Advertisement

Symbolic Model Checking for Asynchronous Boolean Programs

  • Byron Cook
  • Daniel Kroening
  • Natasha Sharygina
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3639)

Abstract

Software model checking problems generally contain two different types of non-determinism: 1) non-deterministically chosen values; 2) the choice of interleaving among threads. Most modern software model checkers can handle only one source of non-determinism efficiently, but not both. This paper describes a SAT-based model checker for asynchronous Boolean programs that handles both sources effiectively. We address the first type of non-determinism with a form of symbolic execution and fix-point detection. We address the second source of non-determinism using a symbolic and dynamic partial-order reduction, which is implemented inside the SAT-solver’s case-splitting algorithm. The preliminary experimental results show that the new algorithm outperforms the existing software model checkers on large benchmarks.

Keywords

Model Checker Symbolic Model Concurrent Program Symbolic Execution Program Counter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K.: Bebop: A symbolic model checker for Boolean programs. In: Havelund, K., Penix, J., Visser, W. (eds.) SPIN 2000. LNCS, vol. 1885, pp. 113–130. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Esparza, J., Schwoon, S.: A BDD-based model checker for recursive programs. In: Berry, G., Comon, H., Finkel, A. (eds.) CAV 2001. LNCS, vol. 2102, pp. 324–336. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ball, T., Chaki, S., Rajamani, S.K.: Parameterized verification of multithreaded software libraries. In: Margaria, T., Yi, W. (eds.) TACAS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2031, p. 158. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jain, H., Clarke, E., Kroening, D.: Verification of SpecC and Verilog using predicate abstraction. In: Proceedings of MEMOCODE 2004, pp. 7–16. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ball, T., Cook, B., Levin, V., Rajamani, S.K.: SLAM and Static Driver Verifier: Technology transfer of formal methods inside Microsoft. In: IFM (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henzinger, T.A., Jhala, R., Majumdar, R., Sutre, G.: Lazy abstraction. In: POPL 2002: Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, pp. 58–70. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coudert, O., Madre, J.: A unified framework for the formal verification of sequential circuits. In: ICCAD, pp. 78–82. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aagaard, M.D., Jones, R.B., Seger, C.J.H.: Formal verification using parametric representations of boolean constraints. In: DAC, pp. 402–407. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biere, A.: Resolve and expand. In: Hoos, H.H., Mitchell, D.G. (eds.) SAT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3542, pp. 59–70. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang, L., Malik, S.: Conflict driven learning in a quantified boolean satisfiability solver. In: ICCAD (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leino, K.R.M.: A SAT characterization of Boolean-program correctness. In: SPIN (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cimatti, A., et al.: NuSMV 2: An opensource tool for symbolic model checking. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 359–364. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flanagan, C., Godefroid, P.: Dynamic partial-order reduction for model checking software. In: POPL 2005: Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holzmann, G., Peled, D.: An improvement in formal verification. In: Proc. Formal Description Techniques, FORTE 1994, pp. 197–211. Chapman & Hall, Boca Raton (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alur, R., Brayton, R.K., Henzinger, T.A., Qadeer, S., Rajamani, S.K.: Partial-order reduction in symbolic state-space exploration. FMSD 18, 97–116 (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jussila, T., Niemelä, I.: Parallel program verification using BMC. In: ECAI 2002 Workshop on Model Checking and Artificial Intelligence, pp. 59–66 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grumberg, O., Lerda, F., Strichman, O., Theobald, M.: Proof-guided underapproximation-widening for multi-process systems. In: POPL, pp. 122–131. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lerda, F., Sinha, N., Theobald, M.: Symbolic model checking of software. In: Software Model Checking (SoftMC). ENTCS (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alur, R., Henzinger, T., Mang, F., Qadeer, S., Rajamani, S., Tasiran, S.: Mocha: Modularity in model checking. In: Y. Vardi, M. (ed.) CAV 1998. LNCS, vol. 1427, pp. 521–525. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henzinger, T.A., Jhala, R., Majumdar, R., Qadeer, S.: Thread modular abstraction refinement. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 262–274. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qadeer, S., Rehof, J.: Context-bounded model checking of concurrent software. In: Halbwachs, N., Zuck, L.D. (eds.) TACAS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3440, pp. 93–107. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Graf, S., Saïdi, H.: Construction of abstract state graphs with PVS. In: Grumberg, O. (ed.) CAV 1997. LNCS, vol. 1254, pp. 72–83. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Colón, M., Uribe, T.: Generating finite-state abstractions of reactive systems using decision procedures. In: Vardi, M.Y. (ed.) CAV 1998. LNCS, vol. 1427, pp. 293–304. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holzmann, G.: The model checker SPIN. IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering 23, 279–295 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peled, D.: All from one, one for all: on model checking using representatives. In: Courcoubetis, C. (ed.) CAV 1993. LNCS, vol. 697. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barner, S., Rabinovitz, I.: Effcient symbolic model checking of software using partial disjunctive partitioning. In: Geist, D., Tronci, E. (eds.) CHARME 2003. LNCS, vol. 2860, pp. 35–50. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andrews, T., et al.: Zing: Exploiting program structure for model checking concurrent software. In: Gardner, P., Yoshida, N. (eds.) CONCUR 2004. LNCS, vol. 3170, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cook, B., Kroening, D., Sharygina, N.: Cogent: Accurate theorem proving for program verification. In: Etessami, K., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) CAV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3576, pp. 296–300. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chauhan, P., Clarke, E., Kroening, D.: A SAT-based algorithm for reparameterization in symbolic simulation. In: DAC 2004, pp. 524–529. ACM Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byron Cook
    • 1
  • Daniel Kroening
    • 2
  • Natasha Sharygina
    • 3
  1. 1.Microsoft Research 
  2. 2.ETH Zurich 
  3. 3.Carnegie Mellon University 

Personalised recommendations