Advertisement

Modeling Dynamic Perceptual Attention in Complex Virtual Environments

  • Youngjun Kim
  • Martin van Velsen
  • Randall W. HillJr.
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3661)

Abstract

An important characteristic of a virtual human is the ability to direct its perceptual attention to entities and areas in a virtual environment in a manner that appears believable and serves a functional purpose. In this paper, we describe a perceptual attention model that mediates top-down and bottom-up attention processes of virtual humans in order for the virtual human to efficiently select important information with limited sensory capability within complex virtual environments.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjalmsson, H.: Fully Conversational Avatars: Making Communicative Behaviors. In: Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 2, pp. 45–64. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chopra-Khullar, S., Badler, N.: Where to Look? Automating Attending Behaviors of Visual Human Characters. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conde, T., Thalmann, D.: An Artificial Life Environment for Autonomous Virtual Agents with multi-sensorial and multi-perceptive features. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 15(3-4) (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Courty, N., Marchand, E., Arnaldi, B.: A New Application for Saliency Maps: Synthetic Vision of Autonomous Actors. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2003, Barcelona, Spain (September 2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gillies, M., Neil, D.: Eye Movements and Attention for Behavioural Animation. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hill, R.: Modeling Attention in Virtual Humans. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, SISO, Orlando, Fla. (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hill, R.: Perceptual Attention in Virtual Humans: Toward Realistic and Believable Gaze Behaviors. In: Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Simulating Human Agents, pp. 46–52. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hill, R., Gratch, J., Marsella, S., Rickel, J., Swartout, W., Traum, D.: Virtual Humans in the Mission Rehearsal Exercise System. Künstliche Intelligenz (KI Journal). Special issue on Embodied Conversational Agents (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Itti, L., Koch, C.: Computational Modeling of Visual Attention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2(3), 194–203 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noser, H., Thalmann, D.: Synthetic vision and audition for digital actors. In: Proceedings of Eurographics 1995 (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nothegger, C., Winter, S., Raubal, M.: Selection of Salient Features for Route Directions. Spatial Cognition and Computation 4(2), 113–136 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klein, R.: Inhibition of return. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4, 138–147 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rickel, J., Johnson, L.: Animated Agents for Procedural Training in Virtual Reality: Perception, Cognition, and Motor Control. Applied Artificial Intelligence (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Samet, H.: The Quadtree and Related Hierarchical Data Structures. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 16(2), 187–260 (1984)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Traum, D., Rickel, J.: Embodied Agents for Multi-party Dialogue in Immersive Virtual Worlds. In: AAMAS 2002, Bologna, Italy, July 15-19 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Young, R.M., Riedl, M.: Towards an Architecture for Intelligent Control of Narrative in Interactive Virtual Worlds. In: The Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (January 2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang, H., Wyvill, B.: Behavioural Simulation in Voxel Space. Computer Animation 1997, Geneva, SWITZERLAND, June 4 - 7 (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Platt, M.L., Glimcher, P.W.: Neural Correlates of Decision Variables in Parietal Cortex. Nature 400, 233–238 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glimcher, P.W.: The Neurobiology of Visual-saccadic Decision Making. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26, 133–179 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dorris, M.C., Glimcher, P.W.: Activity in Posterior Parietal Cortex is correlated with the Subjective Desireability of an Action. Neuron 44, 365–378 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rizzo, A.A., Buckwalter, J.G., Bowerly, T., van der Zaag, C., Humphrey, L., Neumann, U., Chua, C., van Rooyen, A., Sisemore, D.: The virtual classroom: A virtual environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 3, 483–500 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youngjun Kim
    • 1
  • Martin van Velsen
    • 1
  • Randall W. HillJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Creative TechnologiesMarina del RayUSA

Personalised recommendations