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Dissecting Paracrine Effectors for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Stefania Bruno
  • Federica Collino
  • Ciro Tetta
  • Giovanni Camussi
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 129)

Abstract

There has been increasing interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine in recent years. In this context, the beneficial effects of MSCs have been ascribed mainly to a paracrine action rather than to direct replacement of the injured tissue. Indeed, MSCs produce a great variety of trophic and immunomodulatory factors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of growth factors and chemokines involved in stimulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhancement of angiogenesis, and suppression of inflammatory and immune response. In addition, we discuss the emerging role of the extracellular vesicles released from MSCs as possible paracrine mediators.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Acute injury Bioactive factors Chemokines Conditioned medium Growth factors Microvesicles 

Abbreviations

AKI

Acute kidney injury

Akt-MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing the Akt gene

ALI

Acute lung injury

Ang-1

Angiopoietin-1

bFGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

CM

Conditioned medium

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

IDO

Indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

IL-6

Interleukin-6

KGF

Keratinocyte growth factor

mRNA

Messenger RNA

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cell

MV

Microvesicle

NK

Natural killer

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

siRNA

Small interfering RNA

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor β

Treg

Regulatory T cells

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefania Bruno
    • 1
  • Federica Collino
    • 1
  • Ciro Tetta
    • 2
  • Giovanni Camussi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Biotechnology CenterUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
  2. 2.Fresenius Medical CareBad HomburgGermany

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