time to approach 90%/95% of the steady-state signal

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bastiaan van der Weerd
    • 1
  • Rudolf Bierl
    • 1
  • Frank-Michael Matysik
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

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