A Robust Multi-bit Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on HMM in Wavelet Domain

  • Jiangqun Ni
  • Rongyue Zhang
  • Jiwu Huang
  • Chuntao Wang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3710)


Robustness is the key issue in the development of multi-bit watermarking algorithm. A new algorithm for robust multi-bit image watermarking based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in wavelet domain is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is characterized as follows: (1) the proposed blind detector based on vector HMM, which describes the statistics of wavelet coefficients, achieves significant improvement in performance compared to the conventional correlation detector; (2) adaptive watermark embedding scheme is applied to achieve the low distortion according to the Human Visual System (HVS); (3) optimal multi-bit watermark embedding strategy and maximum-likelihood detection for tree structure of vector HMM is proposed through system robustness analysis. Simulation results show that relatively high capacity for watermark embedding in low frequency subbands of wavelet domain is achieved with the proposed algorithm, and high robust results are observed against StirMark attacks, such as JPEG compression, additive noise, median cut and filter.


Hide Markov Model Wavelet Coefficient Human Visual System Image Watermark JPEG Compression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiangqun Ni
    • 1
  • Rongyue Zhang
    • 1
  • Jiwu Huang
    • 1
  • Chuntao Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronic and Communication EngineeringSun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouP. R. China

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