A Method for Deciding Quantization Steps in QIM Watermarking Schemes

  • Yunho Lee
  • Kwangwoo Lee
  • Seungjoo Kim
  • Dongho Won
  • Hyungkyu Yang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3823)


In this paper, we propose a method for enlarging quantization steps of a QIM watermarking scheme which determines the perceptual quality and robustness of the watermarked images. In general, increasing the quantization steps leads to good robustness but poor perceptual quality of watermarked images and vice versa. However, if we choose the quantization steps considering the expected quantization results as well as the original images, we can increase both robustness and perceptual quality of the watermarked images.


  1. 1.
    Andrews, H.C., Patterson, C.L.: Singular Value Decomposition(SVD) Image Coding. IEEE Trans. on Communications COM-24, 425–432 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Golub, G.H., Reinsch, C.: Singular Value Decomposition and Least Squares Solutions. Num. Math. 14, 403–420 (1970)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cox, I.J., Killian, J., Leighton, T., Shamoon, T.: Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia. IEEE Trans. on Image Processing 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Swanson, M.D., Zhu, B., Tewfek, A.H.: Transparent Robust Image Watermarking. In: Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.W.: Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding Using Dither Modulation. In: Proc. of IEEE MMSP 1998, pp. 273–278 (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.W.: Dither Modulation: A New Approach to Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding. In: Proc. of SPIE: Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, pp. 342–353 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.W.: Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding. IEEE Trans. on Information Theory 47(4), 1423–1443 (2001)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.W.: Quantization Index Modulation Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding of Multimedia. Journal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology, Special Issue on Multimedia Signal Processing 27(1-4), 7–33 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gorodetski, V.I., Popyack, L.J., Samoilov, V.: SVD-based Approach to Transparent Embedding Data into Digital Images. In: Proc. Int. Workshop MMM-ACNS, pp. 263–274 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, R., Tan, T.: An SVD-based Watermarking Scheme for Protecting Rightful Ownership. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia 4(1), 121–128 (2001)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Byun, S.-C., Lee, S.-K., Tewfik, A.H., Ahn, B.-H.: A SVD-based fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication. In: Petitcolas, F.A.P., Kim, H.-J. (eds.) IWDW 2002. LNCS, vol. 2613, pp. 170–178. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gamic, E., Eskicioglu, A.M.: Robust DWT-SVD Domain Image Watermarking: Embedding Data in All Frequencies. In: Proc. of MM&Sec 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang, F., Guan, Z.H.: A Hybrid SVD-DCT Watermarking Method Based on LPSNR. Pattern Recognition Letters 25(15), 1769–1775 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bao, P., Ma, X.: Image Adaptive Watermarking Using Wavelet Domain Singular Value Decomposition. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 15(1), 96–102 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yunho Lee
    • 1
  • Kwangwoo Lee
    • 1
  • Seungjoo Kim
    • 1
  • Dongho Won
    • 1
  • Hyungkyu Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.Information Security GroupSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwon-si, Gyeonggi-doKorea
  2. 2.Department of Computer & Media EngineeringKangnam UniversityYongin-si, Gyeonggi-doKorea

Personalised recommendations