In this chapter we tackle the problem of conformance testing between finite state machines. The problem can be briefly described as follows [LY96]. Given a finite state machine MS which acts as specification and for which we know its transition diagram, and another finite state machine MI which is the alleged implementation and for which we can only observe its behavior, we want to test whether MI correctly implements or conforms to MS. The problem of conformance testing is also called fault detection, because we are interested in uncovering where MI fails to implement MS, or machine verification in the circuits and switching systems literature.
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