Emergence Versus Self-Organisation: Different Concepts but Promising When Combined

  • Tom De Wolf
  • Tom Holvoet
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3464)

Abstract

A clear terminology is essential in every research discipline. In the context of ESOA, a lot of confusion exists about the meaning of the terms emergence and self-organisation. One of the sources of the confusion comes from the fact that a combination of both phenomena often occurs in dynamical systems. In this paper a historic overview of the use of each concept as well as a working definition, that is compatible with the historic and current meaning of the concepts, is given. Each definition is explained by supporting it with important characteristics found in the literature. We show that emergence and self-organisation each emphasise different properties of a system. Both phenomena can exist in isolation. The paper also outlines some examples of such systems and considers the combination of emergence and self-organisation as a promising approach in complex multi-agent systems.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Goldstein, J.: Emergence as a construct: History and issues. Emergence 1 (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lewes, G.: Problems of Life and Mind, vol. 2. Kegan Paul, Trench (1875)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holland, J.: Emergence: from Chaos to Order. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1998)MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kauffman, S.: At Home in the Universe: the Search for the Laws of Self- Organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Langton, C.: Studying artificial life with cellular automata. In: Farmer, D., Lapedes, A., Packard, N., Wendroff, B. (eds.) Evolution, Games, and Learning: Models for Adaptation in Machines and Nature, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference of the Center for Nonlinear Studies (1986)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Newman, D.: Emergence and strange attractors. Philisophy of Science 36 (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haken, H.: The Science of Structure: Synergetics. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY (1981)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nicolis, G.: Physics of far-from-equilibrium systems and self-organization. In: Davies, P. (ed.) The New Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crutchfield, J.: Is anything ever new? considering emergence. Working Paper 94-03-011, Santa Fe Institute (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crutchfield, J.: The calculi of emergence: Computation, Dynamics and Induction. Working Paper 94-03-016, Santa Fe Institute (1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heyligen, F.: Self-organization, emergence and the architecture of complexity. In: Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on System Science, Paris (1989)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heyligen, F.: The science of self-organisation and adaptivity. In: The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. UNESCO Publishing-Eolss Publishers (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Odell, J.: Agents and complex systems. JOT 1, 35–45 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Odell, J.: Objects and agents compared. JOT 1, 41–53 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parunak, H.V.D., Brueckner, S.: Entropy and self-organization in multi-agent systems. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Autonomous Agents, pp. 124–130. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Engineering self-organizing applications workgroup - mission statement (2003), preliminary version available at http://cui.unige.ch/~dimarzo/esoawg/mission.pdf
  17. 17.
    Camazine, S.: Self-Organization in biological systems. Princeton Studies in Complexity. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parunak, H., Brueckner, S., Sauter, J.: ERIM’s Approach to Fine-Grained Agents. In: Proceedings of NASA/JPL Workshop on Radical Agent Concepts, WRAC 2002 (2002), available at http://www.erim.org/~vparunak/
  19. 19.
    Parunak, H.D., Brueckner, S.A.: Engineering Swarming Systems. In: Bergenti, F., Gleizes, M.P., Zambonelli, F. (eds.) Methodologies and Software Engineering for Agent Systems. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2004) (to appear), available online at http://www.erim.org/~vparunak/
  20. 20.
    Self-organizing systems faq (2003), available online at http://www.calresco.org/sos/sosfaq.htm
  21. 21.
    Lucas, C.: Emergence and evolution - constraints on form (2003), available online at http://www.calresco.org/emerge.htm
  22. 22.
    Bar-Yam, Y.: 0, Overview: The Dynamics of Complex Systems - examples, questions, methods and concepts. Studies in Nonlinearity. Dynamics of Complex Systems. Westview Press, Boulder (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dempster, M.B.L.: A Self-Organising Systems Perspective on Planning for Sustainability. Master’s thesis. University of Waterloo, School of Urban and Regional Planning (1998), online at http://www.fes.uwaterloo.ca/u/mbldemps/pubs/
  24. 24.
    Descartes, R.: Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. In: The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, vol. I, pp. 111–151. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985); Leiden (1637) translated in Discours on the Method of rightly conducting one’s reason and seeking truth in the sciences.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shalizi, C.R.: Causal Architecture, Complexity and Self-Organization in Time Series and Cellular Automata. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison (2001), available at http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/thesis/
  26. 26.
    Yovits, M.C., Cameron, S. (eds.): Self-Organising Systems: Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Conference. International Tracts in Computer Science and Technology and their Application, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1960)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Von Foerester, H., Zopf Jr., G.Z. (eds.): Principles of Self-Organization: Transactions of the University of Illinois Symposium on Self-Organization, June 1959, New York. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1962)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ashby, W.R.: Principles of self-organizing dynamic systems. Journal of General Psychology 37, 125–128 (1947)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ball, P.: The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1999)MATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nicolis, G., Prigogine, I.: Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to order through Fluctuations. Wiley, New York (1977)MATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Haken, H.: Synergetics: An introduction: Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self-Organization in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Springer, Heidelberg (1977)MATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klimontovich, Y.L.: Turbulent Motion and the Structure of Chaos: A New approach to the Statistical Theory of Open Systems. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1990/1991)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frisch, U.: Turbulence: The Legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1995)MATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Selfridge, O.G.: Pandemonium: A paradigm for learning. In: Blake, D., Uttley, A. (eds.) The Mechanisation of Thought Processes. National Physical Laboratory Symposia, vol. 10, pp. 511–529. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London (1959)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holland, J.H.: Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence, 2nd edn. MIT Press, Cambridge (1992); First edition in 1975Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Forrest, S. (ed.): Emergent Computation: Self-Organizing, Collective, and Cooperative Phenomena in Natural and Artificial Computing Networks. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International Conference of the Center of Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos, New Mexico. North Holland, Amsterdam (1989/1990)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crutchfield, J.P., Mitchell, M. (eds.): The Evolution of Emergent Computation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 92 (1995)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krugman, P.R.: The Self-Organizing Economy. Blackwell, Oxford (1996)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shalizi, C.R.: Review of krugman, p.r., the self-organizing economy. In: The Bactra Review, vol. 11 (1996), available at www.santafe.edu/~shalizi/reviews/self-organizing-economy/
  40. 40.
    Arthur, W.: The Green Machine: Ecology and the Balance of Nature. Basil Blackwell, Oxford (1990)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pagels, H.R.: The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. Simon and Schuster, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Steels, L.: Cooperation between distributed agents through self-organisation. In: Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World, pp. 175–196. Elsevier Science Publishers Holland, Amsterdam (1990)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghanea-Hercock, R.: Spontaneous group formation in m ulti-agent systems. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Self-Organisation in Multi-Agent Systems (2000)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mostefaoui, S.K., Rana, O.F., Foukia, N., Hassas, S., Marzo, G.D., Aart, C.V., Karageorgos, A.: Self-Organising Applications: A Survey. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organising Applications 2003. Springer, Heidelberg (2003) ISBN: 3-540-21201-9; extended version in Engineering Self-Organising Systems - Nature-Inspired Approaches to Software EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Foukia, N., Hassas, S.: Towards self-organizing computer networks: A complex system perspective. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organizaing Applications 2003, Melbourne, Austrialia (2003) Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oudeyer, P.Y.: Self-organisation of a lexicon in a structured society of agents. In: Floreano, D., Mondada, F. (eds.) ECAL 1999. LNCS, vol. 1674, pp. 726–729. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haken, H.: Information and Self-Organisation: A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems. Springer, germany (1998)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Langton, C.G.: Computation at the edge of chaos: Phase transitions and emergent computation. Physica D 42, 12–37 (1990)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oudeyer, P.Y.: Self-organisation of a lexicon in a structured society of agents. In: Floreano, D., Nicoud, J.D., Mondada, F. (eds.) ECAL 1999. LNCS(LNAI), vol. 1674, pp. 726–729. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Glansdorff, P., Prigogine, I.: Thermodynamic study of structure, stability and fluctuations. Wiley, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mamei, M., Zambonelli, F.: Self-organisation in multi-agent systems: a middleware approach. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Engineering Self- Organising Applications 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hadeli, V.P., Zamfirescu, C.B., Brussel, H.V., Germain, B.S., Holvoet, T., Steegmans, E.: Self-organising in multi-agent coordination and control using stigmergy. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Engineering Self- Organising Applications 2003 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom De Wolf
    • 1
  • Tom Holvoet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceKuleuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations