Advertisement

Concept Maps: Integrating Knowledge and Information Visualization

  • Alberto J. Cañas
  • Roger Carff
  • Greg Hill
  • Marco Carvalho
  • Marco Arguedas
  • Thomas C. Eskridge
  • James Lott
  • Rodrigo Carvajal
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3426)

Abstract

Information visualization has been a research topic for many years, leading to a mature field where guidelines and practices are well established. Knowledge visualization, in contrast, is a relatively new area of research that has received more attention recently due to the interest from the business community in Knowledge Management. In this paper we present the CmapTools software as an example of how concept maps, a knowledge visualization tool, can be combined with recent technology to provide integration between knowledge and information visualizations. We show how concept map-based knowledge models can be used to organize repositories of information in a way that makes them easily browsable, and how concept maps can improve searching algorithms for the Web. We also report on how information can be used to complement knowledge models and, based on the searching algorithms, improve the process of constructing concept maps.

Keywords

Knowledge Management Knowledge Model Information Visualization Outgoing Link Performance Support System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ausubel, D.P., Novak, J.D., Hanesian, H.: Educational psychology: A cognitive view, 2nd edn. Rinehart and Winston, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  2. Becerra-Fernandez, I., Gonzalez, A., Sabherwal, R.: Knowledge management challenges, solutions, and technologies. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2003)Google Scholar
  3. Briggs, G., Shamma, D.A., Cañas, A.J., Carff, R., Scargle, J., Novak, J.D.: Concept maps applied to Mars exploration public outreach. In: Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D., González, F. (eds.) Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the first international conference on concept mapping, vol. I, pp. 109–116. Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (2004)Google Scholar
  4. Brin, S., Lawrence, P.: The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual web search engine. Computer Networks 30(1-7), 107–117 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. Burkhard, R., Meier, M.: Tube map: Evaluation of a visual metaphor for interfunctional communication of complex projects. In: Tochtermann, K., Maurer, H. (eds.) Proceedings of I-KNOW 2004, pp. 449–456. Know-Center Austria, Graz (2004)Google Scholar
  6. Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D., Shneiderman, B.: Readings in information visualization: Using vision to think. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (1999)Google Scholar
  7. Carnot, M.J., Dunn, B., Cañas, A.J., Graham, P., Muldoon, J.: Concept maps vs. Web pages for information searching and browsing (2001), From http://www.ihmc.us/users/acanas/Publications/CMapsVSWebPagesExp1/CMapsVSWebPagesExp1.htm
  8. Carvalho, M.R., Hewett, R., Cañas, A.J.: Enhancing web searches from concept map-based knowledge models. In: Callaos, N., Tinetti, F.G., Champarnaud, J.M., Lee, J.K. (eds.) Proceedings of SCI 2001: Fifth multiconference on systems, cybernetics and informatics, pp. 69–73. International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, Orlando (2001)Google Scholar
  9. Cañas, A.J.: Variability as a measure of semantic structure in document storage and retrieval. University of Waterloo, Waterloo (1985)Google Scholar
  10. Cañas, A.J., Carvalho, M.: Concept maps and AI: An unlikely marriage? In: Proceedings of SBIE 2004: Simpósio brasileiro de informática educativa. SBC, Manaus (2004)Google Scholar
  11. Cañas, A.J., Carvalho, M., Arguedas, M., Leake, D.B., Maguitman, A., Reichherzer, T.: Mining the web to suggest concepts during concept map construction. In: Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D., González, F.M. (eds.) Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on concept mapping, vol. I, pp. 135–142. Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (2004a)Google Scholar
  12. Cañas, A.J., Ford, K.M., Coffey, J.W.: Concept maps as a hypermedia navigational tool. In: Paper presented at the Seventh Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium (FLAIRS), Pensacola, FL (1994)Google Scholar
  13. Cañas, A.J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T., Gómez, G., Arroyo, M., Carvajal, R.: CmapTools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment. In: Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D., González, F.M. (eds.) Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the first international conference on concept mapping, vol. I, pp. 125–133. Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (2004b)Google Scholar
  14. Cañas, A.J., Hill, G., Granados, A., Pérez, C., Pérez, J.D.: The network architecture of CmapTools (Technical Report No. IHMC CmapTools 2003-01). Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola (2003a)Google Scholar
  15. Cañas, A.J., Hill, G., Lott, J.: Support for constructing knowledge models in CmapTools (Technical Report No. IHMC CmapTools 2003-02). Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola (2003b)Google Scholar
  16. Coffey, J.W., Carnot, M.J., Feltovich, P.J., Feltovich, J., Hoffman, R.R., Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D.: A summary of literature pertaining to the use of concept mapping techniques and technologies for education and performance support (No. Technical Report submitted to the US Navy Chief of Naval Education and Training). Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola (2003a)Google Scholar
  17. Coffey, J.W., Cañas, A.J.: Leo: A learning environment organizer to support computer-mediated instruction. Journal for Educational Technology 31(3) (2003)Google Scholar
  18. Coffey, J.W., Cañas, A.J., Reichherzer, T., Hill, G., Suri, N., Carff, R., Mitrovich, T., Eberle, D.: Knowledge modeling and the creation of el-tech: A performance support system for electronic technicians. Expert Systems with Applications 25(4), 483–492 (2003b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coffey, J.W., Hoffman, R.R., Cañas, A.J., Ford, K.M.: A concept-map based knowledge modeling approach to expert knowledge sharing. In: Boumedine, M. (ed.) Proceedings of IKS 2002 - the IASTED international conference on information and knowledge sharing, pp. 212–217. Acta Press, Calgary (2002)Google Scholar
  20. Ford, K.M., Cañas, A.J., Coffey, J.W.: Participatory explanation. In: Dankel, D.D., Stewman, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the sixth Florida artificial intelligence research symposium, pp. 111–115. FLAIRS, Ft. Lauderadale (1993)Google Scholar
  21. Ford, K.M., Coffey, J.W., Cañas, A.J., Andrews, E.J., Turner, C.W.: Diagnosis and explanation by a nuclear cardiology expert system. International Journal of Expert Systems 9, 499–506 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. Grayson, C.J., O’Dell, C.: If we only knew what we know: The transfer of internal knowledge and best practice. The Free Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  23. Hoffman, R.R., Coffey, J.W., Ford, K.M.: A case study in the research paradigm of human-centered computing: Local expertise in weather forecasting. Report on the contract human-centered system prototype. National Technology Alliance, Washington (2000)Google Scholar
  24. Hoffman, R.R., Coffey, J.W., Novak, J.D., Cañas, A.J.: Application of concept maps to web design and web work. In: Proctor, R.W., Vu, K.-P.L. (eds.) Handbook of human factors in web design, pp. 156–175. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mawah (2005)Google Scholar
  25. IEEE Proceedings of the seventh international conference on information visualization. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  26. Knowledge. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia, (2004, November 21), from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge Retrieved November 21 (2004)
  27. Leake, D.B., Maguitman, A., Reichherzer, T.: Understanding knowledge models: Modeling assessment of concept importance in concept maps. In: Alterman, R., Kirsch, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the cognitive science society, pp. 795–800. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (2004a)Google Scholar
  28. Leake, D.B., Maguitman, A., Reichherzer, T., Cañas, A.J., Carvalho, M., Arguedas, M., Eskridge, T.: Googling from a concept map: Towards automatic concept-map-based query formation. In: Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D., González, F.M. (eds.) Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the first international conference on concept mapping, vol. I, pp. 409–416. Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (2004b)Google Scholar
  29. Novak, J., Fleishmann, M., Strauss, W., Schneider, M., Wurst, M., Morik, K., Kunz, C.: Augmenting the knowledge bandwidth and connecting heterogeneous expert communities through uncovering tacit knowledge. In: Proceedings of the IEEE workshop on knowledge media networking, p. 87. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Novak, J.D.: A theory of education. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1977)Google Scholar
  31. Novak, J.D.: Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1998)Google Scholar
  32. Novak, J.D.: Concept map about concept maps (2003), from http://pavo.coginst.uwf.edu/servlet/SBReadResourceServlet?rid=1064009710027_1483270340_27090&partName=htmltext Retrieved April 12 (2004)
  33. Novak, J.D., Gowin, D.B.: Learning how to learn. Cambridge University Press, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  34. Spink, A., Wolfram, D., Jansen, B., Saracevic, T.: The public and their queries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 52(3), 226–234 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Takeuchi, H., Nonaka, I.: Hitotsubashi on knowledge management. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore (2004)Google Scholar
  36. Tergan, S.-O.: Managing knowledge with computer-based mapping tools. In: Lassner, D., Naught, C.M. (eds.) Proceedings of the ed-media 2003 world conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia & telecommunication, pp. 2514–2517. University of Honolulu, Honolulu (2003)Google Scholar
  37. Tiwana, A.: The knowledge management toolkit. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2000)Google Scholar
  38. Tufte, E.R.: Visual explanations: Images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Graphics Press, Cheshire (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. Tufte, E.R.: Visual display of quantitative information. Graphics Press, Cheshire (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto J. Cañas
    • 1
  • Roger Carff
    • 1
  • Greg Hill
    • 1
  • Marco Carvalho
    • 1
  • Marco Arguedas
    • 1
  • Thomas C. Eskridge
    • 1
  • James Lott
    • 1
  • Rodrigo Carvajal
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Human and Machine CognitionPensacolaUSA

Personalised recommendations