Disposable Bioreactors pp 55-87

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering / Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 115)

Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications


Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.


Animal cells Biological insecticides Biotransformation Immunomodulator Plant cells Seed inoculum Wave-mixed bag bioreactor 



surface area of the fluid;


hydraulic cross-section of culture bag;


adeno-associated virus;


baculovirus expression vector;


baby hamster kidney;


width of culture bag;


cultivar Bright Yellow-2 from the tobacco plant;


correction factor considering influence of bag type, rocking angle, rocking rate and culture volume on volumetric flow rate;


correction factor depending on bag type and describing the correlation of BioWave®’s Remod and stirred bioreactor’s Remod;


computer-aided design;


chemically defined;


computational fluid dynamics;

CHO cells

Chinese hamster ovary cells;


carbon dioxide;


dilution rate (ratio of volumetric flow rate to culture volume);


dissolved oxygen;


dry weight;

E-FL cells

embryogenic feline lung fibroblast cells;


coli Escherichia coli;

E. neophadidis Erynia neophadidis;

fw fresh weight;


good manufacturing practice;


height of culture bag (inflated);

HEK cells

human embryogenic kidney cells;


megidis Heterorhabditis megidis;


muticus Hyoscyamus muticus;

H. procumbens Harpagophytum procumbens;

h liquid level of culture bag;


culture bag geometry, given by the ratio of L to B;


potassium chloride;


rocking rate;


a volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient;


length of culture bag;


characteristic length of culture bag;



MDCK cells

Madin–Darby kidney cells (cocker spaniel);


domestica Malus domestica;


multiplicity of infection or optimal ratio of virus particles per cell;


mink enteritis virus;


monoclonal antibody;


sodium chloride;


tabacum Nicotiana tabacum;


ginseng Panax ginseng;


power input per volume (specific power input);


Reynolds number;


modified Reynolds number;




revolution per minute;


Spodoptera frugiperda;


cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae;


secreted alkaline phosphatase;


feltiae Steinernema feltiae;

SH medium

Schenk and Hildebrandt medium; S.U.B. single use bioreactor;

T 408

tobacco strain with uracil transporter-like protein;


baccata Taxus baccata;


tissue culture infectious dose;


optimal density of cells at infection;


tissue plasminogen activator;


true length of culture bag;


culture volume; volumetric flow rate;

Vero cells

kidney epithelial cells from African green monkey;

VOF method

volume of fluid method;


vinifera Vitis vinifera;


volume per volume per minute;




wave and undertow bioreactor;


fluid velocity;


rocking angle;


residence time distribution;


kinematic viscosity; mixing time (time required to achieve 95% homogeneity);


maximum specific growth rate;






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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BiotechnologyZurich University of Applied Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Facility ManagementWädenswilSwitzerland

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