Aging and Degeneration of Tendons

  • Pekka Kannus
  • Mika Paavola
  • Lászlo Józsa


Achilles Tendon Overuse Injury Tendon Tissue Tendon Cell Posterior Tibial Tendon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tuite DJ, Renström PAFH, O’Brien M. (1997) The aging tendon. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 7:72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Menard D, Stanish WD. (1989) The aging athlete. Am J Sports Med. 17:187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khan KM, Cook JL, Taunton JE, Bonar F. (2000) Overuse tendinosis, not tendonitis, part 1: a new paradigm for a difficult clinical problem. Phys Sports Med. 28:38–48.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kannus P, Niittymäki S, Järvinen M, Lehto M. (1989) Sports injuries in elderly athletes: A three-year prospective, controlled study. Age Aging. 18:263–270.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bosco C, Komi PV. (1980) Influence of aging on the mechanical behavior of leg extensor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol. 45:209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuroda Y. (1988) Sport and physical activities in older people: maintenance of physical fitness. In: Ditrix A, Knuttgen HG, Tittel K, eds. The Olympic Book of Sports Medicine. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 331–339.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker W, Krahl H. (1978) Die Tendinopathien. Stuttgart, Germany: G. Thieme.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lehtonen A, Mäkelä P, Viikari J, Virtama P. (1981) Achilles tendon thickness in hypercholesterolemia. Ann Clin Res. 13:39–44.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Best TM, Garrett WE. (1994) Basic science of soft tissue: muscle and tendon. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, eds. Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1–45.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Brien M. (1992) Functional anatomy and physiology of tendons. Clin Sports Med. 11:505–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jozsa L, Kannus P. (1997) Human Tendons: Anatomy, Physiology,and Pathology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ippolito E, Natali PG, Postacchini F, Accinni L, DeMartino L. (1980) Morphological, immunochemical, and biochemical study of rabbit Achilles tendon at various ages. J Bone Joint Surg. 62A:583–598.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nakagawa Y, Majima T, Nagashima K. (1994) Effect of aging on ultrastructure of slow and fast skeletal muscle tendon in rabbit Achilles tendons. Acta Physiol Scand. 152:307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hayflick L. (1980) Cell aging. Ann Rev Gerontol Geriatr. 1:26–67.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hess GP, Capiello WL, Poole RM, Hunter SC. (1989) Prevention and treatment of overuse tendon injuries. Sports Med. 8:371–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Almekinders LC, Deol G. (1999) The effect of aging, anti-inflammatory drugs and ultrasound on the in vitro response of tendon tissue. Am J Sports Med. 27:417–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ippolito E. (1986) Biochemistry and metabolism. In: Perugia L, Postacchini F, Ippolito E, eds. The Tendons. Milan: Editrice Curtis; 37–46.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kannus P, Jozsa L. (1991) Histopathological changes preceding spontaneous rupture of a tendon. a controlled study of 891 patients. J Bone Joint Surg. 73A:1507–1525.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shadwick RE. (1990) Elastic energy storage in tendons: mechanical differences related to function and age. J Appl Physiol. 68:1022–1040.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nordin M, Frankel VH. (1989) Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger publications.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robert L, Moczar M, Robert M. (1974) Biogenesis, maturation and aging of elastic tissue (abstract). Experientia. 30:211–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alnaqeep MA, Al Zaid NS, Goldspink G. (1984) Connective tissue changes and physical properties of developing and aging skeletal muscle. J Anat. 139:677–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Viidik A. (1979) Connective tissue-possible implications of the temporal changes for the aging process. Mech Aging Dev. 9:267–285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carlstedt CA. (1987) Mechanical and chemical factors in tendon healing. Acta Orthop Scand. 58(Suppl):224.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holliday R. (1995) The evolution of longevity. In: Holliday R, ed. Understanding Aging. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 99–121.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anderson PJ. (1978) Actin in young and senescent fibroblasts. Biochem J. 169:169–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Honda T, Katagiri K, Kuroda A, Matsunaga E, Shinkai H. (1987) Age related changes of the dermatan sulfate containing small proteoglycans in bovine tendon. Coll Rel Res. 7:171–184.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Håstad K, Larsson L-G, Lindholm Å. (1958–1959) Clearance of radiosodium after local deposit in the Achilles tendon. Acta Chir Scand. 116:251–255.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jozsa L, Kvist M, Balint JB, Reffy A, Järvinen M, Lehto M, Barzo M. (1989) The role of recreational sport activity in Achilles tendon rupture: A clinical, pathoanatomical and sociological study of 292 cases. Am J Sports Med. 17:338–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kannus P, Jozsa L, Renström P, Järvinen M, Kvist M, Lehto M, Oja P, Vuori I. (1992) The effects of training, immobilization and remobilization on musculoskeletal tissue. 1. Training and immobilization. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2:100–118.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vogel HG. (1978) Influence of maturation and age on mechanical and biomechanical parameters of connective tissue of various organs in the rat. Connect Tissue Res. 6:161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Adams CMW, Bayliss OB, Baker RWR, Abdulla YH, Huntercraig CJ. (1974) Lipid deposits in aging human arteries, tendons and fascia. Atherosclerosis. 19:429–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jozsa L, Reffy A, Balint BJ. (1984) Polarization and electron microscopic studies on the collagen of intact and ruptured human tendons. Acta Histochem. 74:209–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frey C, Shereff M, Greenidge N. (1990) Vascularity of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg. 72A:884–888.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nestorson J, Movin T, Möller M, Karlsson J. (2000) Function after Achilles tendon rupture in the elderly. Acta Orthop Scand. 71:64–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Milgrom C, Schaffler M, Golbert S, Van Holsbeeck M. (1995) Rotator-cuff changes in asymptomatic adults. J Bone Joint Surg. 77B:296–298.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khan KM, Cook JL. (2000) Overuse tendon injuries: Where does the pain come from? Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 8:17–31.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khan KM, Cook JL, Maffulli N, Kannus P. (2000) Where is the pain coming from in tendinopathy? It may be biochemical, not only structural, in origin. Br J Sports Med. 34:81–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alfredson H, Thorsen K, Lorenzon R. (1999) In situ microdialysis in tendon tissue: high levels of glutamate, but not prostaglandin E2 in chronic Achilles tendon pain. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 7:378–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamlin CR, Kohn RR, Luschin JH. (1975) Apparent accelerated aging of human collagen in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 24:902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vailas AC, Vailas JC. (1994) Physical activity and connective tissue. In: Bouchard C, Shepard RJ, Stephens T, eds. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 369–382.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Woo SL-Y, Gomez MA, Woo YIL. (1982) Mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments. III. the relationship of immobilization and exercise on tissue remodeling. Biorheology. 19:397–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wood TO, Cooke PH, Goodship AE. (1988) The effect of exercise and anabolic steroids on the mechanical properties and crimp morphology of the rat tendon. Am J Sports Med. 16:153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kjaer M, Langberg H, Magnusson P. (2003) Overuse injuries in tendon tissue: insight into adaptation mechanisms (Danish). Ugeskr Laeger. 165:1438–1443.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pekka Kannus
  • Mika Paavola
  • Lászlo Józsa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations