Template-Based Automated Service Provisioning – Supporting the Agreement-Driven Service Life-Cycle

  • Heiko Ludwig
  • Henner Gimpel
  • Asit Dan
  • Bob Kearney
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3826)


Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are a vital instrument in service-oriented architectures to reserve service capacity at a defined service quality level. Provisioning systems enable service managers to automatically configure resources such as servers, storage, and routers based on a configuration specification. Hence, agreement provisioning is a vital step in managing the life-cycle of agreement-driven services. Deriving detailed resource quantities from arbitrary SLA specifications is a difficult task and requires detailed models of algorithmic behavior of service implementations and capacity of a – potentially heterogeneous – resource environment, which are typically not available today. However, if we look at, e.g., data centers today, system administrators often know the quality-of-service properties of known system configurations and modifications thereof and can write the corresponding provisioning specifications. This paper proposes an approach that leverages the knowledge of existing data center configurations, defines templates of provisioning specifications, and rules on how to fill these templates based on a SLA specification. The approach is agnostic to the specific SLA language and provisioning specification format used, if based on XML.


Service Level Agreement Resource Pool Resource Type Service Capacity Service Client 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Andrieux, A., Czajkowski, K., Dan, A., Keahey, K., Ludwig, H., Pruyne, J., Rofrano, J., Tuecke, S., Xu, M.: Web Services Agreement Specification. Version 1.1, GGF GRAAP working Group Draft 18 (May 14, 2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, D., Kojo, T., Goldsack, P., Loughran, S., Milojicic, D., Schaefer, S., Tatemura, J., Toft, P.: Configuration Description, Deployment, and Lifecycle Management (CDDLM) Foundation Document (January 2003),
  3. 3.
    Buyya, R., Abramson, D., Giddy, J., Stockinger, H.: Economic models for resource management and scheduling in grid computing. The Journal of Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 14(13-15), 1507–1542 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Czajkowski, K., Foster, I., Kesselman, C., Sander, V., Tuecke, S.: SNAP: A Protocol for Negotiation of Service Level Agreements and Coordinated Resource Management in Distributed Systems. In: Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing: 8th International Workshop (JSSPP 2002), Edinburgh (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dan, A., Dumitrescu, C., Ripeanu, M.: Connecting client objectives with resource capabilities: an essential component for grid service management infrastructures. In: Proceedings Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2004, Second International Conference, pp. 57–64. ACM, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eilam, T., Kalantar, M., Konstantinou, A., Pacifici, G.: Reducing the Complexity of Application Deployment in Large Data Centers. In: Proceedings of the 9th International IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Management (IM 2005). IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gimpel, H., Ludwig, H., Dan, A., Kearney, B.: PANDA: Specifying policies for automated negotiations of service contracts. In: Orlowska, M.E., Weerawarana, S., Papazoglou, M.P., Yang, J. (eds.) ICSOC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2910, pp. 287–302. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    IBM Corporation: PMAC Expression Language Users Guide. Alphaworks PMAC distribution (2005),
  9. 9.
    Keller, A., Badonnel, R.: Automating the Provisioning of Application Services with the BPEL4WS Workflow Language. In: Proceedings of DSOM 2004, Davis, CA, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Keller, A.: Automating the Change Management Process with Electronic Contracts. In: Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Service oriented Solutions for Cooperative Organizations (SoS4CO 2005). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ludwig, H., Dan, A., Kearney, R.: Cremona: an architecture and library for creation and monitoring of WS-Agreements. In: Proceedings Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2004, Second International Conference, pp. 65–74. ACM, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ludwig, H., Keller, A., Dan, A., King, R.: A Service Level Agreement Language for Dynamic Electronic Services. In: Proceedings of WECWIS 2002, Newport Beach (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ludwig, H.: A Conceptual Framework for Electronic Contract Automation. IBM Research Report, RC 22608. New York (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schnizler, B., Neumann, D., Weinhardt, C.: Resource Allocation in Computational Grids – A Market Engineering Approach. In: Proceeding of the WeB 2004, Washington (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tosic, V., Pagurek, B., Patel, K.: WSOL - A Language for the Formal Specification of Classes of Service for Web Services. In: Proceedings of ICWS 2003, pp. 375–381. CSREA Press (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vitaletti, M., Draper, C., George, R., McCarthy, J., Poolman, D., Miller, T., Middlekauff, A., Montero-Luque, C.: Installable Unit Deployment Descriptor Specification Version 1.0. W3C Member Submission (July 12, 2004),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heiko Ludwig
    • 2
  • Henner Gimpel
    • 1
  • Asit Dan
    • 2
  • Bob Kearney
    • 2
  1. 1.Universität Fridericiana zu Karlsruhe (TH)KarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.IBM T.J. Watson Research CenterHawthorneUSA

Personalised recommendations