Real-Time Video Annotations for Augmented Reality

  • Edward Rosten
  • Gerhard Reitmayr
  • Tom Drummond
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3804)


Augmented reality (AR) provides an intuitive user interface to present information in the context of the real world. A common application is to overlay screen-aligned annotations for real world objects to create in-situ information displays for users. While the referenced object’s location is fixed in the view the annotating labels should be placed in such a way as to not interfere with other content of interest such as other labels or objects in the real world. We present a new approach to determine and track areas with less visual interest based on feature density and to automatically compute label layout from this information. The algorithm works in under 5ms per frame, which is fast enough that it can be used with existing AR systems. Moreover, it provides flexible constraints for controlling label placement behaviour to the application designer. The resulting overlays are demonstrated with a simple hand-held augmented reality system for information display in a lab environment.


Augmented Reality Real World Object Augmented Reality System Information Display Mobile Augmented Reality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Azuma, R.T.: A survey of augmented reality. Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 355–385 (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rekimoto, J.: Navicam: A magnifying glass approach to augmented reality. PRESENCE - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 399–412 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Christensen, J., Marks, J., Shieber, S.: An empirical study of algorithms for point-feature label placement. ACM Transactions on Graphics 14, 203–232 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azuma, R., Furmanski, C.: Evaluating label placement for augmented reality view management. In: Proc. ISMAR 2003, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 66–75. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sportvision: 1st & Ten (2005),
  7. 7.
    Sportvision: Race F/X (2005),
  8. 8.
    Feiner, S., MacIntyre, B., Haupt, M., Solomon, E.: Windows on the world: 2D windows for 3D augmented reality. In: Proc. UIST 1993, Atlanta, GA, USA, pp. 145–155 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Julier, S., Lanzagorta, M., Baillot, Y., Rosenblum, L., Feiner, S., Höllerer, T.: Information filtering for mobile augmented reality. In: Proc. ISAR 2000, Munich, Germany, pp. 3–11. IEEE and ACM (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bell, B., Feiner, S., Höllerer, T.: View management for virtual and augmented reality. In: Proc. UIST 2001, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 101–110. ACM, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gabbard, J.L., Swan II, J.E., Hix, D., Schulman, R.S., Lucas, J., Gupta, D.: An empirical user-based study of text drawing styles and outdoor background textures for augmented reality. In: Proc. IEEE VR 2005, Bonn, Germany, pp. 11–18. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leykin, A., Tuceryan, M.: Automatic determination of text readability over textured backgrounds for augmented reality systems. In: Proc. ISMAR 2004, Arlington, VA, USA, pp. 224–230. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thanedar, V., Höllerer, T.: Semi-automated placement of annotations on videos. Technical Report #2004-11, UC, Santa Barbara (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harris, C.J., Stephens, M.: A combined corner and edge detector. In: Proc. of the 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, vol. 4, pp. 147–151 (1988)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith, S., Brady, J.: SUSAN - a new approach to low level image processing. Int. Journal of Computer Vision 23, 45–78 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Viola, P., Jones, M.: Robust real-time object detection. Int. Journal of Computer Vision (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kato, H., Billinghurst, M.: Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferenencing system. In: Proc. IWAR 1999, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 85–94. IEEE CS, Los Alamitos (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Rosten
    • 1
  • Gerhard Reitmayr
    • 1
  • Tom Drummond
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations