Robust Key Extraction from Physical Uncloneable Functions

  • B. Škorić
  • P. Tuyls
  • W. Ophey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3531)


Physical Uncloneable Functions (PUFs) can be used as a cost-effective means to store key material in an uncloneable way. Due to the fact that the key material is obtained by performing measurements on a physical system, noise is inevitably present in each readout. In this paper we present a number of methods that improve the robustness of bit-string extraction from noisy PUF measurements in general, and in particular for optical PUFs. We describe a practical implementation in the case of optical PUFs and show experimental results.


Physical Uncloneable Function authentication speckle pattern Challenge-Response Pair noise error correction 


  1. 1.
    Tolk, K.M.: Reflective Particle Technology for Identification of Critical Components. In: 33rd Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (July 1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Unicate BV’s ‘3DAS’ system (1999),
  3. 3.
    Pappu, R.: Physical One-Way Functions, Ph.D. thesis, MIT (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pappu, R., Recht, B., Taylor, J., Gershenfeld, N.: Physical One-Way Functions. Science 297, 2026 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tuyls, P., Škorić, B., Stallinga, S., Akkermans, A.H.M., Ophey, W.: Information-theoretic security analysis of physical uncloneable functions. In: S. Patrick, A., Yung, M. (eds.) FC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3570, pp. 141–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gassend, B., Clarke, D., van Dijk, M., Devadas, S.: Controlled Physical Random Functions. In: Proc. 18th Annual Computer Security Applications Conf. (December 2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tuyls, P., Škoric̀, B.: Secret Key Generation from Classical Physics. In: Proceedings of the Hardware Technology Drivers for Ambient Intelligence Symposium. Philips Research Book Series. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gassend, B., Clarke, D., van Dijk, M., Devadas, S.: Silicon Physical Random Functions. In: Proc. 9th ACM Conf. on Computer and Communications Security (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gassend, B.: Physical Random Functions, Master’s Thesis, MIT (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Magnor, M., Dorn, P., Rudolph, W.: Simulation of confocal microscopy through scattering media with and without time gating. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(11), 1695–1700 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Boer, J.F.: Optical Fluctuations on the Transmission and Reflection of Mesoscopic Systems, Ph.D. thesis, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Furstenberg, H.: Noncommuting Random Matrices. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 108, 377 (1963)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tuyls, P., Goseling, J.: Capacity and examples of template-protecting biometric authentication systems. In: Maltoni, D., Jain, A.K. (eds.) BioAW 2004. LNCS, vol. 3087, pp. 158–170. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dodis, Y., Reyzin, L., Smith, A.: Fuzzy extractors: How to generate strong keys from biometrics and other noisy data. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 523–540. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Juels, A., Wattenberg, M.: A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme. In: Tsudik, G. (ed.) Sixth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 28–36. ACM Press, New York (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linnartz, J.P., Tuyls, P.: New Shielding Functions to enhance Privacy and Prevent Misuse of Biometric Templates. In: Kittler, J., Nixon, M.S. (eds.) AVBPA 2003. LNCS, vol. 2688. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daugman, J.: The importance of being random; statistical principles of iris recognition. Pattern Recognition 36, 279–291 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goodman, J.W.: Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns. In: Dainty, J.C. (ed.) Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd edn. Springer, New York (1984)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Škorić
    • 1
  • P. Tuyls
    • 1
  • W. Ophey
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research LaboratoriesEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations