Conference paper
Part of the NATO Security through Science Series book series


Life on this planet is dependent on water but our health is greatly impacted by the quality of that water. The global water crisis is clear, one only needs to quote the statistics on the billions of people without access to safe water, sanitation and the global estimates of the burden of waterborne disease. The greatest sources of biological contaminants associated with this disease burden in water remains human and animal feces. There is a critical need to develop a science-based program to address both water quantity and quality of water, water uses and discharges. Recommendations to achieve better access to scientific information for decision making include: 1) develop watershed approaches for determining the source and the behaviour of water-borne biological contaminants which can be used within Water Safety Plans, 2) utilize new tools and technologies for measuring the hazards and the exposure within a risk assessment framework and 3) develop a global data base and goals for biological contaminant loading for achieving safe water.


Safe Water Waterborne Disease Waterborne Pathogen Risk Assessment Framework Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aggarwal, R. and Naik S.R., 1997 Epidemiology of hepatitis E: past, present and future. Trop. Gastroenterol. 18, 49–56.Google Scholar
  2. Balalyan, M.S., 1997 Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. J. Viral Hepatitis 4, 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, S. 2004. Staying on Target. Environmental Protection, Feb. 23–27.Google Scholar
  4. Berkman, D.S., A.G. Lescano, R.H. Gilman, SL. Lopez, M.M. Black, 2002. Effects of stunting, diarrhoeal disease, and parasitic infection during infancy on cognition in late childhood: a follow up study. Lancet 359:564–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betancourt, W.Q. and Rose, J. B. 2004. Drinking water trement processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Vet. Parasit. 126:219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bofill-Mas S., Fonniga-Cruz M., Clemente-Casares P., Calafell F., Girones R., 2001. Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA. J Virol. 75(21): 10290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bofill-Mas S., Girones R., 2003. Role of the environment in the transmission of JC virus. J. Neurovirol.;9 Suppl 1:54–8.Google Scholar
  8. Borchardt, M.A., P. Chyou, E.O. DeVries, and E.A. Belongia, 2003 Septic system density and infectious diarrhea in a defined population of children. Environ. Health Perspectives 111: 742–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley, D.W. 1992. Hepatitis E: epidemiology, aetiology and molecular biology. Rev. Med. Virol. 2, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cleaveland, S. Laurenson, M.K. and Taylor, L.H., 2001 Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range, and risk of emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 356(1411), 991–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enriquez, C. E., C. J. Hurst and C. P. Gerba, 1995. “Survival of the enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 in tap, sea, and waste water” Wat. Res. 29(11): 2548–2553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewald, P.W. 1998. The evolution of virulence and emerging diseases. J. Urban Health 75(3), 480–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glass, R. I., J. Bresee, B. Jiang, J. Gentsch, T. Ando, R. Fankhauser, J. Noel, U. Parashar, B. Rosen and S. S. Monroe (2001). Gastroenteritis viruses: an overview. Symposium on Gastroenteritis viruses, Novartis Foundation Symposia. 238: 5–19/ 19–25.Google Scholar
  14. Grabow, W.O.K., Favorov, M.O., Khudyakova, N.S., Taylor M.B. and Fields H.A., 1994. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in selected individuals in South Africa. J. Med Virol. 44, 384–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffin, D.W., Donaldson, K.A., Paul, J.P. and Rose, J.B., 2003. Pathogenic Human viruses in Coastal Waters. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16(1):129–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Griffith, J. F., Weisberg, S. B., and McGee, C. D., 2003. Evaluation of microbial source tracking methods using mixed fecal sources in aqueous test samples. J. Water and Health. 01:141–152.Google Scholar
  17. Haas, C.H., Rose, J.B., and Gerba, C.P. (eds), 1999. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. John Wiley and Sons, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  18. Huang, F.F., Haqshenas, G., Guenette, D.K., Halbur, P.G., Schommer, S.K., Pierson, F.W., Toth, T.E. and Meng, X.J., 2002. Detection by reverse transcription-PCR and genetic characterization of field isolates of swine hepatitis E Virus from pigs in different geographic regions of the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40(4), 1326–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hurst, C. J., Clark, R. M. and Regli, S. E., 1996 Estimating the risk of acquiring infectious disease from ingestion of water. In Modeling Disease Transmission and Its Prevention by Disinfection, (ed. C. J. Hurst), pp. 99–139, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  20. Leclerc, H., Schwartzbrod, L., and Dei-Cas, E. 2004. Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases. IN: Microbial Waterborne Pathogens. Cloete, T.E., Rose, J., Nel, L.H. and Ford, T. (eds) IWA publishing, London.Google Scholar
  21. Lee, S. H., and S. J. Kim. 2002. Detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in Korea. Water Res. 36:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahin, T. and Pancorbo, O., 1999. Waterborne pathogens. Water Environ. Tech. 11(4), 51–55.Google Scholar
  23. Mead, P. S., L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe. (1999). “Food-related illness and death in the United States” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5): 607–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meng, X.J., Wiseman, B., Elvinger, F., Guenette, D.K., Toth, T.E., Engle, R.E., Emerson, S.U. and Purcell, R.H., 2002. Prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis E Virus in veterinarians working with swine and in normal blood donors in the United States and other countries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40(1), 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. NRC, 2004 (National Research Council), Committee on Indicators for Pathogens in Water. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Nwachcuku, N. and C. P. Gerba 2004. “Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?” Current Opinion in Biotechnology 15(3): 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. OECD 1998. Proc. OECD Workshop Interlaken ′98, pp. 1–16. OCED and Switzerland.Google Scholar
  28. Pina, S., M. Puig, F. Lucena, J. Jofre and R. Girones, 1998. “Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish: human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(9): 3376–3382.Google Scholar
  29. Prevention, C. f. D. C. a., 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with recreational water-United States, 2001–2002 and Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water-United States, 2001–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Atlanta, CDC: Vol. 53, No. SS-8.Google Scholar
  30. Rose, J.B. Huffman, D.E and A. Gennaccaro, 2002. Risk And Control Of Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 26:113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rose, J.B. Grimes, D.J. 2001. Reevaluation of Microbial Water Quality. Powerful New Tools for Detection and Risk Assessment. Report of American Academy of Microbiology. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  32. Scott, T. M., Rose, J. B., Jenkins, T. M., Farrah, S. R., and Lukasik, J. 2002. Microbial source tracking: Current methodology and future directions. Mini-review. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5796–5803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Scott, T. M., Jenkins, T. M., and Lukasik, J. and Rose, J.B. 2004 Potential Use of a host associated molecular marker in Enterococcus faecium as an index of human fecal pollution. Environ. Sci. Technol. In Press.Google Scholar
  34. Simpson, J. M., Santo Domingo, J. W., and Reasoner, D. J. 2002. Microbial source tracking: State of the science. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:5279–5288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sinton, L. W, Finlay, R. K., and Hannah, D. J. 1998. Distinguishing human from animal faecal contamination in water: a review. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32:323–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith, J.E. 2001 A review of Hepatitis E virus. J. Food Protect. 64(4), 572–586.Google Scholar
  37. Souter, P.F.; Cruickshank, G.D.; Tankerville, M.Z., Keswick, B.H., Ellis, B.D.; Langworth, D.E., Metz., K.A., Appleby, M.R., Hamilton, N., Jones, A.L. and Perry, J.D. 2003. Evaluation of a new Water treatment for Point-of-use household applications to remove microorganisms and arsenic from drinking water. J. Wat. and Hlth. Vol 1 (2) 73–84.Google Scholar
  38. Szewzyk, U., Szewzyk, R., Manz, W. and Schleifer, K.H. 2000 Microbiological safety of drinking water. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54, 81–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Taylor, L.H., Latham, S.M. and Woolhouse, E.J., 2001. Risk factors of human disease emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 356(1411), 983–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UN, 2000 (United Nations.). The Millennium Goals. United Nations Millennium Declaration A/RES/55/2 8 Sept. 2000. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  41. UN, 2002 (United Nations). Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August- 4 September 2002. UN Document. A/CONE.199/20. New York. Available as of January 2004 at Scholar
  42. WHO, 2000 (World Health Organization). Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report. Available as of January 2004 at water sanitation health/Globassessment/GlobalTOC.htmGoogle Scholar
  43. WHO, 2004 (World Health Organization). 3rd Edition of the Drinking Water Guidelines Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
  1. 1.Department of FisheriesWildlife 13 Natural Resources Michigan State University E. LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations