Physiology of epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport

  • S. F. J. van de Graaf
  • R. J. M. Bindels
  • J. G. J. Hoenderop


Ca2+ and Mg2+ are essential ions in a wide variety of cellular processes and form a major constituent of bone. It is, therefore, essential that the balance of these ions is strictly maintained. In the last decade, major breakthrough discoveries have vastly expanded our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport. The genetic defects underlying various disorders with altered Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ handling have been determined. Recently, this yielded the molecular identification of TRPM6 as the gatekeeper of epithelial Mg2+ transport. Furthermore, expression cloning strategies have elucidated two novel members of the transient receptor potential family, TRPV5 and TRPV6, as pivotal ion channels determining transcellular Ca2+ transport. These two channels are regulated by a variety of factors, some historically strongly linked to Ca2+ homeostasis, others identified in a more serendipitous manner. Herein we review the processes of epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport, the molecular mechanisms involved, and the various forms of regulation.


  1. Aarts M, Iihara K, Wei WL, Xiong ZG, Arundine M, Cerwinski W, MacDonald JF, Tymianski M (2003) A key role for TRPM7 channels in anoxic neuronal death. Cell 115:863–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeele FV, Shuba Y, Roudbaraki M, Lemonnier L, Vanoverberghe K, Mariot P, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N (2003) Store-operated Ca2+ channels in prostate cancer epithelial cells: function, regulation, and role in carcinogenesis. Cell Calcium 33:357–373Google Scholar
  3. Aglio LS, Stanford GG, Maddi R, Boyd JL 3rd, Nussbaum S, Chernow B (1991) Hypomagnesemia is common following cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 5:201–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Agus ZS (1999) Hypomagnesemia. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1616–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Airaksinen MS, Eilers J, Garaschuk O, Thoenen H, Konnerth A, Meyer M (1997a) Ataxia and altered dendritic calcium signaling in mice carrying a targeted null mutation of the calbindin D28K gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1488–1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Airaksinen MS, Thoenen H, Meyer M (1997b) Vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in calbindin-D28k-deficient mice: lack of evidence for a neuroprotective role of endogenous calbindin in MPTP-treated and weaver mice. Eur J Neurosci 9:120–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ariceta G, Vallo A, Rodriguez-Soriano J (2004) Acidosis increases magnesiuria in children with distal renal tubular acidosis. Pediatr Nephrol 19:1367–1370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arking DE, Krebsova A, Macek M Sr, Macek M Jr, Arking A, Mian IS, Fried L, Hamosh A, Dey S, McIntosh I, Dietz HC (2002) Association of human aging with a functional variant of klotho. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:856–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arking DE, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Fallin D, Judge DP, Moy TF, Becker LC, Dietz HC (2003) KLOTHO allele status and the risk of early-onset occult coronary artery disease. Am J Hum Genet 72:1154–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arking DE, Atzmon G, Arking A, Barzilai N, Dietz HC (2005) Association between a functional variant of the KLOTHO gene and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, stroke, and longevity. Circ Res 96:412–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Arniges M, Fernandez-Fernandez JM, Albrecht N, Schaefer M, Valverde MA (2006) Human TRPV4 channel splice variants revealed a key role of ankyrin domains in multimerization and trafficking. J Biol Chem 281:1580–1586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnold DB, Heintz N (1997) A calcium responsive element that regulates expression of two calcium binding proteins in Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:8842–8847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashby MC, Tepikin AV (2002) Polarized calcium and calmodulin signaling in secretory epithelia. Physiol Rev 82:701–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Attmane-Elakeb A, Mount DB, Sibella V, Vernimmen C, Hebert SC, Bichara M (1998) Stimulation by in vivo and in vitro metabolic acidosis of expression of rBSC-1, the Na+-K+(NH4+)-2Cl− cotransporter of the rat medullary thick ascending limb. J Biol Chem 273:33681–33691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Avioli LV, Berman M (1966) Mg28 kinetics in man. J Appl Physiol 21:1688–1694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bachmann S, Velazquez H, Obermuller N, Reilly RF, Moser D, Ellison DH (1995) Expression of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter by rabbit distal convoluted tubule cells. J Clin Invest 96:2510–2514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bacskai BJ, Friedman PA (1990) Activation of latent Ca2+ channels in renal epithelial cells by parathyroid hormone. Nature 347:388–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bailly C, Roinel N, Amiel C (1984) PTH-like glucagon stimulation of Ca and Mg reabsorption in Henle's loop of the rat. Am J Physiol 246:F205–F212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bailly C, Roinel N, Amiel C (1985) Stimulation by glucagon and PTH of Ca and Mg reabsorption in the superficial distal tubule of the rat kidney. Pflugers Arch 403:28–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bailly C, Imbert-Teboul M, Roinel N, Amiel C (1990) Isoproterenol increases Ca, Mg, and NaCl reabsorption in mouse thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol 258:F1224–F1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baker PF, Blaustein MP, Hodgkin AL, Steinhardt RA (1969) The influence of calcium on sodium efflux in squid axons. J Physiol 200:431–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Balkovetz DF (2006) Claudins at the gate: determinants of renal epithelial tight junction paracellular permeability. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F572–F579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Balsan S, Garabedian M, Larchet M, Gorski AM, Cournot G, Tau C, Bourdeau A, Silve C, Ricour C (1986) Long-term nocturnal calcium infusions can cure rickets and promote normal mineralization in hereditary resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Invest 77:1661–1667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bapty BW, Dai LJ, Ritchie G, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA (1998a) Mg2+/Ca2+ sensing inhibits hormone-stimulated Mg2+ uptake in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol 275:F353–F360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bapty BW, Dai LJ, Ritchie G, Jirik F, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA (1998b) Extracellular Mg2+- and Ca2+-sensing in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Kidney Int 53:583–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Barley NF, Howard A, O'Callaghan D, Legon S, Walters JR (2001) Epithelial calcium transporter expression in human duodenum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280:G285–G290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Barski JJ, Hartmann J, Rose CR, Hoebeek F, Morl K, Noll-Hussong M, De Zeeuw CI, Konnerth A, Meyer M (2003) Calbindin in cerebellar Purkinje cells is a critical determinant of the precision of motor coordination. J Neurosci 23:3469–3477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bastin J, Cambon N, Thompson M, Lowry OH, Burch HB (1987) Change in energy reserves in different segments of the nephron during brief ischemia. Kidney Int 31:1239–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Baumann JM (1998) Stone prevention: why so little progress? Urol Res 26:77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bawden JW (1989) Calcium transport during mineralization. Anat Rec 224:226–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Beck L, Karaplis AC, Amizuka N, Hewson AS, Ozawa H, Tenenhouse HS (1998) Targeted inactivation of Npt2 in mice leads to severe renal phosphate wasting, hypercalciuria, and skeletal abnormalities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:5372–5377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Belkacemi L, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2002) Calcium-binding proteins: distribution and implication in mammalian placenta. Endocrine 19:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Belkacemi L, Gariepy G, Mounier C, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2003) Expression of calbindin-D28K (CaBP28K) in trophoblasts from human term placenta. Biol Reprod 68:1943–1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Belkacemi L, Gariepy G, Mounier C, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2004) Calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) localization and levels of expression in trophoblast cells from human term placenta. Cell Tissue Res 315:107–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Belkacemi L, Bedard I, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2005) Calcium channels, transporters and exchangers in placenta: a review. Cell Calcium 37:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Benais-Pont G, Punn A, Flores-Maldonado C, Eckert J, Raposo G, Fleming TP, Cereijido M, Balda MS, Matter K (2003) Identification of a tight junction-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates Rho and regulates paracellular permeability. J Cell Biol 160:729–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bindels RJ, Hartog A, Timmermans J, Van Os CH (1991) Active Ca2+ transport in primary cultures of rabbit kidney CCD: stimulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and PTH. Am J Physiol 261:F799–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bindels RJ, Ramakers PL, Dempster JA, Hartog A, van Os CH (1992) Role of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in transcellular Ca2+ transport across primary cultures of rabbit kidney collecting system. Pflugers Arch 420:566–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bindels RJ, Dempster JA, Ramakers PL, Willems PH, van Os CH (1993) Effect of protein kinase C activation and down-regulation on active calcium transport. Kidney Int 43:295–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bindels RJ, Hartog A, Abrahamse SL, Van Os CH (1994) Effects of pH on apical calcium entry and active calcium transport in rabbit cortical collecting system. Am J Physiol 266:F620–F627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Biner HL, Arpin-Bott MP, Loffing J, Wang X, Knepper M, Hebert SC, Kaissling B (2002) Human cortical distal nephron: distribution of electrolyte and water transport pathways. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:836–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Birkenfeld J, Kartmann B, Anliker B, Ono K, Schlotcke B, Betz H, Roth D (2003) Characterization of zetin 1/rBSPRY, a novel binding partner of 14-3-3 proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 302:526–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Blaustein MP, Lederer WJ (1999) Sodium/calcium exchange: its physiological implications. Physiol Rev 79:763–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Blaustein MP, Santiago EM (1977) Effects of internal and external cations and of ATP on sodium-calcium and calcium-calcium exchange in squid axons. Biophys J 20:79–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Blaustein MP, Juhaszova M, Golovina VA, Church PJ, Stanley EF (2002) Na/Ca exchanger and PMCA localization in neurons and astrocytes: functional implications. Ann NY Acad Sci 976:356–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Blumberg D, Bonetti A, Jacomella V, Capillo S, Truttmann AC, Luthy CM, Colombo JP, Bianchetti MG (1998) Free circulating magnesium and renal magnesium handling during acute metabolic acidosis in humans. Am J Nephrol 18:233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bodding M, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V (2002) The recombinant human TRPV6 channel functions as Ca2+ sensor in human embryonic kidney and rat basophilic leukemia cells. J Biol Chem 277:36656–36664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Borden KL (1998) RING fingers and B-boxes: zinc-binding protein-protein interaction domains. Biochem Cell Biol 76:351–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, Guerra A, Allegri F, Maggiore U, Novarini A (2002) Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in idiopathic hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med 346:77–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Borke JL, Minami J, Verma A, Penniston JT, Kumar R (1987) Monoclonal antibodies to human erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-Mg2+ adenosine triphosphatase pump recognize an epitope in the basolateral membrane of human kidney distal tubule cells. J Clin Invest 80:1225–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Borke JL, Caride A, Verma AK, Penniston JT, Kumar R (1989) Plasma membrane calcium pump and 28-kDa calcium binding protein in cells of rat kidney distal tubules. Am J Physiol 257:F842–F849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G (2003) Intestinal calcium absorption: molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms. J Cell Biochem 88:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Boulay G (2002) Ca2+-calmodulin regulates receptor-operated Ca2+ entry activity of TRPC6 in HEK-293 cells. Cell Calcium 32:201–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Bourdeau JE, Burg MB (1979) Voltage dependence of calcium transport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Am J Physiol 236:F357–F364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bourdeau JE, Burg MB (1980) Effect of PTH on calcium transport across the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Am J Physiol 239:F121–F126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bourdeau JE, Langman CB, Bouillon R (1987) Parathyroid hormone-stimulated calcium absorption in cTAL from vitamin D-deficient rabbits. Kidney Int 31:913–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bowl MR, Nesbit MA, Harding B, Levy E, Jefferson A, Volpi E, Rizzoti K, Lovell-Badge R, Schlessinger D, Whyte MP, Thakker RV (2005) An interstitial deletion-insertion involving chromosomes 2p25.3 and Xq27.1, near SOX3, causes X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Invest 115:2822–2831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Bronner F (2003) Mechanisms of intestinal calcium absorption. J Cell Biochem 88:387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Bronner F, Pansu D (1999) Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J Nutr 129:9–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Bronner F, Stein WD (1988) CaBPr facilitates intracellular diffusion for Ca pumping in distal convoluted tubule. Am J Physiol 255:F558–F562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Bronner F, Pansu D, Stein WD (1986) An analysis of intestinal calcium transport across the rat intestine. Am J Physiol 250:G561–G569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Brown EM (1991) Extracellular Ca2+ sensing, regulation of parathyroid cell function, and role of Ca2+ and other ions as extracellular (first) messengers. Physiol Rev 71:371–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Brown EM, MacLeod RJ (2001) Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev 81:239–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Brown EM, Gamba G, Riccardi D, Lombardi M, Butters R, Kifor O, Sun A, Hediger MA, Lytton J, Hebert SC (1993) Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid. Nature 366:575–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Brown PS, Wang E, Aroeti B, Chapin SJ, Mostov KE, Dunn KW (2000) Definition of distinct compartments in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells for membrane-volume sorting, polarized sorting and apical recycling. Traffic 1:124–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Brunette MG (1988) Calcium transport through the placenta. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 66:1261–1269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Bui DM, Gregan J, Jarosch E, Ragnini A, Schweyen RJ (1999) The bacterial magnesium transporter CorA can functionally substitute for its putative homologue Mrs2p in the yeast inner mitochondrial membrane. J Biol Chem 274:20438–20443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Bulger RE, Tisher CC, Myers CH, Trump BF (1967) Human renal ultrastructure. II. The thin limb of Henle's loop and the interstitium in healthy individuals. Lab Invest 16:124–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Bushinsky DA, Kittaka MK, Weisinger JR, Langman CB, Favus MJ (1989) Effects of chronic metabolic alkalosis on Ca2+, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 in the rat. Am J Physiol 257:E578–E582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Cai X, Lytton J (2004) Molecular cloning of a sixth member of the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene family, NCKX6. J Biol Chem 279:5867–5876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Caillard O, Moreno H, Schwaller B, Llano I, Celio MR, Marty A (2000) Role of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in short-term synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:13372–13377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Canzanello VJ, Bodvarsson M, Kraut JA, Johns CA, Slatopolsky E, Madias NE (1990) Effect of chronic respiratory acidosis on urinary calcium excretion in the dog. Kidney Int 38:409–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Carafoli E (1985) The homeostasis of calcium in heart cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol 17:203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER (1997) Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med 337:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Caride AJ, Chini EN, Homma S, Penniston JT, Dousa TP (1998) mRNA encoding four isoforms of the plasma membrane calcium pump and their variants in rat kidney and nephron segments. J Lab Clin Med 132:149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Casanova JE, Wang X, Kumar R, Bhartur SG, Navarre J, Woodrum JE, Altschuler Y, Ray GS, Goldenring JR (1999) Association of Rab25 and Rab11a with the apical recycling system of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Mol Biol Cell 10:47–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Caterina MJ, Julius D (2001) The vanilloid receptor: a molecular gateway to the pain pathway. Annu Rev Neurosci 24:487–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Chang Q, Gyftogianni E, van de Graaf SF, Hoefs S, Weidema FA, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2004) Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly. J Biol Chem 279:54304–54311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Chang Q, Hoefs S, van der Kemp AW, Topala CN, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2005) The beta-glucuronidase klotho hydrolyzes and activates the TRPV5 channel. Science 310:490–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Chantret I, Barbat A, Dussaulx E, Brattain MG, Zweibaum A (1988) Epithelial polarity, villin expression, and enterocytic differentiation of cultured human colon carcinoma cells: a survey of twenty cell lines. Cancer Res 48:1936–1942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Chase LR, Slatopolsky E (1974) Secretion and metabolic efficacy of parathyroid hormone in patients with severe hypomagnesemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:363–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Chen H, Hewison M, Hu B, Adams JS (2003) Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) binding to hormone response elements: a cause of vitamin D resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6109–6114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Chery M, Biancalana V, Philippe C, Malpuech G, Carla H, Gilgenkrantz S, Mandel JL, Hanauer A (1994) Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia in a female with balanced X;9 translocation: mapping of the Xp22 chromosome breakpoint. Hum Genet 93:587–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Chubanov V, Waldegger S, Mederos y Schnitzler M, Vitzthum H, Sassen MC, Seyberth HW, Konrad M, Gudermann T (2004) Disruption of TRPM6/TRPM7 complex formation by a mutation in the TRPM6 gene causes hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:2894–2899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Clapham DE (2003) TRP channels as cellular sensors. Nature 426:517–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Clark K, Langeslag M, van Leeuwen B, Ran L, Ryazanov AG, Figdor CG, Moolenaar WH, Jalink K, van Leeuwen FN (2006) TRPM7, a novel regulator of actomyosin contractility and cell adhesion. EMBO J 25:290–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Cole DE, Quamme GA (2000) Inherited disorders of renal magnesium handling. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:1937–1947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Colegio OR, Van Itallie CM, McCrea HJ, Rahner C, Anderson JM (2002) Claudins create charge-selective channels in the paracellular pathway between epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283:C142–C147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Colussi G, Rombola G, Brunati C, De Ferrari ME (1997) Abnormal reabsorption of Na+/CI− by the thiazide-inhibitable transporter of the distal convoluted tubule in Gitelman's syndrome. Am J Nephrol 17:103–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Costanzo LS, Windhager EE (1978) Calcium and sodium transport by the distal convoluted tubule of the rat. Am J Physiol 235:F492–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Costanzo LS, Windhager EE, Ellison DH (2000) Calcium and sodium transport by the distal convoluted tubule of the rat. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:1562–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Cotter AA, Cashman KD (2006) Effect of 17beta-oestradiol on transepithelial calcium transport in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and its interactions with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 9-cis retinoic acid. Eur J Nutr 45:234–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Crayen ML, Thoenes W (1978) Architecture and cell structures in the distal nephron of the rat kidney. Cytobiologie 17:197–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Croner R, Schwille PO, Erben RG, Gepp H, Stahr K, Rumenapf G, Parth R, Scheuerlein H (2000) Effects of partial and total colectomy on mineral and acid-base homoeostasis in the rat: magnesium deficiency, hyperphosphaturia and osteopathy, in the presence of high serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D but normal parathyroid hormone. Clin Sci (Lond) 98:649–659Google Scholar
  95. Dai LJ, Friedman PA, Quamme GA (1997) Acid-base changes alter Mg2+ uptake in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol 272:F759–F766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Dai LJ, Ritchie G, Bapty BW, Kerstan D, Quamme GA (1999) Insulin stimulates Mg2+ uptake in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol 277:F907–F913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dai LJ, Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Kang HS, Cole DE, Quamme GA (2001) Magnesium transport in the renal distal convoluted tubule. Physiol Rev 81:51–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Dardenne O, Prud'homme J, Arabian A, Glorieux FH, St-Arnaud R (2001) Targeted inactivation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1(alpha)-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) creates an animal model of pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets. Endocrinology 142:3135–3141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Dardenne O, Prud'homme J, Hacking SA, Glorieux FH, St-Arnaud R (2003a) Correction of the abnormal mineral ion homeostasis with a high-calcium, high-phosphorus, high-lactose diet rescues the PDDR phenotype of mice deficient for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Bone 32:332–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Dardenne O, Prudhomme J, Hacking SA, Glorieux FH, St-Arnaud R (2003b) Rescue of the pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets phenotype of CYP27B1-deficient mice by treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: biochemical, histomorphometric, and biomechanical analyses. J Bone Miner Res 18:637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. de Jong JC, van der Vliet A, van den Heuvel LP, Willems PH, Knoers NV, Bindels RJ (2002) Functional expression of mutations in the human NaCl cotransporter: evidence for impaired routing mechanisms in Gitelman's syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:1442–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. de Rouffignac C, Quamme G (1994) Renal magnesium handling and its hormonal control. Physiol Rev 74:305–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. DeLuca HF (2004) Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1689S–1696SGoogle Scholar
  104. Demeuse P, Penner R, Fleig A (2006) TRPM7 channel is regulated by magnesium nucleotides via its kinase domain. J Gen Physiol 127:421–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Di Stefano A, Wittner M, Nitschke R, Braitsch R, Greger R, Bailly C, Amiel C, Elalouf JM, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1989) Effects of glucagon on Na+, Cl−, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ transports in cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs of mouse kidney. Pflugers Arch 414:640–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Di Stefano A, Wittner M, Nitschke R, Braitsch R, Greger R, Bailly C, Amiel C, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1990) Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on Na+, Cl−, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ transport in cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs of mouse kidney. Pflugers Arch 417:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. DiPolo R (1979) Calcium influx in internally dialyzed squid giant axons. J Gen Physiol 73:91–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Dirks JH, Cirksena WJ, Berliner RW (1966) Micropuncture study of the effect of various diuretics on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubules of the dog. J Clin Invest 45:1875–1885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Dixon LB, Pellizzon MA, Jawad AF, Tershakovec AM (2005) Calcium and dairy intake and measures of obesity in hyper- and normocholesterolemic children. Obes Res 13:1727–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Djurhuus MS, Skott P, Vaag A, Hother-Nielsen O, Andersen P, Parving HH, Klitgaard NA (2000) Hyperglycaemia enhances renal magnesium excretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 60:403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Dobnig H, Turner RT (1997) The effects of programmed administration of human parathyroid hormone fragment (1–34) on bone histomorphometry and serum chemistry in rats. Endocrinology 138:4607–4612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Dodier Y, Banderali U, Klein H, Topalak O, Dafi O, Simoes M, Bernatchez G, Sauve R, Parent L (2004) Outer pore topology of the ECaC-TRPV5 channel by cysteine scan mutagenesis. J Biol Chem 279:6853–6862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Donier E, Rugiero F, Okuse K, Wood JN (2005) Annexin II light chain p11 promotes functional expression of acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a. J Biol Chem 280:38666–38672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Dorovkov MV, Ryazanov AG (2004) Phosphorylation of annexin I by TRPM7 channel-kinase. J Biol Chem 279:50643–50646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Doucet A, Katz AI (1982) High-affinity Ca-Mg-ATPase along the rabbit nephron. Am J Physiol 242:F346–F352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Doyle DA, Morais Cabral J, Pfuetzner RA, Kuo A, Gulbis JM, Cohen SL, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (1998) The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science 280:69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Drennan D, Ryazanov AG (2004) Alpha-kinases: analysis of the family and comparison with conventional protein kinases. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 85:1–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Drenth JP, te Morsche RH, Smink R, Bonifacino JS, Jansen JB (2003) Germline mutations in PRKCSH are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Nat Genet 33:345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Drenth JP, Martina JA, Te Morsche RH, Jansen JB, Bonifacino JS (2004) Molecular characterization of hepatocystin, the protein that is defective in autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Gastroenterology 126:1819–1827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Driziene Z, Stakisaitis D, Balsiene J (2005) Magnesium urinary excretion in diabetic adolescents. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 48:157–161Google Scholar
  121. Eberhard M, Erne P (1994) Calcium and magnesium binding to rat parvalbumin. Eur J Biochem 222:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ebnet K, Aurrand-Lions M, Kuhn A, Kiefer F, Butz S, Zander K, Meyer zu Brickwedde MK, Suzuki A, Imhof BA, Vestweber D (2003) The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family members JAM-2 and JAM-3 associate with the cell polarity protein PAR-3: a possible role for JAMs in endothelial cell polarity. J Cell Sci 116:3879–3891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Edwards BR, Baer PG, Sutton RA, Dirks JH (1973) Micropuncture study of diuretic effects on sodium and calcium reabsorption in the dog nephron. J Clin Invest 52:2418–2427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Efrati E, Arsentiev-Rozenfeld J, Zelikovic I (2005) The human paracellin-1 gene (hPCLN-1): renal epithelial cell-specific expression and regulation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288:F272–F283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Egan ME, Glockner-Pagel J, Ambrose C, Cahill PA, Pappoe L, Balamuth N, Cho E, Canny S, Wagner CA, Geibel J, Caplan MJ (2002) Calcium-pump inhibitors induce functional surface expression of Delta F508-CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells. Nat Med 8:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Egan ME, Pearson M, Weiner SA, Rajendran V, Rubin D, Glockner-Pagel J, Canny S, Du K, Lukacs GL, Caplan MJ (2004) Curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, corrects cystic fibrosis defects. Science 304:600–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Elalouf JM, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1983) Stimulation by human calcitonin of electrolyte transport in distal tubules of rat kidney. Pflugers Arch 399:111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Elalouf JM, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1984) Effects of antidiuretic hormone on electrolyte reabsorption and secretion in distal tubules of rat kidney. Pflugers Arch 401:167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Elin RJ (1994) Magnesium: the fifth but forgotten electrolyte. Am J Clin Pathol 102:616–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ellison DH (2000) Divalent cation transport by the distal nephron: insights from Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 279:F616–F625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Embark HM, Setiawan I, Poppendieck S, van de Graaf SF, Boehmer C, Palmada M, Wieder T, Gerstberger R, Cohen P, Yun CC, Bindels RJ, Lang F (2004) Regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV5 by the NHE regulating factor NHERF2 and the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase isoforms SGK1 and SGK3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem 14:203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Erler I, Hirnet D, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V, Niemeyer BA (2004) Ca2+-selective transient receptor potential V channel architecture and function require a specific ankyrin repeat. J Biol Chem 279:34456–34463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Fagan C, Phelan D (2001) Severe convulsant hypomagnesaemia and short bowel syndrome. Anaesth Intensive Care 29:281–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Faulk WP, McIntyre JA (1983) Immunological studies of human trophoblast: markers, subsets and functions. Immunol Rev 75:139–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Feher JJ (1983) Facilitated calcium diffusion by intestinal calcium-binding protein. Am J Physiol 244:C303–C307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Feher JJ, Wasserman RH (1979) Calcium absorption and intestinal calcium-binding protein: quantitative relationship. Am J Physiol 236:E556–E561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Feher JJ, Fullmer CS, Wasserman RH (1992) Role of facilitated diffusion of calcium by calbindin in intestinal calcium absorption. Am J Physiol 262:C517–C526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Feray JC, Garay R (1986) An Na+-stimulated Mg2+-transport system in human red blood cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 856:76–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Fordtran JS (1991) Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Invest 88:396–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Fixemer T, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V, Bonkhoff H (2003) Expression of the Ca2+-selective cation channel TRPV6 in human prostate cancer: a novel prognostic marker for tumor progression. Oncogene 22:7858–7861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Flatman PW (1984) Magnesium transport across cell membranes. J Membr Biol 80:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Fleet JC, Wood RJ (1999) Specific 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of transcellular calcium transport in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol 276:G958–G964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Fleet JC, Eksir F, Hance KW, Wood RJ (2002) Vitamin D-inducible calcium transport and gene expression in three Caco-2 cell lines. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 283:G618–G625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Flik G, Schoenmakers TJ, Groot JA, van Os CH, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1990) Calcium absorption by fish intestine: the involvement of ATP- and sodium-dependent calcium extrusion mechanisms. J Membr Biol 113:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Fraser DR, Kodicek E (1970) Unique biosynthesis by kidney of a biological active vitamin D metabolite. Nature 228:764–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Fraser DR, Kodicek E (1973) Regulation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase activity in kidney by parathyroid hormone. Nat New Biol 241:163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Freitag JJ, Martin KJ, Conrades MB, Bellorin-Font E, Teitelbaum S, Klahr S, Slatopolsky E (1979) Evidence for skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone in magnesium deficiency. Studies in isolated perfused bone. J Clin Invest 64:1238–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Frick KK, Bushinsky DA (2003) Molecular mechanisms of primary hypercalciuria. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:1082–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Friedman PA (1988) Basal and hormone-activated calcium absorption in mouse renal thick ascending limbs. Am J Physiol 254:F62–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Friedman PA (1998) Codependence of renal calcium and sodium transport. Annu Rev Physiol 60:179–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Friedman PA (1999) Calcium transport in the kidney. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 8:589–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Friedman PA, Bushinsky DA (1999) Diuretic effects on calcium metabolism. Semin Nephrol 19:551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Friedman PA, Gesek FA (1993) Vitamin D3 accelerates PTH-dependent calcium transport in distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol 265:F300–F308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Friedman PA, Gesek FA (1994) Hormone-responsive Ca2+ entry in distal convoluted tubules. J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1396–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Friedman PA, Gesek FA (1995a) Cellular calcium transport in renal epithelia: measurement, mechanisms, and regulation. Physiol Rev 75:429–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Friedman PA, Gesek FA (1995b) Stimulation of calcium transport by amiloride in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Kidney Int 48:1427–1434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Friedman PA, Coutermarsh BA, Kennedy SM, Gesek FA (1996) Parathyroid hormone stimulation of calcium transport is mediated by dual signaling mechanisms involving protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Endocrinology 137:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Fujioka Y, Komeda M, Matsuoka S (2000) Stoichiometry of Na+-Ca2+ exchange in inside-out patches excised from guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. J Physiol 523:339–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Fukuoka H, Satoh K (1982) Characterization of the three calcium binding proteins in the human placenta. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 58:662–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Furuse M, Furuse K, Sasaki H, Tsukita S (2001) Conversion of zonulae occludentes from tight to leaky strand type by introducing claudin-2 into Madin-Darby canine kidney I cells. J Cell Biol 153:263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Gamba G, Saltzberg SN, Lombardi M, Miyanoshita A, Lytton J, Hediger MA, Brenner BM, Hebert SC (1993) Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the thiazide-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-chloride cotransporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:2749–2753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Garcia NH, Ramsey CR, Knox FG (1998) Understanding the role of paracellular transport in the proximal tubule. News Physiol Sci 13:38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Garfield N, Karaplis AC (2001) Genetics and animal models of hypoparathyroidism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 12:288–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Garland HO (1992) New experimental data on the relationship between diabetes mellitus and magnesium. Magnes Res 5:193–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Garland HO, Harris PJ, Morgan TO (1991) Calcium transport in the proximal convoluted tubule and loop of Henle of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. J Endocrinol 131:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Garty R, Alkalay A, Bernheim JL (1983) Parathyroid hormone secretion and responsiveness to parathyroid hormone in primary hypomagnesemia. Isr J Med Sci 19:345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Gennari C, Agnusdei D, Nardi P, Civitelli R (1990) Estrogen preserves a normal intestinal responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in oophorectomized women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 71:1288–1293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Gentili C, Morelli S, de Boland AR (2003) Characterization of PTH/PTHrP receptor in rat duodenum: effects of ageing. J Cell Biochem 88:1157–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Gerke V, Creutz CE, Moss SE (2005) Annexins: linking Ca2+ signalling to membrane dynamics. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:449–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Gesek FA, Friedman PA (1992a) Mechanism of calcium transport stimulated by chlorothiazide in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. J Clin Invest 90:429–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Gesek FA, Friedman PA (1992b) On the mechanism of parathyroid hormone stimulation of calcium uptake by mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. J Clin Invest 90:749–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Geven WB, Monnens LA, Willems HL, Buijs WC, ter Haar BG (1987a) Renal magnesium wasting in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Kidney Int 31:1140–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Geven WB, Monnens LA, Willems JL, Buijs W, Hamel CJ (1987b) Isolated autosomal recessive renal magnesium loss in two sisters. Clin Genet 32:398–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Gibson MM, Bagga DA, Miller CG, Maguire ME (1991) Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: the influence of new mutations conferring Co2+ resistance on the CorA Mg2+ transport system. Mol Microbiol 5:2753–2762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Girard C, Tinel N, Terrenoire C, Romey G, Lazdunski M, Borsotto M (2002) p11, an annexin II subunit, an auxiliary protein associated with the background K+ channel, TASK-1. EMBO J 21:4439–4448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Gisler SM, Stagljar I, Traebert M, Bacic D, Biber J, Murer H (2001) Interaction of the type IIa Na/Pi cotransporter with PDZ proteins. J Biol Chem 276:9206–9213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Gitelman HJ, Graham JB, Welt LG (1966) A new familial disorder characterized by hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 79:221–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Giuliano AR, Wood RJ (1991) Vitamin D-regulated calcium transport in Caco-2 cells: unique in vitro model. Am J Physiol 260:G207–G212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Giuliano AR, Franceschi RT, Wood RJ (1991) Characterization of the vitamin D receptor from the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line: effect of cellular differentiation. Arch Biochem Biophys 285:261–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Gkika D, Mahieu F, Nilius B, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2004) 80K-H as a new Ca2+ sensor regulating the activity of the epithelial Ca2+ channel transient receptor potential cation channel V5 (TRPV5). J Biol Chem 279:26351–26357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Gkika D, Hsu YJ, van der Kemp AW, Christakos S, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2006) Critical role of the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV5 in active Ca2+ reabsorption as revealed by TRPV5/calbindin-D28K knockout mice. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:3020–3027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Goh KC, Lim YP, Ong SH, Siak CB, Cao X, Tan YH, Guy GR (1996) Identification of p90, a prominent tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in fibroblast growth factor-stimulated cells, as 80K-H. J Biol Chem 271:5832–5838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Goltzman D, Miao D, Panda DK, Hendy GN (2004) Effects of calcium and of the Vitamin D system on skeletal and calcium homeostasis: lessons from genetic models. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90:485–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Gonzalez-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003) Tight junction proteins. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 81:1–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Gonzalez-Perrett S, Batelli M, Kim K, Essafi M, Timpanaro G, Moltabetti N, Reisin IL, Arnaout MA, Cantiello HF (2002) Voltage dependence and pH regulation of human polycystin-2-mediated cation channel activity. J Biol Chem 277:24959–24966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Goodenough DA (1999) Plugging the leaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Gopalakrishnan S, Dunn KW, Marrs JA (2002) Rac1, but not RhoA, signaling protects epithelial adherens junction assembly during ATP depletion. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283:C261–C272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Goytain A, Quamme GA (2005a) Functional characterization of ACDP2 (ancient conserved domain protein), a divalent metal transporter. Physiol Genomics 22:382–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Goytain A, Quamme GA (2005b) Functional characterization of human SLC41A1, a Mg2+ transporter with similarity to prokaryotic MgtE Mg2+ transporters. Physiol Genomics 21:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Goytain A, Quamme GA (2005c) Functional characterization of the human solute carrier, SLC41A2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 330:701–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Goytain A, Quamme GA (2005d) Identification and characterization of a novel mammalian Mg2+ transporter with channel-like properties. BMC Genomics 6:48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Greeb J, Shull GE (1989) Molecular cloning of a third isoform of the calmodulin-sensitive plasma membrane Ca2+-transporting ATPase that is expressed predominantly in brain and skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 264:18569–18576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Greer FR, Krebs NF (2006) Optimizing bone health and calcium intakes of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 117:578–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Greger R (1981) Cation selectivity of the isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney. Pflugers Arch 390:30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Greger R, Schlatter E (1983) Properties of the lumen membrane of the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney. Pflugers Arch 396:315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Greger R, Lang F, Oberleithner H (1978) Distal site of calcium reabsorption in the rat nephron. Pflugers Arch 374:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Gribenko AV, Makhatadze GI (1998) Oligomerization and divalent ion binding properties of the S100P protein: a Ca2+/Mg2+-switch model. J Mol Biol 283:679–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Groenestege WM, Hoenderop JG, van den Heuvel L, Knoers N, Bindels RJ (2006) The epithelial Mg2+ channel transient receptor potential melastatin 6 is regulated by dietary Mg2+ content and estrogens. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:1035–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Grubbs RD (2002) Intracellular magnesium and magnesium buffering. Biometals 15:251–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Gunther T, Vormann J (1985) Mg2+ efflux is accomplished by an amiloride-sensitive Na+/Mg2+ antiport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 130:540–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Hamelin E, Theriault C, Laroche G, Parent JL (2005) The intracellular trafficking of the G protein-coupled receptor TPβ depends on a direct interaction with Rab11. J Biol Chem 280:36195–36205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Harada S, Rodan GA (2003) Control of osteoblast function and regulation of bone mass. Nature 423:349–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Harris CA, Burnatowska MA, Seely JF, Sutton RA, Quamme GA, Dirks JH (1979) Effects of parathyroid hormone on electrolyte transport in the hamster nephron. Am J Physiol 236:F342–F348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Harteneck C (2003) Proteins modulating TRP channel function. Cell Calcium 33:303–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. He K, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Morris SJ, Loria CM, Van Horn L, Jacobs DR Jr, Savage PJ (2006) Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation 113:1675–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Stegman MR, Moy AJ (1989) Calcium absorption in women: relationships to calcium intake, estrogen status, and age. J Bone Miner Res 4:469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Hebert SC, Brown EM, Harris HW (1997) Role of the Ca2+-sensing receptor in divalent mineral ion homeostasis. J Exp Biol 200:295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Hellwig N, Albrecht N, Harteneck C, Schultz G, Schaefer M (2005) Homo- and heteromeric assembly of TRPV channel subunits. J Cell Sci 118:917–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Hennekam RC, Donckerwolcke RA (1983) Primary hypomagnesaemia, an autosomal recessive inherited disease? Lancet 1:927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Hermosura MC, Monteilh-Zoller MK, Scharenberg AM, Penner R, Fleig A (2002) Dissociation of the store-operated calcium current I(CRAC) and the Mg-nucleotide-regulated metal ion current MagNuM. J Physiol 539:445–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Hildmann B, Schmidt A, Murer H (1982) Ca2+-transport across basal-lateral plasma membranes from rat small intestinal epithelial cells. J Membr Biol 65:55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Hirase T, Staddon JM, Saitou M, Ando-Akatsuka Y, Itoh M, Furuse M, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S, Rubin LL (1997) Occludin as a possible determinant of tight junction permeability in endothelial cells. J Cell Sci 110:1603–1613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Hirnet D, Olausson J, Fecher-Trost C, Bodding M, Nastainczyk W, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V, Freichel M (2003) The TRPV6 gene, cDNA and protein. Cell Calcium 33:509–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Hodgkinson CP, Mander A, Sale GJ (2005) Identification of 80K-H as a protein involved in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking. Biochem J 388:785–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Hodsman AB, Hanley DA, Ettinger MP, Bolognese MA, Fox J, Metcalfe AJ, Lindsay R (2003) Efficacy and safety of human parathyroid hormone-(1–84) in increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:5212–5220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Hoenderop JG, Hartog A, Willems PH, Bindels RJ (1998) Adenosine-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption is mediated by apical A1 receptors in rabbit cortical collecting system. Am J Physiol 274:F736–F743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Hoenderop JG, De Pont JJ, Bindels RJ, Willems PH (1999a) Hormone-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption in rabbit kidney cortical collecting system is cAMP-independent and involves a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isotype. Kidney Int 55:225–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Hoenderop JG, Vaandrager AB, Dijkink L, Smolenski A, Gambaryan S, Lohmann SM, de Jonge HR, Willems PH, Bindels RJ (1999b) Atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption in rabbit kidney requires membrane-targeted, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:6084–6089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Hartog A, van de Graaf SF, van Os CH, Willems PH, Bindels RJ (1999c) Molecular identification of the apical Ca2+ channel in 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-responsive epithelia. J Biol Chem 274:8375–8378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Hoenderop JG, Hartog A, Stuiver M, Doucet A, Willems PH, Bindels RJ (2000) Localization of the epithelial Ca2+ channel in rabbit kidney and intestine. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:1171–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Hoenderop JG, Muller D, Van Der Kemp AW, Hartog A, Suzuki M, Ishibashi K, Imai M, Sweep F, Willems PH, Van Os CH, Bindels RJ (2001a) Calcitriol controls the epithelial calcium channel in kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 12:1342–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Hoenderop JG, Dardenne O, Van Abel M, Van Der Kemp AW, Van Os CH, St -Arnaud R, Bindels RJ (2002) Modulation of renal Ca2+ transport protein genes by dietary Ca2+ and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice. FASEB J 16:1398–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Hoenderop JG, van Leeuwen JP, van der Eerden BC, Kersten FF, van der Kemp AW, Merillat AM, Waarsing JH, Rossier BC, Vallon V, Hummler E, Bindels RJ (2003a) Renal Ca2+ wasting, hyperabsorption, and reduced bone thickness in mice lacking TRPV5. J Clin Invest 112:1906–1914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Hoenderop JG, Voets T, Hoefs S, Weidema F, Prenen J, Nilius B, Bindels RJ (2003b) Homo- and heterotetrameric architecture of the epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6. EMBO J 22:776–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Hoenderop JG, Chon H, Gkika D, Bluyssen HA, Holstege FC, St-Arnaud R, Braam B, Bindels RJ (2004) Regulation of gene expression by dietary Ca2+ in kidneys of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase knockout mice. Kidney Int 65:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Hoenderop JG, Nilius B, Bindels RJ (2005) Calcium absorption across epithelia. Physiol Rev 85:373–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Hoenderop JGJ, Vennekens R, Müller D, Prenen J, Droogmans G, Bindels RJM, Nilius B (2001b) Function and expression of the epithelial Ca2+ channel family: comparison of the epithelial Ca2+ channel 1 and 2. J Physiol (Lond) 537:747–761Google Scholar
  228. Hou J, Paul DL, Goodenough DA (2005) Paracellin-1 and the modulation of ion selectivity of tight junctions. J Cell Sci 118:5109–5118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, Bovbjerg VE, Weltman AL, Holmes VF, Patrie JT, Rogol AD, Nadler JL (2005) Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care 28:1175–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Hughes MR, Malloy PJ, Kieback DG, Kesterson RA, Pike JW, Feldman D, O'Malley BW (1988) Point mutations in the human vitamin D receptor gene associated with hypocalcemic rickets. Science 242:1702–1705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Huybers S, Naber TH, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2006) Prednisolone-induced Ca2+ malabsorption is caused by diminished expression of the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV6. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  232. Imai M (1978) Calcium transport across the rabbit thick ascending limb of Henle's loop perfused in vitro. Pflugers Arch 374:255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Imai M (1981) Effects of parathyroid hormone and N6,O2′-dibutyryl cyclic AMP on Ca2+ transport across the rabbit distal nephron segments perfused in vitro. Pflugers Arch 390:145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Imura A, Iwano A, Tohyama O, Tsuji Y, Nozaki K, Hashimoto N, Fujimori T, Nabeshima Y (2004) Secreted Klotho protein in sera and CSF: implication for post-translational cleavage in release of Klotho protein from cell membrane. FEBS Lett 565:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Jones DH, Li TY, Arystarkhova E, Barr KJ, Wetzel RK, Peng J, Markham K, Sweadner KJ, Fong GH, Kidder GM (2005) Na,K-ATPase from mice lacking the gamma subunit (FXYD2) exhibits altered Na+ affinity and decreased thermal stability. J Biol Chem 280:19003–19011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Jones G, Strugnell SA, DeLuca HF (1998) Current understanding of the molecular actions of vitamin D. Physiol Rev 78:1193–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Jonsson KB, Zahradnik R, Larsson T, White KE, Sugimoto T, Imanishi Y, Yamamoto T, Hampson G, Koshiyama H, Ljunggren O, Oba K, Yang IM, Miyauchi A, Econs MJ, Lavigne J, Juppner H (2003) Fibroblast growth factor 23 in oncogenic osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemia. N Engl J Med 348:1656–1663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Juppner H, Abou-Samra AB, Freeman M, Kong XF, Schipani E, Richards J, Kolakowski LF Jr, Hock J, Potts JT Jr, Kronenberg HM, et al (1991) A G protein-linked receptor for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Science 254:1024–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Kahle KT, Macgregor GG, Wilson FH, Van Hoek AN, Brown D, Ardito T, Kashgarian M, Giebisch G, Hebert SC, Boulpaep EL, Lifton RP (2004) Paracellular Cl− permeability is regulated by WNK4 kinase: insight into normal physiology and hypertension. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:14877–14882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Kaissling B (1982) Structural aspects of adaptive changes in renal electrolyte excretion. Am J Physiol 243:F211–F226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Kanai M, Goke M, Tsunekawa S, Podolsky DK (1997) Signal transduction pathway of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Identification of a novel 66-kDa phosphoprotein. J Biol Chem 272:6621–6628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Kang TM, Hilgemann DW (2004) Multiple transport modes of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Nature 427:544–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Kantorovich V, Adams JS, Gaines JE, Guo X, Pandian MR, Cohn DH, Rude RK (2002) Genetic heterogeneity in familial renal magnesium wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:612–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, Mo JP, Watson RL, Brancati FL (1999) Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med 159:2151–2159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Karbach U (1989a) Cellular-mediated and diffusive magnesium transport across the descending colon of the rat. Gastroenterology 96:1282–1289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Karbach U (1989b) Magnesium transport across colon ascendens of the rat. Dig Dis Sci 34:1825–1831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Karppanen H, Karppanen P, Mervaala E (2005) Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? J Hum Hypertens 19(Suppl 3):S10–S19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Kausalya PJ, Amasheh S, Gunzel D, Wurps H, Muller D, Fromm M, Hunziker W (2006) Disease-associated mutations affect intracellular traffic and paracellular Mg2+ transport function of Claudin-16. J Clin Invest 116:878–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Kawano K, Ogata N, Chiano M, Molloy H, Kleyn P, Spector TD, Uchida M, Hosoi T, Suzuki T, Orimo H, Inoue S, Nabeshima Y, Nakamura K, Kuro-o M, Kawaguchi H (2002) Klotho gene polymorphisms associated with bone density of aged postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 17:1744–1751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Kayne LH, Lee DB (1993) Intestinal magnesium absorption. Miner Electrolyte Metab 19:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Keeton TP, Burk SE, Shull GE (1993) Alternative splicing of exons encoding the calmodulin-binding domains and C termini of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoforms 1, 2, 3, and 4. J Biol Chem 268:2740–2748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Kelepouris E, Agus ZS (1998) Hypomagnesemia: renal magnesium handling. Semin Nephrol 18:58–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Kikuchi K, Kikuchi T, Ghishan FK (1988) Characterization of calcium transport by basolateral membrane vesicles of human small intestine. Am J Physiol 255:G482–G489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Kim JW, Lee Y, Lee IA, Kang HB, Choe YK, Choe IS (1997) Cloning and expression of human cDNA encoding Na+, K+-ATPase gamma-subunit. Biochim Biophys Acta 1350:133–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Kino T, Hatanaka H, Hashimoto M, Nishiyama M, Goto T, Okuhara M, Kohsaka M, Aoki H, Imanaka H (1987) FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from a Streptomyces. I. Fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 40:1249–1255Google Scholar
  256. Kip SN, Strehler EE (2003) Characterization of PMCA isoforms and their contribution to transcellular Ca2+ flux in MDCK cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284:F122–F132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Kip SN, Strehler EE (2004) Vitamin D3 upregulates plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase expression and potentiates apico-basal Ca2+ flux in MDCK cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286:F363–F369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Kitanaka S, Takeyama K, Murayama A, Sato T, Okumura K, Nogami M, Hasegawa Y, Niimi H, Yanagisawa J, Tanaka T, Kato S (1998) Inactivating mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase gene in patients with pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets. N Engl J Med 338:653–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Knoers NV, de Jong JC, Meij IC, Van Den Heuvel LP, Bindels RJ (2003) Genetic renal disorders with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. J Nephrol 16:293–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Kofuji P, Lederer WJ, Schulze DH (1994) Mutually exclusive and cassette exons underlie alternatively spliced isoforms of the Na/Ca exchanger. J Biol Chem 269:5145–5149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Kokko JP (1974) Membrane characteristics governing salt and water transport in the loop of Henle. Fed Proc 33:25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Kolisek M, Zsurka G, Samaj J, Weghuber J, Schweyen RJ, Schweigel M (2003) Mrs2p is an essential component of the major electrophoretic Mg2+ influx system in mitochondria. EMBO J 22:1235–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Konrad M, Weber S (2003) Recent advances in molecular genetics of hereditary magnesium-losing disorders. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:249–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Konrad M, Schlingmann KP, Gudermann T (2004) Insights into the molecular nature of magnesium homeostasis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286:F599–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Konrad M, Schaller A, Seelow D, Pandey AV, Waldegger S, Lesslauer A, Vitzthum H, Suzuki Y, Luk JM, Becker C, Schlingmann KP, Schmid M, Rodriguez-Soriano J, Ariceta G, Cano F, Enriquez R, Juppner H, Bakkaloglu SA, Hediger MA, Gallati S, Neuhauss SC, Nurnberg P, Weber S (2006) Mutations in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) are associated with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and severe ocular involvement. Am J Hum Genet 79:949–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Koster HP, Hartog A, Van Os CH, Bindels RJ (1995) Calbindin-D28K facilitates cytosolic calcium diffusion without interfering with calcium signaling. Cell Calcium 18:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Koushik SV, Wang J, Rogers R, Moskophidis D, Lambert NA, Creazzo TL, Conway SJ (2001) Targeted inactivation of the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1) results in the lack of a heartbeat and abnormal myofibrillar organization. FASEB J 15:1209–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Kozak JA, Cahalan MD (2003) MIC channels are inhibited by internal divalent cations but not ATP. Biophys J 84:922–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Kozel PJ, Friedman RA, Erway LC, Yamoah EN, Liu LH, Riddle T, Duffy JJ, Doetschman T, Miller ML, Cardell EL, Shull GE (1998) Balance and hearing deficits in mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2. J Biol Chem 273:18693–18696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Krieger NS, Frick KK, Bushinsky DA (2004) Mechanism of acid-induced bone resorption. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 13:423–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Kuro-o M, Matsumura Y, Aizawa H, Kawaguchi H, Suga T, Utsugi T, Ohyama Y, Kurabayashi M, Kaname T, Kume E, Iwasaki H, Iida A, Shiraki-Iida T, Nishikawa S, Nagai R, Nabeshima YI (1997) Mutation of the mouse klotho gene leads to a syndrome resembling ageing. Nature 390:45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Kurosu H, Yamamoto M, Clark JD, Pastor JV, Nandi A, Gurnani P, McGuinness OP, Chikuda H, Yamaguchi M, Kawaguchi H, Shimomura I, Takayama Y, Herz J, Kahn CR, Rosenblatt KP, Kuro-o M (2005) Suppression of aging in mice by the hormone Klotho. Science 309:1829–1833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Kutuzova GD, Akhter S, Christakos S, Vanhooke J, Kimmel-Jehan C, Deluca HF (2006) Calbindin-D9K knockout mice are indistinguishable from wild-type mice in phenotype and serum calcium level. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:12377–12381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Kwon TH, Nielsen J, Kim YH, Knepper MA, Frokiaer J, Nielsen S (2003) Regulation of sodium transporters in the thick ascending limb of rat kidney: response to angiotensin II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285:F152–F165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Lafond J, Leclerc M, Brunette MG (1991) Characterization of calcium transport by basal plasma membranes from human placental syncytiotrophoblast. J Cell Physiol 148:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Lamberg BA, Kuhlback B (1959) Effect of chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide on the excretion of calcium in urine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 11:351–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Lambers TT, Weidema AF, Nilius B, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2004) Regulation of the mouse epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV6 by the Ca2+-sensor calmodulin. J Biol Chem 279:28855–28861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Lambers TT, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2006a) Coordinated control of renal Ca2+ handling. Kidney Int 69:650–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Lambers TT, Mahieu F, Oancea E, Hoofd L, De Lange F, Mensenkamp AR, Voets T, Nilius B, Clapham DE, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006b) Calbindin-D28K dynamically controls TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ transport. EMBO J 25:2978–2988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Lambers TT, Oancea E, De Groot T, Topala CN, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006c) Extracellular pH dynamically controls cell surface delivery of functional TRPV5 channels. Mol Cell Biol (in press)Google Scholar
  281. Lamprecht G, Weinman EJ, Yun CH (1998) The role of NHERF and E3KARP in the cAMP-mediated inhibition of NHE3. J Biol Chem 273:29972–29978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Larsson D, Nemere I (2002) Vectorial transcellular calcium transport in intestine: integration of current models. J Biomed Biotechnol 2:117–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Lee CT, Shang S, Lai LW, Yong KC, Lien YH (2004) Effect of thiazide on renal gene expression of apical calcium channels and calbindins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287:F1164–F1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Lee CT, Lien YH, Lai LW, Chen JB, Lin CR, Chen HC (2006a) Increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 69:1786–1791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Lee J, Cha SK, Sun TJ, Huang CL (2005) PIP2 activates TRPV5 and releases its inhibition by intracellular Mg2+. J Gen Physiol 126:439–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Lee K, Brown D, Urena P, Ardaillou N, Ardaillou R, Deeds J, Segre GV (1996) Localization of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor mRNA in kidney. Am J Physiol 270:F186–F191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Lee NP, Tong MK, Leung PP, Chan VW, Leung S, Tam PC, Chan KW, Lee KF, Yeung WS, Luk JM (2006b) Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease. FEBS Lett 580:923–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Lee SL, Yu AS, Lytton J (1994) Tissue-specific expression of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger isoforms. J Biol Chem 269:14849–14852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Lelievre-Pegorier M, Merlet-Benichou C, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1983) Developmental pattern of water and electrolyte transport in rat superficial nephrons. Am J Physiol 245:F15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Lemann J Jr, Bushinsky DA, Hamm LL (2003) Bone buffering of acid and base in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285:F811–F832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Levenson R (1994) Isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase: family members in search of function. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 123:1–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Levitan IB (1999) It is calmodulin after all! Mediator of the calcium modulation of multiple ion channels. Neuron 22:645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Li J, Dai Z, Jana D, Callaway DJ, Bu Z (2005) Ezrin controls the macromolecular complexes formed between an adapter protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. J Biol Chem 280:37634–37643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Li M, Jiang J, Yue L (2006) Functional characterization of homo- and heteromeric channel kinases TRPM6 and TRPM7. J Gen Physiol 127:525–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Li XF, Kraev AS, Lytton J (2002) Molecular cloning of a fourth member of the potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger gene family, NCKX4. J Biol Chem 277:48410–48417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Li YC, Bolt MJ, Cao LP, Sitrin MD (2001) Effects of vitamin D receptor inactivation on the expression of calbindins and calcium metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281:E558–E564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Li YM, Mitsuhashi T, Wojciechowicz D, Shimizu N, Li J, Stitt A, He C, Banerjee D, Vlassara H (1996) Molecular identity and cellular distribution of advanced glycation endproduct receptors: relationship of p60 to OST-48 and p90 to 80K-H membrane proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11047–11052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Li Z, Matsuoka S, Hryshko LV, Nicoll DA, Bersohn MM, Burke EP, Lifton RP, Philipson KD (1994) Cloning of the NCX2 isoform of the plasma membrane Na+-Ca2+ exchanger. J Biol Chem 269:17434–17439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Liedtke CM, Yun CH, Kyle N, Wang D (2002) Protein kinase C epsilon-dependent regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator involves binding to a receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) and RACK1 binding to Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor. J Biol Chem 277:22925–22933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Linck B, Qiu Z, He Z, Tong Q, Hilgemann DW, Philipson KD (1998) Functional comparison of the three isoforms of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1, NCX2, NCX3). Am J Physiol 274:C415–C423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Liu J, Farmer JD Jr, Lane WS, Friedman J, Weissman I, Schreiber SL (1991) Calcineurin is a common target of cyclophilin-cyclosporin A and FKBP-FK506 complexes. Cell 66:807–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Loffing J, Loffing-Cueni D, Hegyi I, Kaplan MR, Hebert SC, Le Hir M, Kaissling B (1996) Thiazide treatment of rats provokes apoptosis in distal tubule cells. Kidney Int 50:1180–1190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Loffing J, Loffing-Cueni D, Valderrabano V, Klausli L, Hebert SC, Rossier BC, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, Kaissling B (2001) Distribution of transcellular calcium and sodium transport pathways along mouse distal nephron. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 281:F1021–F1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Loffing J, Vallon V, Loffing-Cueni D, Aregger F, Richter K, Pietri L, Bloch-Faure M, Hoenderop JG, Shull GE, Meneton P, Kaissling B (2004) Altered renal distal tubule structure and renal Na+ and Ca2+ handling in a mouse model for Gitelman's syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:2276–2288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Lorentzon M, Swanson C, Eriksson AL, Mellstrom D, Ohlsson C (2006) Polymorphisms in the aromatase gene predict areal BMD as a result of affected cortical bone size: the GOOD study. J Bone Miner Res 21:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Lote CJ, Thewles A, Wood JA, Zafar T (2000) The hypomagnesaemic action of FK506: urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium and the role of parathyroid hormone. Clin Sci (Lond) 99:285–292Google Scholar
  307. Lovlie R, Eiken HG, Sorheim JI, Boman H (1996) The Ca2+-sensing receptor gene (PCAR1) mutation T151M in isolated autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism. Hum Genet 98:129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Magosci M, Yamaki M, Penniston JT, Dousa TP (1992) Localization of mRNAs coding for isozymes of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase pump in rat kidney. Am J Physiol 263:F7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Magyar CE, White KE, Rojas R, Apodaca G, Friedman PA (2002) Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase and NCX1 Na+/Ca2+ exchanger expression in distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 283:F29–F40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Mahon MJ, Donowitz M, Yun CC, Segre GV (2002) Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 directs parathyroid hormone 1 receptor signalling. Nature 417:858–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Malloy PJ, Eccleshall TR, Gross C, Van Maldergem L, Bouillon R, Feldman D (1997) Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets caused by a novel mutation in the vitamin D receptor that results in decreased affinity for hormone and cellular hyporesponsiveness. J Clin Invest 99:297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Mandon B, Siga E, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1993) Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ transport in the cortical and medullary thick ascending limb of the rat nephron: influence of transepithelial voltage. Pflugers Arch 424:558–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Mannstadt M, Juppner H, Gardella TJ (1999) Receptors for PTH and PTHrP: their biological importance and functional properties. Am J Physiol 277:F665–F675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Manz F, Scharer K, Janka P, Lombeck J (1978) Renal magnesium wasting, incomplete tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in siblings. Eur J Pediatr 128:67–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Margolis DS, Kim D, Szivek JA, Lai LW, Lien YH (2006) Functionally improved bone in Calbindin-D28K knockout mice. Bone 39:477–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Martens H, Harmeyer J (1978) Magnesium transport by isolated rumen epithelium of sheep. Res Vet Sci 24:161–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Martin-Padura I, Lostaglio S, Schneemann M, Williams L, Romano M, Fruscella P, Panzeri C, Stoppacciaro A, Ruco L, Villa A, Simmons D, Dejana E (1998) Junctional adhesion molecule, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that distributes at intercellular junctions and modulates monocyte transmigration. J Cell Biol 142:117–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Martini LA, Wood RJ (2000) Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev 58:111–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Marx SJ, Attie MF, Levine MA, Spiegel AM, Downs RW Jr, Lasker RD (1981) The hypocalciuric or benign variant of familial hypercalcemia: clinical and biochemical features in fifteen kindreds. Medicine (Baltimore) 60:397–412Google Scholar
  320. Massry SG, Coburn JW, Kleeman CR (1969) Renal handling of magnesium in the dog. Am J Physiol 216:1460–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Matsushita M, Kozak JA, Shimizu Y, McLachlin DT, Yamaguchi H, Wei FY, Tomizawa K, Matsui H, Chait BT, Cahalan MD, Nairn AC (2005) Channel function is dissociated from the intrinsic kinase activity and autophosphorylation of TRPM7/ChaK1. J Biol Chem 280:20793–20803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Matzkin H, Lotan D, Boichis H (1989) Primary hypomagnesemia with a probable double magnesium transport defect. Nephron 52:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. McCarthy KM, Skare IB, Stankewich MC, Furuse M, Tsukita S, Rogers RA, Lynch RD, Schneeberger EE (1996) Occludin is a functional component of the tight junction. J Cell Sci 109:2287–2298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. McNair P, Christiansen C, Transbol I (1984) Effect of menopause and estrogen substitutional therapy on magnesium metabolism. Miner Electrolyte Metab 10:84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Means AR, Dedman JR (1980) Calmodulin—an intracellular calcium receptor. Nature 285:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Meij IC, Saar K, van den Heuvel LP, Nuernberg G, Vollmer M, Hildebrandt F, Reis A, Monnens LA, Knoers NV (1999) Hereditary isolated renal magnesium loss maps to chromosome 11q23. Am J Hum Genet 64:180–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Meij IC, Koenderink JB, van Bokhoven H, Assink KF, Tiel Groenestege W, de Pont JJ, Bindels RJ, Monnens LA, van den Heuvel LP, Knoers NV (2000) Dominant isolated renal magnesium loss is caused by misrouting of the Na+,K+-ATPase gamma-subunit. Nat Genet 26:265–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Meij IC, van den Heuvel LP, Knoers NV (2002) Genetic disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Biometals 15:297–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Meij IC, van den Heuvel LP, Hemmes S, van der Vliet WA, Willems JL, Monnens LA, Knoers NV (2003) Exclusion of mutations in FXYD2, CLDN16 and SLC12A3 in two families with primary renal Mg2+ loss. Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:512–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Meyer MB, Watanuki M, Kim S, Shevde NK, Pike JW (2006) The human Trpv6 distal promoter contains multiple vitamin D receptor binding sites that mediate activation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in intestinal cells. Mol Endocrinol 20:1447–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Milazzo SC, Ahern MJ, Cleland LG, Henderson DR (1981) Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease and familial hypomagnesemia. J Rheumatol 8:767–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Miller LA, Stapleton FB (1989) Urinary volume in children with urolithiasis. J Urol 141:918–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Moe OW (2006) Kidney stones: pathophysiology and medical management. Lancet 367:333–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Monteilh-Zoller MK, Hermosura MC, Nadler MJ, Scharenberg AM, Penner R, Fleig A (2003) TRPM7 provides an ion channel mechanism for cellular entry of trace metal ions. J Gen Physiol 121:49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Montell C (2003) Mg2+ homeostasis: the Mg2+nificent TRPM chanzymes. Curr Biol 13:R799–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Montell C, Birnbaumer L, Flockerzi V, Bindels RJ, Bruford EA, Caterina MJ, Clapham DE, Harteneck C, Heller S, Julius D, Kojima I, Mori Y, Penner R, Prawitt D, Scharenberg AM, Schultz G, Shimizu N, Zhu MX (2002) A unified nomenclature for the superfamily of TRP cation channels. Mol Cell 9:229–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Moreau R, Daoud G, Bernatchez R, Simoneau L, Masse A, Lafond J (2002a) Calcium uptake and calcium transporter expression by trophoblast cells from human term placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta 1564:325–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Moreau R, Hamel A, Daoud G, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2002b) Expression of calcium channels along the differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells from human term placenta. Biol Reprod 67:1473–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Moreau R, Daoud G, Masse A, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2003a) Expression and role of calcium-ATPase pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in differentiated trophoblasts from human term placenta. Mol Reprod Dev 65:283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Moreau R, Simoneau L, Lafond J (2003b) Calcium fluxes in human trophoblast (BeWo) cells: calcium channels, calcium-ATPase, and sodium-calcium exchanger expression. Mol Reprod Dev 64:189–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Morita K, Furuse M, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (1999) Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein components of tight junction strands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:511–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Morris RG, Hoorn EJ, Knepper MA (2006) Hypokalemia in a mouse model of Gitelman's syndrome. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F1416–F1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Moseley JM, Kubota M, Diefenbach-Jagger H, Wettenhall RE, Kemp BE, Suva LJ, Rodda CP, Ebeling PR, Hudson PJ, Zajac JD, et al (1987) Parathyroid hormone-related protein purified from a human lung cancer cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5048–5052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Muller D, Hoenderop JG, Meij IC, van den Heuvel LP, Knoers NV, den Hollander AI, Eggert P, Garcia-Nieto V, Claverie-Martin F, Bindels RJ (2000) Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal mapping of the human epithelial Ca2+ channel (ECAC1). Genomics 67:48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Muller D, Kausalya PJ, Claverie-Martin F, Meij IC, Eggert P, Garcia-Nieto V, Hunziker W (2003) A novel claudin 16 mutation associated with childhood hypercalciuria abolishes binding to ZO-1 and results in lysosomal mistargeting. Am J Hum Genet 73:1293–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Muller D, Kausalya PJ, Meij IC, Hunziker W (2006) Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: blocking endocytosis restores surface expression of a novel Claudin-16 mutant that lacks the entire C-terminal cytosolic tail. Hum Mol Genet 15:1049–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Muslin AJ, Tanner JW, Allen PM, Shaw AS (1996) Interaction of 14-3-3 with signaling proteins is mediated by the recognition of phosphoserine. Cell 84:889–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Nadler MJ, Hermosura MC, Inabe K, Perraud AL, Zhu Q, Stokes AJ, Kurosaki T, Kinet JP, Penner R, Scharenberg AM, Fleig A (2001) LTRPC7 is a Mg.ATP-regulated divalent cation channel required for cell viability. Nature 411:590–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Nakasaki Y, Iwamoto T, Hanada H, Imagawa T, Shigekawa M (1993) Cloning of the rat aortic smooth muscle Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and tissue-specific expression of isoforms. J Biochem (Tokyo) 114:528–534Google Scholar
  350. Neer RM (1975) The evolutionary significance of vitamin D, skin pigment, and ultraviolet light. Am J Phys Anthropol 43:409–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Nemere I, Norman AW (1986) Parathyroid hormone stimulates calcium transport in perfused duodena from normal chicks: comparison with the rapid (transcaltachic) effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Endocrinology 119:1406–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Nemere I, Norman AW (1990) Transcaltachia, vesicular calcium transport, and microtubule-associated calbindin-D28K: emerging views of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated intestinal calcium absorption. Miner Electrolyte Metab 16:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Nemere I, Szego CM (1981) Early actions of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on isolated epithelial cells from rat intestine. II. Analyses of additivity, contribution of calcium, and modulatory influence of indomethacin. Endocrinology 109:2180–2187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Nemere I, Leathers V, Norman AW (1986) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated intestinal calcium transport. Biochemical identification of lysosomes containing calcium and calcium-binding protein (calbindin-D28K). J Biol Chem 261:16106–16114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, Martin JC, Garton MJ, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Lee SJ, Reid DM (2000) Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr 71:142–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Ng RC, Peraino RA, Suki WN (1982) Divalent cation transport in isolated tubules. Kidney Int 22:492–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Nicholson JC, Jones CL, Powell HR, Walker RG, McCredie DA (1995) Familial hypomagnesaemia—hypercalciuria leading to end-stage renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 9:74–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Nicoll DA, Quednau BD, Qui Z, Xia YR, Lusis AJ, Philipson KD (1996) Cloning of a third mammalian Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCX3. J Biol Chem 271:24914–24921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Niemeyer BA, Bergs C, Wissenbach U, Flockerzi V, Trost C (2001) Competitive regulation of CaT-like-mediated Ca2+ entry by protein kinase C and calmodulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:3600–3605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Nijenhuis T, Hoenderop JG, Loffing J, van der Kemp AW, van Os CH, Bindels RJ (2003a) Thiazide-induced hypocalciuria is accompanied by a decreased expression of Ca2+ transport proteins in kidney. Kidney Int 64:555–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Nijenhuis T, Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Bindels RJ (2003b) Localization and regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV6 in the kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:2731–2740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Nijenhuis T, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2004) Downregulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport proteins in the kidney explains tacrolimus (FK506)-induced hypercalciuria and hypomagnesemia. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:549–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Nijenhuis T, Vallon V, van der Kemp AW, Loffing J, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2005) Enhanced passive Ca2+ reabsorption and reduced Mg2+ channel abundance explains thiazide-induced hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. J Clin Invest 115:1651–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Nijenhuis T, Renkema KY, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006) Acid-base status determines the renal expression of Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport proteins. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:617–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Nilius B, Mahieu F (2006) A road map for TR(I)Ps. Mol Cell 22:297–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Nilius B, Vennekens R, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, Droogmans G (2000) Whole-cell and single channel monovalent cation currents through the novel rabbit epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC. J Physiol 527:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Nilius B, Prenen J, Vennekens R, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, Droogmans G (2001a) Modulation of the epithelial calcium channel, ECaC, by intracellular Ca2+. Cell Calcium 29:417–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Nilius B, Prenen J, Vennekens R, Hoenderop JGJ, Bindels RJM, Droogmans G (2001b) Pharmacological modulation of monovalent cation currents through the epithelial Ca2+ ECaC. Br J Pharmacol 134:453–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Nilius B, Vennekens R, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Droogmans G, Bindels RJ (2001c) The single pore residue Asp542 determines Ca2+ permeation and Mg2+ block of the epithelial Ca2+ channel. J Biol Chem 276:1020–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Nilius B, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Vennekens R, Hoefs S, Weidema AF, Droogmans G, Bindels RJ (2002) Fast and slow inactivation kinetics of the Ca2+ channels ECaC1 and ECaC2 (TRPV5 and TRPV6). Role of the intracellular loop located between transmembrane segments 2 and 3. J Biol Chem 277:30852–30858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Nilius B, Weidema F, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Vennekens R, Hoefs S, Droogmans G, Bindels RJ (2003) The carboxyl terminus of the epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC1 is involved in Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Pflugers Arch 445:584–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Nordin BE, Horsman A, Marshall DH, Simpson M, Waterhouse GM (1979) Calcium requirement and calcium therapy. Clin Orthop 140:216–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Nordin BE, Need AG, Morris HA, Horowitz M, Robertson WG (1991) Evidence for a renal calcium leak in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:401–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Nussey SS, Whitehead SA (2001) Endocrinology: an integrated approach. Taylor and Francis Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  375. O'Kelly I, Butler MH, Zilberberg N, Goldstein SA (2002) Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic reticulum by dibasic signals. Cell 111:577–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Obukhov AG, Nowycky MC (2004) TRPC5 activation kinetics are modulated by the scaffolding protein ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50). J Cell Physiol 201:227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Odell AF, Scott JL, Van Helden DF (2005) Epidermal growth factor induces tyrosine phosphorylation, membrane insertion, and activation of transient receptor potential channel 4. J Biol Chem 280:37974–37987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Ogata N, Matsumura Y, Shiraki M, Kawano K, Koshizuka Y, Hosoi T, Nakamura K, Kuro OM, Kawaguchi H (2002) Association of klotho gene polymorphism with bone density and spondylosis of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Bone 31:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Okano T, Tsugawa N, Morishita A, Kato S (2004) Regulation of gene expression of epithelial calcium channels in intestine and kidney of mice by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90:335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Okazaki R, Chikatsu N, Nakatsu M, Takeuchi Y, Ajima M, Miki J, Fujita T, Arai M, Totsuka Y, Tanaka K, Fukumoto S (1999) A novel activating mutation in calcium-sensing receptor gene associated with a family of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:363–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Okunade GW, Miller ML, Pyne GJ, Sutliff RL, O'Connor KT, Neumann JC, Andringa A, Miller DA, Prasad V, Doetschman T, Paul RJ, Shull GE (2004) Targeted ablation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) 1 and 4 indicates a major housekeeping function for PMCA1 and a critical role in hyperactivated sperm motility and male fertility for PMCA4. J Biol Chem 279:33742–33750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Okuse K, Malik-Hall M, Baker MD, Poon WY, Kong H, Chao MV, Wood JN (2002) Annexin II light chain regulates sensory neuron-specific sodium channel expression. Nature 417:653–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Ordaz B, Tang J, Xiao R, Salgado A, Sampieri A, Zhu MX, Vaca L (2005) Calmodulin and calcium interplay in the modulation of TRPC5 channel activity. Identification of a novel C-terminal domain for calcium/calmodulin-mediated facilitation. J Biol Chem 280:30788–30796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Palmada M, Poppendieck S, Embark HM, van de Graaf SF, Boehmer C, Bindels RJ, Lang F (2005) Requirement of PDZ domains for the stimulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV5 by the NHE regulating factor NHERF2 and the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1. Cell Physiol Biochem 15:175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Pan TC, Liao BK, Huang CJ, Lin LY, Hwang PP (2005) Epithelial Ca2+ channel expression and Ca2+ uptake in developing zebrafish. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R1202–R1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Panda DK, Miao D, Tremblay ML, Sirois J, Farookhi R, Hendy GN, Goltzman D (2001) Targeted ablation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha -hydroxylase enzyme: evidence for skeletal, reproductive, and immune dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7498–7503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Paolisso G, Barbagallo M (1997) Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Am J Hypertens 10:346–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Pappenheimer JR (1987) Physiological regulation of transepithelial impedance in the intestinal mucosa of rats and hamsters. J Membr Biol 100:137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Parkinson DB, Thakker RV (1992) A donor splice site mutation in the parathyroid hormone gene is associated with autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism. Nat Genet 1:149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Pearce SH, Trump D, Wooding C, Besser GM, Chew SL, Grant DB, Heath DA, Hughes IA, Paterson CR, Whyte MP, et al (1995) Calcium-sensing receptor mutations in familial benign hypercalcemia and neonatal hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Invest 96:2683–2692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Pearce SH, Williamson C, Kifor O, Bai M, Coulthard MG, Davies M, Lewis-Barned N, McCredie D, Powell H, Kendall-Taylor P, Brown EM, Thakker RV (1996) A familial syndrome of hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria due to mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor. N Engl J Med 335:1115–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Peces R, Drenth JP, Te Morsche RH, Gonzalez P, Peces C (2005) Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease in a family without polycystic kidney disease associated with a novel missense protein kinase C substrate 80K-H mutation. World J Gastroenterol 11:7690–7693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Peng JB, Chen XZ, Berger UV, Vassilev PM, Tsukaguchi H, Brown EM, Hediger MA (1999) Molecular cloning and characterization of a channel-like transporter mediating intestinal calcium absorption. J Biol Chem 274:22739–22746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Peng JB, Chen XZ, Berger UV, Vassilev PM, Brown EM, Hediger MA (2000a) A rat kidney-specific calcium transporter in the distal nephron. J Biol Chem 275:28186–28194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Peng JB, Chen XZ, Berger UV, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Vassilev PM, Brown EM, Hediger MA (2000b) Human calcium transport protein CaT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:326–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Peng JB, Brown EM, Hediger MA (2001a) Structural conservation of the genes encoding CaT1, CaT2, and related cation channels. Genomics 76:99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Peng JB, Zhuang L, Berger UV, Adam RM, Williams BJ, Brown EM, Hediger MA, Freeman MR (2001b) CaT1 expression correlates with tumor grade in prostate cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:729–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Philipson KD, Nicoll DA (2000) Sodium-calcium exchange: a molecular perspective. Annu Rev Physiol 62:111–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Phillips AM, Bull A, Kelly LE (1992) Identification of a Drosophila gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein with homology to the trp phototransduction gene. Neuron 8:631–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Picotto G, Massheimer V, Boland R (1997) Parathyroid hormone stimulates calcium influx and the cAMP messenger system in rat enterocytes. Am J Physiol 273:C1349–C1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Pike JW, Dokoh S, Haussler MR, Liberman UA, Marx SJ, Eil C (1984) Vitamin D3—resistant fibroblasts have immunoassayable 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors. Science 224:879–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Pitkin RM (1985) Calcium metabolism in pregnancy and the perinatal period: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Plotkin MD, Kaplan MR, Verlander JW, Lee WS, Brown D, Poch E, Gullans SR, Hebert SC (1996) Localization of the thiazide sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter, rTSC1 in the rat kidney. Kidney Int 50:174–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Pollak MR, Brown EM, Chou YH, Hebert SC, Marx SJ, Steinmann B, Levi T, Seidman CE, Seidman JG (1993) Mutations in the human Ca2+-sensing receptor gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Cell 75:1297–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Pollak MR, Brown EM, Estep HL, McLaine PN, Kifor O, Park J, Hebert SC, Seidman CE, Seidman JG (1994) Autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia caused by a Ca2+-sensing receptor gene mutation. Nat Genet 8:303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Pollak MR, Delaney VB, Graham RM, Hebert SC (1996) Gitelman's syndrome (Bartter's variant) maps to the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter gene locus on chromosome 16q13 in a large kindred. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:2244–2248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Ponting C, Schultz J, Bork P (1997) SPRY domains in ryanodine receptors Ca2+-release channels. Trends Biochem Sci 22:193–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Poon WY, Malik-Hall M, Wood JN, Okuse K (2004) Identification of binding domains in the sodium channel NaV1.8 intracellular N-terminal region and annexin II light chain p11. FEBS Lett 558:114–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Potts JT (2005) Parathyroid hormone: past and present. J Endocrinol 187:311–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Prader A, Illig R, Heierli E (1961) An unusual form of primary vitamin D-resistant rickets with hypocalcemia and autosomal-dominant hereditary transmission: hereditary pseudo-deficiency rickets. Helv Paediatr Acta 16:452–468Google Scholar
  411. Praga M, Vara J, Gonzalez-Parra E, Andres A, Alamo C, Araque A, Ortiz A, Rodicio JL (1995) Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Kidney Int 47:1419–1425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Prince RL, Dick I, Devine A, Price RI, Gutteridge DH, Kerr D, Criddle A, Garcia-Webb P, St John A (1995) The effects of menopause and age on calcitropic hormones: a cross-sectional study of 655 healthy women aged 35 to 90. J Bone Miner Res 10:835–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Prod'hom B, Pietrobon D, Hess P (1989) Interactions of protons with single open L-type calcium channels. Location of protonation site and dependence of proton-induced current fluctuations on concentration and species of permeant ion. J Gen Physiol 94:23–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Pronicka E, Gruszczynska B (1991) Familial hypomagnesaemia with secondary hypocalcaemia—autosomal or X-linked inheritance? J Inherit Metab Dis 14:397–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Pu HX, Scanzano R, Blostein R (2002) Distinct regulatory effects of the Na,K-ATPase gamma subunit. J Biol Chem 277:20270–20276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Puliyanda DP, Ward DT, Baum MA, Hammond TG, Harris HW Jr (2003) Calpain-mediated AQP2 proteolysis in inner medullary collecting duct. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303:52–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Quamme GA (1997) Renal magnesium handling: new insights in understanding old problems. Kidney Int 52:1180–1195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Quamme GA, de Rouffignac C (2000) Epithelial magnesium transport and regulation by the kidney. Front Biosci 5:D694–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Quamme GA, Dirks JH (1980) Intraluminal and contraluminal magnesium on magnesium and calcium transfer in the rat nephron. Am J Physiol 238:F187–F198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Quednau BD, Nicoll DA, Philipson KD (1997) Tissue specificity and alternative splicing of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoforms NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 in rat. Am J Physiol 272:C1250–C1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Raber G, Willems PH, Lang F, Nitschke R, van Os CH, Bindels RJ (1997) Coordinated control of apical calcium influx and basolateral calcium efflux in rabbit cortical collecting system. Cell Calcium 22:157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Ray WA, Griffin MR, Downey W, Melton LJ 3rd (1989) Long-term use of thiazide diuretics and risk of hip fracture. Lancet 1:687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Razzaque MS, Sitara D, Taguchi T, St-Arnaud R, Lanske B (2006) Premature aging-like phenotype in fibroblast growth factor 23 null mice is a vitamin D-mediated process. FASEB J 20:720–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Reilly RF, Ellison DH (2000) Mammalian distal tubule: physiology, pathophysiology, and molecular anatomy. Physiol Rev 80:277–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Reilly RF, Shugrue CA (1992) cDNA cloning of a renal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger. Am J Physiol 262:F1105–F1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Renigunta V, Yuan H, Zuzarte M, Rinne S, Koch A, Wischmeyer E, Schlichthorl G, Gao Y, Karschin A, Jacob R, Schwappach B, Daut J, Preisig-Muller R (2006) The retention factor p11 confers an endoplasmic reticulum-localization signal to the potassium channel TASK-1. Traffic 7:168–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Renkema KY, Nijenhuis T, van der Eerden BC, van der Kemp AW, Weinans H, van Leeuwen JP, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2005) Hypervitaminosis D mediates compensatory Ca2+ hyperabsorption in TRPV5 knockout mice. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:3188–3195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Reuter H, Henderson SA, Han T, Ross RS, Goldhaber JI, Philipson KD (2002) The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides. Circ Res 90:305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Richard O, Freycon MT (1992) Congenital tubulopathy with magnesium loss. Pediatrie 47:557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Dai LJ, Kang HS, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA (2001) 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates Mg2+ uptake into MDCT cells: modulation by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 280:F868–F878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Robben JH, Sze M, Knoers NV, Deen PM (2006) Rescue of vasopressin V2 receptor mutants by chemical chaperones: specificity and mechanism. Mol Biol Cell 17:379–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Rocha AS, Kokko JP (1973) Membrane characteristics regulating potassium transport out of the isolated perfused descending limb of Henle. Kidney Int 4:326–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Rocha AS, Magaldi JB, Kokko JP (1977) Calcium and phosphate transport in isolated segments of rabbit Henle's loop. J Clin Invest 59:975–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Rodan GA (1992) Introduction to bone biology. Bone 13(Suppl 1):S3–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Rodan GA, Martin TJ (2000) Therapeutic approaches to bone diseases. Science 289:1508–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Rohacs T, Lopes CM, Michailidis I, Logothetis DE (2005) PI(4,5)P2 regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPM8 channels through the TRP domain. Nat Neurosci 8:626–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Romani AM, Maguire ME (2002) Hormonal regulation of Mg2+ transport and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Biometals 15:271–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Rude RK, Gruber HE (2004) Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations. J Nutr Biochem 15:710–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Rude RK, Oldham SB, Singer FR (1976) Functional hypoparathyroidism and parathyroid hormone end-organ resistance in human magnesium deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 5:209–224Google Scholar
  440. Rude RK, Oldham SB, Sharp CF Jr, Singer FR (1978) Parathyroid hormone secretion in magnesium deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47:800–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. Rude RK, Gruber HE, Norton HJ, Wei LY, Frausto A, Kilburn J (2006) Reduction of dietary magnesium by only 50% in the rat disrupts bone and mineral metabolism. Osteoporos Int 17:1022–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. Runnels LW, Yue L, Clapham DE (2001) TRP-PLIK, a bifunctional protein with kinase and ion channel activities. Science 291:1043–1047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Runnels LW, Yue L, Clapham DE (2002) The TRPM7 channel is inactivated by PIP2 hydrolysis. Nat Cell Biol 4:329–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Ryazanova LV, Dorovkov MV, Ansari A, Ryazanov AG (2004) Characterization of the protein kinase activity of TRPM7/ChaK1, a protein kinase fused to the transient receptor potential ion channel. J Biol Chem 279:3708–3716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Saitou M, Ando-Akatsuka Y, Itoh M, Furuse M, Inazawa J, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (1997) Mammalian occludin in epithelial cells: its expression and subcellular distribution. Eur J Cell Biol 73:222–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Saitou M, Fujimoto K, Doi Y, Itoh M, Fujimoto T, Furuse M, Takano H, Noda T, Tsukita S (1998) Occludin-deficient embryonic stem cells can differentiate into polarized epithelial cells bearing tight junctions. J Cell Biol 141:397–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Sakai K, Hirai M, Minoshima S, Kudoh J, Fukuyama R, Shimizu N (1989) Isolation of cDNAs encoding a substrate for protein kinase C: nucleotide sequence and chromosomal mapping of the gene for a human 80 K protein. Genomics 5:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Sands JM, Naruse M, Baum M, Jo I, Hebert SC, Brown EM, Harris HW (1997) Apical extracellular calcium/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor regulates vasopressin-elicited water permeability in rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct. J Clin Invest 99:1399–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Sato S, Ward CL, Krouse ME, Wine JJ, Kopito RR (1996) Glycerol reverses the misfolding phenotype of the most common cystic fibrosis mutation. J Biol Chem 271:635–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Schenker T, Trueb B (2000) BSPRY, a novel protein of the Ro-Ret family. Biochim Biophys Acta 1493:255–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Schlingmann KP, Weber S, Peters M, Niemann Nejsum L, Vitzthum H, Klingel K, Kratz M, Haddad E, Ristoff E, Dinour D, Syrrou M, Nielsen S, Sassen M, Waldegger S, Seyberth HW, Konrad M (2002) Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia is caused by mutations in TRPM6, a new member of the TRPM gene family. Nat Genet 31:166–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Schlingmann KP, Sassen MC, Weber S, Pechmann U, Kusch K, Pelken L, Lotan D, Syrrou M, Prebble JJ, Cole DE, Metzger DL, Rahman S, Tajima T, Shu SG, Waldegger S, Seyberth HW, Konrad M (2005) Novel TRPM6 mutations in 21 families with primary hypomagnesemia and secondary hypocalcemia. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:3061–3069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Schlumbohm C, Harmeyer J (2004) Dietary additions of lactose, casein and soy protein exerted only moderate effects on calcium homeostasis in calcitriol deficient piglets. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90:605–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Schmitz C, Perraud AL, Johnson CO, Inabe K, Smith MK, Penner R, Kurosaki T, Fleig A, Scharenberg AM (2003) Regulation of vertebrate cellular Mg2+ homeostasis by TRPM7. Cell 114:191–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Schmitz C, Dorovkov MV, Zhao X, Davenport BJ, Ryazanov AG, Perraud AL (2005) The channel kinases TRPM6 and TRPM7 are functionally nonredundant. J Biol Chem 280:37763–37771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Schneeberger EE, Lynch RD (2004) The tight junction: a multifunctional complex. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286:C1213–C1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Schuh K, Cartwright EJ, Jankevics E, Bundschu K, Liebermann J, Williams JC, Armesilla AL, Emerson M, Oceandy D, Knobeloch KP, Neyses L (2004) Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 4 is required for sperm motility and male fertility. J Biol Chem 279:28220–28226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Schultheis PJ, Lorenz JN, Meneton P, Nieman ML, Riddle TM, Flagella M, Duffy JJ, Doetschman T, Miller ML, Shull GE (1998) Phenotype resembling Gitelman's syndrome in mice lacking the apical Na+-Cl− cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule. J Biol Chem 273:29150–29155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Schulze DH, Polumuri SK, Gille T, Ruknudin A (2002) Functional regulation of alternatively spliced Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) isoforms. Ann NY Acad Sci 976:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Schweigel M, Martens H (2000) Magnesium transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Front Biosci 5:D666–D677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Schweigel M, Park HS, Etschmann B, Martens H (2006) Characterization of the Na+-dependent Mg2+ transport in sheep ruminal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G56–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Scott K, Sun Y, Beckingham K, Zuker CS (1997) Calmodulin regulation of Drosophila light-activated channels and receptor function mediates termination of the light response in vivo. Cell 91:375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Scott RO, Thelin WR, Milgram SL (2002) A novel PDZ protein regulates the activity of guanylyl cyclase C, the heat-stable enterotoxin receptor. J Biol Chem 277:22934–22941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Seitz H, Jaworski ZF (1964) Effect of hydrochlorothiazide on serum and urinary calcium and urinary citrate. Can Med Assoc J 90:414–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Servais L, Bearzatto B, Schwaller B, Dumont M, De Saedeleer C, Dan B, Barski JJ, Schiffmann SN, Cheron G (2005) Mono- and dual-frequency fast cerebellar oscillation in mice lacking parvalbumin and/or calbindin D28K. Eur J Neurosci 22:861–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Shahsavarani A, McNeill B, Galvez F, Wood CM, Goss GG, Hwang PP, Perry SF (2006) Characterization of a branchial epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Exp Biol 209:1928–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Shapiro RJ, Yong CK, Quamme GA (1987) Influence of chronic dietary acid on renal tubular handling of magnesium. Pflugers Arch 409:492–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Shareghi GR, Agus ZS (1982) Magnesium transport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of the rabbit. J Clin Invest 69:759–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Shenolikar S, Voltz JW, Minkoff CM, Wade JB, Weinman EJ (2002) Targeted disruption of the mouse NHERF-1 gene promotes internalization of proximal tubule sodium-phosphate cotransporter type IIa and renal phosphate wasting. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:11470–11475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Shi J, Mori E, Mori Y, Mori M, Li J, Ito Y, Inoue R (2004) Multiple regulation by calcium of murine homologues of transient receptor potential proteins TRPC6 and TRPC7 expressed in HEK293 cells. J Physiol 561:415–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. Simon DB, Nelson-Williams C, Bia MJ, Ellison D, Karet FE, Molina AM, Vaara I, Iwata F, Cushner HM, Koolen M, Gainza FJ, Gitleman HJ, Lifton RP (1996) Gitelman's variant of Bartter's syndrome, inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. Nat Genet 12:24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Simon DB, Lu Y, Choate KA, Velazquez H, Al-Sabban E, Praga M, Casari G, Bettinelli A, Colussi G, Rodriguez-Soriano J, McCredie D, Milford D, Sanjad S, Lifton RP (1999) Paracellin-1, a renal tight junction protein required for paracellular Mg2+ resorption. Science 285:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Singh BB, Liu X, Tang J, Zhu MX, Ambudkar IS (2002) Calmodulin regulates Ca2+-dependent feedback inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ influx by interaction with a site in the C terminus of TrpC1. Mol Cell 9:739–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Skyberg D, Stromme JH, Nesbakken R, Harnaes K (1967) Congenital primary hypomagnesemia, an inborn error of metabolism? Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 177:26–27Google Scholar
  475. Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, Takahashi H, Cohen RM, Specker B, Williams TC, Lubahn DB, Korach KS (1994) Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man. N Engl J Med 331:1056–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Smythe E (2002) Direct interactions between rab GTPases and cargo. Mol Cell 9:205–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Soleimani M (2002) Na+:HCO3− cotransporters (NBC): expression and regulation in the kidney. J Nephrol 15(Suppl 5):S32–S40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Soleimani M, Aronson PS (1989) Effects of acetazolamide on Na+-HCO3− cotransport in basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit renal cortex. J Clin Invest 83:945–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Songyang Z, Fanning AS, Fu C, Xu J, Marfatia SM, Chishti AH, Crompton A, Chan AC, Anderson JM, Cantley LC (1997) Recognition of unique carboxyl-terminal motifs by distinct PDZ domains. Science 275:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Sooy K, Schermerhorn T, Noda M, Surana M, Rhoten WB, Meyer M, Fleischer N, Sharp GW, Christakos S (1999) Calbindin-D28 k controls [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Evidence obtained from calbindin-D28k knockout mice and beta cell lines. J Biol Chem 274:34343–34349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. Sooy K, Kohut J, Christakos S (2000) The role of calbindin and 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the kidney. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 9:341–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Stauffer TP, Hilfiker H, Carafoli E, Strehler EE (1993) Quantitative analysis of alternative splicing options of human plasma membrane calcium pump genes. J Biol Chem 268:25993–26003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Straub M, Hautmann RE (2005) Developments in stone prevention. Curr Opin Urol 15:119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Street VA, McKee-Johnson JW, Fonseca RC, Tempel BL, Noben-Trauth K (1998) Mutations in a plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase gene cause deafness in deafwaddler mice. Nat Genet 19:390–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. Strehler EE, Zacharias DA (2001) Role of alternative splicing in generating isoform diversity among plasma membrane calcium pumps. Physiol Rev 81:21–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. Strewler GJ (2000) The physiology of parathyroid hormone-related protein. N Engl J Med 342:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Stromme JH, Nesbakken R, Normann T, Skjorten F, Skyberg D, Johannessen B (1969) Familial hypomagnesemia. Biochemical, histological and hereditary aspects studied in two brothers. Acta Paediatr Scand 58:433–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. Suki WN (1979) Calcium transport in the nephron. Am J Physiol 237:F1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. Suki WN, Rouse D (1981) Hormonal regulation of calcium transport in thick ascending limb renal tubules. Am J Physiol 241:F171–F174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Suki WN, Rouse D, Ng RC, Kokko JP (1980) Calcium transport in the thick ascending limb of Henle. Heterogeneity of function in the medullary and cortical segments. J Clin Invest 66:1004–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Sun F, Hug MJ, Lewarchik CM, Yun CH, Bradbury NA, Frizzell RA (2000) E3KARP mediates the association of ezrin and protein kinase A with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in airway cells. J Biol Chem 275:29539–29546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. Sutton RA, Dirks JH (1975) The renal excretion of calcium: a review of micropuncture data. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 53:979–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. Sutton RA, Domrongkitchaiporn S (1993) Abnormal renal magnesium handling. Miner Electrolyte Metab 19:232–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. Sutton RA, Walker VR (1980) Responses to hydrochlorothiazide and acetazolamide in patients with calcium stones. Evidence suggesting a defect in renal tubular function. N Engl J Med 302:709–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Sutton RA, Wong NL, Dirks JH (1979) Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney. Kidney Int 15:520–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Svenningsson P, Chergui K, Rachleff I, Flajolet M, Zhang X, El Yacoubi M, Vaugeois JM, Nomikos GG, Greengard P (2006) Alterations in 5-HT1B receptor function by p11 in depression-like states. Science 311:77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Takahashi K, Kitamura K (1999) A point mutation in a plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase gene causes deafness in Wriggle Mouse Sagami. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261:773–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Takeyama K, Kitanaka S, Sato T, Kobori M, Yanagisawa J, Kato S (1997) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D synthesis. Science 277:1827–1830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. Takezawa R, Schmitz C, Demeuse P, Scharenberg AM, Penner R, Fleig A (2004) Receptor-mediated regulation of the TRPM7 channel through its endogenous protein kinase domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:6009–6014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Tamarappoo BK, Yang B, Verkman AS (1999) Misfolding of mutant aquaporin-2 water channels in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Biol Chem 274:34825–34831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Tan CM, Nickols HH, Limbird LE (2003) Appropriate polarization following pharmacological rescue of V2 vasopressin receptors encoded by X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus alleles involves a conformation of the receptor that also attains mature glycosylation. J Biol Chem 278:35678–35686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. Tang J, Lin Y, Zhang Z, Tikunova S, Birnbaumer L, Zhu MX (2001) Identification of common binding sites for calmodulin and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors on the carboxyl termini of trp channels. J Biol Chem 276:21303–21310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. Tang VW, Goodenough DA (2003) Paracellular ion channel at the tight junction. Biophys J 84:1660–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Tang Y, Tang J, Chen Z, Trost C, Flockerzi V, Li M, Ramesh V, Zhu MX (2000) Association of mammalian trp4 and phospholipase C isozymes with a PDZ domain-containing protein, NHERF. J Biol Chem 275:37559–37564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Teitelbaum SL (2000) Bone resorption by osteoclasts. Science 289:1504–1508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Ten Bolscher M, Netelenbos JC, Barto R, Van Buuren LM, Van der vijgh WJ (1999) Estrogen regulation of intestinal calcium absorption in the intact and ovariectomized adult rat. J Bone Miner Res 14:1197–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Tohyama O, Imura A, Iwano A, Freund JN, Henrissat B, Fujimori T, Nabeshima Y (2004) Klotho is a novel beta-glucuronidase capable of hydrolyzing steroid beta-glucuronides. J Biol Chem 279:9777–9784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. Torralbo A, Pina E, Portoles J, Sanchez-Fructuoso A, Barrientos A (1995) Renal magnesium wasting with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and ocular disorders. Nephron 69:472–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Trombetta ES, Simons JF, Helenius A (1996) Endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II is composed of a catalytic subunit, conserved from yeast to mammals, and a tightly bound noncatalytic HDEL-containing subunit. J Biol Chem 271:27509–27516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Trombetta ES, Fleming KG, Helenius A (2001) Quaternary and domain structure of glycoprotein processing glucosidase II. Biochemistry 40:10717–10722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Trost C, Bergs C, Himmerkus N, Flockerzi V (2001) The transient receptor potential, TRP4, cation channel is a novel member of the family of calmodulin binding proteins. Biochem J 355:663–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Tsujikawa H, Kurotaki Y, Fujimori T, Fukuda K, Nabeshima Y (2003) Klotho, a gene related to a syndrome resembling human premature aging, functions in a negative regulatory circuit of vitamin D endocrine system. Mol Endocrinol 17:2393–2403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Tsukamoto Y, Saka S, Saitoh M (1992) Parathyroid hormone stimulates ATP-dependent calcium pump activity by a different mode in proximal and distal tubules of the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 1103:163–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Tsukita S, Furuse M (2000) Pores in the wall: claudins constitute tight junction strands containing aqueous pores. J Cell Biol 149:13–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP (1999) Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:727–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Ulloa-Aguirre A, Janovick JA, Brothers SP, Conn PM (2004) Pharmacologic rescue of conformationally-defective proteins: implications for the treatment of human disease. Traffic 5:821–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Ullrich KJ, Schmidt-Nielson B, O'Dell R, Pehling G, Gottschalk CW, Lassiter WE, Mylle M (1963) Micropuncture study of composition of proximal and distal tubular fluid in rat kidney. Am J Physiol 204:527–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Vainsel M, Vandevelde G, Smulders J, Vosters M, Hubain P, Loeb H (1970) Tetany due to hypomagnesaemia with secondary hypocalcaemia. Arch Dis Child 45:254–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Van Abel M, Hoenderop JG, Dardenne O, St Arnaud R, Van Os CH, Van Leeuwen HJ, Bindels RJ (2002) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-independent stimulatory effect of estrogen on the expression of ECaC1 in the kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:2102–2109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Van Abel M, Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, van Leeuwen JP, Bindels RJ (2003) Regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channels in small intestine as studied by quantitative mRNA detection. Am J Physiol 285:G78–85Google Scholar
  521. Van Abel M, Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Friedlaender MM, van Leeuwen JP, Bindels RJ (2005) Coordinated control of renal Ca2+ transport proteins by parathyroid hormone. Kidney Int 68:1708–1721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Van Abel M, Huybers S, Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, van Leeuwen JP, Bindels RJ (2006) Age-dependent alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis: role of TRPV5 and TRPV6. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291:F1177–F1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Van Baal J, Raber G, de Slegte J, Pieters R, Bindels RJ, Willems PH (1996a) Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ reabsorption in rabbit cortical collecting system: effects on cAMP and cytosolic Ca2+. Pflugers Arch 433:109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Van Baal J, Yu A, Hartog A, Fransen JA, Willems PH, Lytton J, Bindels RJ (1996b) Localization and regulation by vitamin D of calcium transport proteins in rabbit cortical collecting system. Am J Physiol 271:F985–F993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. Van Baal J, Hoenderop JG, Groenendijk M, van Os CH, Bindels RJ, Willems PH (1999) Hormone-stimulated Ca2+ transport in rabbit kidney: multiple sites of inhibition by exogenous ATP. Am J Physiol 277:F899–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Van Cromphaut SJ, Dewerchin M, Hoenderop JG, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Kato S, Bindels RJ, Collen D, Carmeliet P, Bouillon R, Carmeliet G (2001) Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:13324–13329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Van Cromphaut SJ, Rummens K, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Dijcks FA, Ederveen AG, Carmeliet P, Verhaeghe J, Bouillon R, Carmeliet G (2003) Intestinal calcium transporter genes are upregulated by estrogens and the reproductive cycle through vitamin D receptor-independent mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res 18:1725–1736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. Van de Graaf SF, Hoenderop JG, Gkika D, Lamers D, Prenen J, Rescher U, Gerke V, Staub O, Nilius B, Bindels RJ (2003) Functional expression of the epithelial Ca2+ channels (TRPV5 and TRPV6) requires association of the S100A10-annexin 2 complex. EMBO J 22:1478–1487Google Scholar
  529. Van de Graaf SF, Bouillart I, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2004) Regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary Ca2+. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90:303–308Google Scholar
  530. Van de Graaf SF, Chang Q, Mensenkamp AR, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006a) Direct interaction with Rab11a targets the epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 towards the plasma membrane. Mol Cell Biol 26:303–312Google Scholar
  531. Van de Graaf SF, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006b) Regulation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 by associated proteins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F1295–F1302Google Scholar
  532. Van de Graaf SF, Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Gisler SM, Bindels RJ (2006c) Interaction of the epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 with the intestine- and kidney-enriched PDZ protein NHERF4. Pflugers Arch 452:407–417Google Scholar
  533. Van de Graaf SF, van der Kemp AW, van den Berg D, van Oorschot M, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ (2006d) Identification of BSPRY as a novel auxiliary protein inhibiting TRPV5 activity. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:26–30Google Scholar
  534. Van der Eerden BC, Hoenderop JG, de Vries TJ, Schoenmaker T, Buurman CJ, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Bindels RJ, van Leeuwen JP (2005) The epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV5 is essential for proper osteoclastic bone resorption. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:17507–17512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. van IJzendoorn SC, Tuvim MJ, Weimbs T, Dickey BF, Mostov KE (2002) Direct interaction between Rab3b and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor controls ligand-stimulated transcytosis in epithelial cells. Dev Cell 2:219–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. Van Itallie C, Rahner C, Anderson JM (2001) Regulated expression of claudin-4 decreases paracellular conductance through a selective decrease in sodium permeability. J Clin Invest 107:1319–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Van Itallie CM, Fanning AS, Anderson JM (2003) Reversal of charge selectivity in cation or anion-selective epithelial lines by expression of different claudins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285:F1078–F1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. Vasioukhin V, Bauer C, Yin M, Fuchs E (2000) Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell-cell adhesion. Cell 100:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Vassilev PM, Peng JB, Hediger MA, Brown EM (2001) Single-channel activities of the human epithelial Ca2+ transport proteins CaT1 and CaT2. J Membr Biol 184:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. Vennekens R, Hoenderop JG, Prenen J, Stuiver M, Willems PH, Droogmans G, Nilius B, Bindels RJ (2000) Permeation and gating properties of the novel epithelial Ca2+ channel. J Biol Chem 275:3963–3969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. Vennekens R, Droogmans G, Nilius B (2001a) Functional properties of the epithelial Ca2+ channel, ECaC. Gen Physiol Biophys 20:239–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Vennekens R, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, Droogmans G, Nilius B (2001b) Modulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC by extracellular pH. Pflugers Arch 442:237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Vidal A, Sun Y, Bhattacharya SK, Ahokas RA, Gerling IC, Weber KT (2006) Calcium paradox of aldosteronism and the role of the parathyroid glands. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290:H286–H294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Voets T, Janssens A, Prenen J, Droogmans D, Nilius G (2003) Mg2+-dependent gating and strong inward rectification of the cation channel TRPV6. J Gen Physiol 121:245–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Voets T, Janssens A, Droogmans G, Nilius B (2004a) Outer pore architecture of a Ca2+-selective TRP channel. J Biol Chem 279:15223–15230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Voets T, Nilius B, van der Kemp AW, Droogmans G, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG (2004b) TRPM6 forms the Mg2+ influx channel involved in intestinal and renal Mg2+ absorption. J Biol Chem 279:19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Wabakken T, Rian E, Kveine M, Aasheim HC (2003) The human solute carrier SLC41A1 belongs to a novel eukaryotic subfamily with homology to prokaryotic MgtE Mg2+ transporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 306:718–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Walder RY, Shalev H, Brennan TM, Carmi R, Elbedour K, Scott DA, Hanauer A, Mark AL, Patil S, Stone EM, Sheffield VC (1997) Familial hypomagnesemia maps to chromosome 9q, not to the X chromosome: genetic linkage mapping and analysis of a balanced translocation breakpoint. Hum Mol Genet 6:1491–1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Walder RY, Landau D, Meyer P, Shalev H, Tsolia M, Borochowitz Z, Boettger MB, Beck GE, Englehardt RK, Carmi R, Sheffield VC (2002) Mutation of TRPM6 causes familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Nat Genet 31:171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. Wallemacq PE, Reding R (1993) FK506 (tacrolimus), a novel immunosuppressant in organ transplantation: clinical, biomedical, and analytical aspects. Clin Chem 39:2219–2228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. Walters JR, Balesaria S, Chavele KM, Taylor V, Berry JL, Khair U, Barley NF, van Heel DA, Field J, Hayat JO, Bhattacharjee A, Jeffery R, Poulsom R (2006) Calcium channel TRPV6 expression in human duodenum: different relationships to the vitamin D system and aging in men and women. J Bone Miner Res Jul 25 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  552. Wang CL (1985) A note on Ca2+ binding to calmodulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 130:426–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Wang CY, Shi JD, Yang P, Kumar PG, Li QZ, Run QG, Su YC, Scott HS, Kao KJ, She JX (2003) Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene family of four ancient conserved domain proteins (ACDP). Gene 306:37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. Wang CY, Yang P, Shi JD, Purohit S, Guo D, An H, Gu JG, Ling J, Dong Z, She JX (2004a) Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse Acdp gene family. BMC Genomics 5:7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Wang X, Kumar R, Navarre J, Casanova JE, Goldenring JR (2000) Regulation of vesicle trafficking in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by Rab11a and Rab25. J Biol Chem 275:29138–29146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Wang Y, Zhang J, Yi XJ, Yu FS (2004b) Activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway induces tight junction disruption in human corneal epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 78:125–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  557. Wasserman RH, Fullmer CS (1995) Vitamin D and intestinal calcium transport: facts, speculations and hypotheses. J Nutr 125:1971S–1979SGoogle Scholar
  558. Weber K, Erben RG, Rump A, Adamski J (2001a) Gene structure and regulation of the murine epithelial calcium channels ECaC1 and 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289:1287–1294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Weber S, Hoffmann K, Jeck N, Saar K, Boeswald M, Kuwertz-Broeking E, Meij II, Knoers NV, Cochat P, Sulakova T, Bonzel KE, Soergel M, Manz F, Schaerer K, Seyberth HW, Reis A, Konrad M (2000) Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in the PCLN-1 gene. Eur J Hum Genet 8:414–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. Weber S, Schneider L, Peters M, Misselwitz J, Ronnefarth G, Boswald M, Bonzel KE, Seeman T, Sulakova T, Kuwertz-Broking E, Gregoric A, Palcoux JB, Tasic V, Manz F, Scharer K, Seyberth HW, Konrad M (2001b) Novel paracellin-1 mutations in 25 families with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. J Am Soc Nephrol 12:1872–1881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Weinman EJ, Steplock D, Wang Y, Shenolikar S (1995) Characterization of a protein cofactor that mediates protein kinase A regulation of the renal brush border membrane Na+-H+ exchanger. J Clin Invest 95:2143–2149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Weinman EJ, Hall RA, Friedman PA, Liu-Chen LY, Shenolikar S (2006a) The association of NHERF adaptor proteins with g protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Annu Rev Physiol 68:491–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Weinman EJ, Mohanlal V, Stoycheff N, Wang F, Steplock D, Shenolikar S, Cunningham R (2006b) Longitudinal study of urinary excretion of phosphate, calcium, and uric acid in mutant NHERF-1 null mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F838–F843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. White KE, Gesek FA, Reilly RF, Friedman PA (1998) NCX1 Na/Ca exchanger inhibition by antisense oligonucleotides in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Kidney Int 54:897–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  565. Wilcox ER, Burton QL, Naz S, Riazuddin S, Smith TN, Ploplis B, Belyantseva I, Ben-Yosef T, Liburd NA, Morell RJ, Kachar B, Wu DK, Griffith AJ, Friedman TB (2001) Mutations in the gene encoding tight junction claudin-14 cause autosomal recessive deafness DFNB29. Cell 104:165–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  566. Wilson FH, Disse-Nicodeme S, Choate KA, Ishikawa K, Nelson-Williams C, Desitter I, Gunel M, Milford DV, Lipkin GW, Achard JM, Feely MP, Dussol B, Berland Y, Unwin RJ, Mayan H, Simon DB, Farfel Z, Jeunemaitre X, Lifton RP (2001) Human hypertension caused by mutations in WNK kinases. Science 293:1107–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. Wilson FH, Hariri A, Farhi A, Zhao H, Petersen KF, Toka HR, Nelson-Williams C, Raja KM, Kashgarian M, Shulman GI, Scheinman SJ, Lifton RP (2004) A cluster of metabolic defects caused by mutation in a mitochondrial tRNA. Science 306:1190–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. Wilson IM, Freis ED (1959) Relationship between plasma and extracellular fluid volume depletion and the antihypertensive effect of chlorothiazide. Circulation 20:1028–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Wissenbach U, Niemeyer BA, Fixemer T, Schneidewind A, Trost C, Cavalie A, Reus K, Meese E, Bonkhoff H, Flockerzi V (2001) Expression of CaT-like, a novel calcium-selective channel, correlates with the malignancy of prostate cancer. J Biol Chem 276:19461–19468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. Wittner M, Di Stefano A, Mandon B, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C (1991) Stimulation of NaCl reabsorption by antidiuretic hormone in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of the mouse. Pflugers Arch 419:212–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  571. Wittner M, Mandon B, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C, Di Stefano A (1993) Hormonal stimulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of the mouse: evidence for a change in the paracellular pathway permeability. Pflugers Arch 423:387–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Wolf FI, Torsello A, Fasanella S, Cittadini A (2003) Cell physiology of magnesium. Mol Aspects Med 24:11–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. Wong NL, Quamme GA, Dirks JH (1986) Effects of acid-base disturbances on renal handling of magnesium in the dog. Clin Sci (Lond) 70:277–284Google Scholar
  574. Wong V, Goodenough DA (1999) Paracellular channels! Science 285:62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Wood RJ, Tchack L, Taparia S (2001) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 increases the expression of the CaT1 epithelial calcium channel in the Caco-2 human intestinal cell line. BMC Physiol 1:11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Woodhull AM (1973) Ionic blockage of sodium channels in nerve. J Gen Physiol 61:687–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  577. Xue Y, Karaplis AC, Hendy GN, Goltzman D, Miao D (2006) Exogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exerts a skeletal anabolic effect and improves mineral ion homeostasis in mice which are homozygous for both the 1alpha-hydroxylase and parathyroid hormone null alleles. Endocrinology 147:4801–4810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. Yaffe MB, Rittinger K, Volinia S, Caron PR, Aitken A, Leffers H, Gamblin SJ, Smerdon SJ, Cantley LC (1997) The structural basis for 14-3-3:phosphopeptide binding specificity. Cell 91:961–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. Yamauchi K, Rai T, Kobayashi K, Sohara E, Suzuki T, Itoh T, Suda S, Hayama A, Sasaki S, Uchida S (2004) Disease-causing mutant WNK4 increases paracellular chloride permeability and phosphorylates claudins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:4690–4694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. Yang T, Hassan S, Huang YG, Smart AM, Briggs JP, Schnermann JB (1997) Expression of PTHrP, PTH/PTHrP receptor, and Ca2+-sensing receptor mRNAs along the rat nephron. Am J Physiol 272:F751–F758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. Yang W, Lee HW, Hellinga H, Yang JJ (2002) Structural analysis, identification, and design of calcium-binding sites in proteins. Proteins 47:344–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Yeh BI, Sun TJ, Lee JZ, Chen HH, Huang CL (2003) Mechanism and molecular determinant for regulation of rabbit transient receptor potential type 5 (TRPV5) channel by extracellular pH. J Biol Chem 278:51044–51052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  583. Yeh BI, Kim YK, Jabbar W, Huang CL (2005) Conformational changes of pore helix coupled to gating of TRPV5 by protons. EMBO J 24:3224–3234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Yildirim E, Dietrich A, Birnbaumer L (2003) The mouse C-type transient receptor potential 2 (TRPC2) channel: alternative splicing and calmodulin binding to its N terminus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:2220–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  585. Yoshida T, Fujimori T, Nabeshima Y (2002) Mediation of unusually high concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in homozygous klotho mutant mice by increased expression of renal 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. Endocrinology 143:683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  586. Yoshizawa T, Handa Y, Uematsu Y, Takeda S, Sekine K, Yoshihara Y, Kawakami T, Arioka K, Sato H, Uchiyama Y, Masushige S, Fukamizu A, Matsumoto T, Kato S (1997) Mice lacking the vitamin D receptor exhibit impaired bone formation, uterine hypoplasia and growth retardation after weaning. Nat Genet 16:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  587. Young MM, Nordin BE (1967) Calcium metabolism and the menopause. Proc R Soc Med 60:1137–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. Young MM, Jasani C, Smith DA, Nordin BE (1968) Some effects of ethinyl oestradiol on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in osteoporosis. Clin Sci 34:411–417Google Scholar
  589. Yue L, Peng JB, Hediger MA, Clapham DE (2001) CaT1 manifests the pore properties of the calcium-release-activated calcium channel. Nature 410:705–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. Yun CC, Palmada M, Embark HM, Fedorenko O, Feng Y, Henke G, Setiawan I, Boehmer C, Weinman EJ, Sandrasagra S, Korbmacher C, Cohen P, Pearce D, Lang F (2002) The serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1 and the Na+/H+ exchange regulating factor NHERF2 synergize to stimulate the renal outer medullary K+ channel ROMK1. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:2823–2830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. Yun CH, Oh S, Zizak M, Steplock D, Tsao S, Tse CM, Weinman EJ, Donowitz M (1997) cAMP-mediated inhibition of the epithelial brush border Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE3, requires an associated regulatory protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:3010–3015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  592. Zerial M, McBride H (2001) Rab proteins as membrane organizers. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:107–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. Zhang Z, Tang J, Tikunova S, Johnson JD, Chen Z, Qin N, Dietrich A, Stefani E, Birnbaumer L, Zhu MX (2001) Activation of Trp3 by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors through displacement of inhibitory calmodulin from a common binding domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:3168–3173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. Zheng W, Xie Y, Li G, Kong J, Feng JQ, Li YC (2004) Critical role of calbindin-D28k in calcium homeostasis revealed by mice lacking both vitamin D receptor and calbindin-D28k. J Biol Chem 279:52406–52413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  595. Zhuang L, Peng JB, Tou L, Takanaga H, Adam RM, Hediger MA, Freeman MR (2002) Calcium-selective ion channel, CaT1, is apically localized in gastrointestinal tract epithelia and is aberrantly expressed in human malignancies. Lab Invest 82:1755–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Zizak M, Lamprecht G, Steplock D, Tariq N, Shenolikar S, Donowitz M, Yun CH, Weinman EJ (1999) cAMP-induced phosphorylation and inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) are dependent on the presence but not the phosphorylation of NHE regulatory factor. J Biol Chem 274:24753–24758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  597. Zolotnitskaya A, Satlin LM (1999) Developmental expression of ROMK in rat kidney. Am J Physiol 276:F825–F836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. Zsurka G, Gregan J, Schweyen RJ (2001) The human mitochondrial Mrs2 protein functionally substitutes for its yeast homologue, a candidate magnesium transporter. Genomics 72:158–168PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. F. J. van de Graaf
    • 1
  • R. J. M. Bindels
    • 1
  • J. G. J. Hoenderop
    • 1
  1. 1.286 Cell PhysiologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations