Advertisement

The near-bottom layer as an ecological boundary in marine ecosystems: diversity, taxonomic composition and community definitions

  • Jean-Claude Dauvin
  • Carole Vallet
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 183)

Abstract

The near-bottom layer of the ocean represents a boundary between two oceanic biotopes (pelagial and benthal), and as a result, the animal populations living in this habitat belong to various diverse ecological groups. There is a profusion of terms to designate the organisms which live near the sea bottom, both in relation to their behaviour and to boundary-layer hydrodynamics. Do the fauna living above the sea bottom form a true community? Should the fauna in this habitat be considered as a true community or a mixed assemblage comprised of benthic and pelagic organism? Between 1988 and 1996, more than 500 suprabenthic hauls were taken with a modified Macer-GIROQ sledge at 15 sites in the English Channel and the Seine Estuary (5–70 m), at 13 sites on the southern edge of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, 350– 1100 m), and at 8 sites on the Atlantic seamounts south of the Azores (260–2235 m). This intensive sampling permitted the collection of more than several hundred species and will serve to facilitate discussion concerning the biodiversity of the fauna collected near the sea bottom. This paper proposes that in the estuary, the near-bottom layer is colonized by a mixed assemblage of both pelagic and benthic organisms, while in the coastal and in the bathyal zones, the response to the gradual extinction of light and the decreasing benthic resuspension at near-bottom depths leads to an ecocline.

Key words

benthic boundary layer near-bottom community ecological boundary ecocline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Attrill, M. J. & S. D. Rundle, 2002. Ecotone or ecocline: ecological boundaries in estuaries. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 55: 929–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer, F., 1958. A new, bottom-living Trachymedusa from the Oslofjord. Description of the species, and a general discussion of the life conditions and fauna of the fjord deeps. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi 6: 121–143.Google Scholar
  3. Brunel, P., M. Besner, D. Messier, L. Poirier, D. Granger & M. Weinstein, 1978. Le traî neau Macer-Giroq: appareil améliorépour l’échantillonnage quantitatif de la petite faune nageuse au voisinage du fond. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 63: 815–829.Google Scholar
  4. Casanova, J. P., 1996. A new genus and species of deep-sea chaetognath from the Atlantic: a probable link between the families Heterkrohniidae and Spadellidae. Journal of Natural History 30: 1239–1245.Google Scholar
  5. Dauvin, J. C. & J. C. Sorbe, 1995. Suprabenthic amphipods from the southern margin of the Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, Northeastern Atlantic Ocean): abundance and bathymetric distribution. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 42: 441–460.Google Scholar
  6. Dauvin, J. C., J. C. Sorbe & J. C. Lorgeré, 1995. The Benthic Boundary Layer macrofauna from the upper continental slope and the Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay). Oceanologica Acta 18: 113–122.Google Scholar
  7. Dauvin, J. C., C. Vallet, P. Mouny & S. Zouhiri, 2000. Main characteristics of the boundary layer macrofauna in the English Channel. Hydrobiologia 426: 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elizalde, M., J. C. Dauvin & J. C. Sorbe, 1991. Les mysidacés suprabenthiques de la marge sud du canyon du Cap-Ferret (Golfe de Gascogne): répartition bathymétrique et activiténatatoire. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique Paris 67: 129–144.Google Scholar
  9. Elizalde, M., J. C. Sorbe & J. C. Dauvin, 1993. Las comunidades suprabentonicas batiales del golfo Vizcaya (margen sur del canon de Cap-Ferret): composicion faunistica y estructura. Publicaciones Especiales del Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia 11: 247–258.Google Scholar
  10. Elizalde, M., O. Weber, A. Pascual, J. C. Sorbe & H. Etcheber, 1999. Benthic response of Munnopsurus atlanticus (Crustacea Isopoda) to the carbon content of the near-bottom sedimentary environment on the southern margin of the Cap-Ferret canyon (Bay of Biscay; northeastern Atlantic Ocean). Deep-Sea Research II 46: 2331–2344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hurlbert, S. H., 1971. The non-concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaume, D. & G. A. Boxshall, 1997. A new genus and two new species of misophrioid copepods (Crustacea) from the North Atlantic hyperbenthos. Sarsia 82: 39–54.Google Scholar
  13. Jenkins, S. R., W. Lart, B. J. Vause & A. R. Brand, 2003. Seasonal swimming behaviour in the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and its effect on dredge fisheries. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 289: 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lampitt, R. S., 1985. Evidence for the seasonal deposition of detritus to the deep-sea floor and its subsequent resuspension. Deep-Sea Research I 32: 885–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marquiegui, M. A. & J. C. Sorbe, 1999. Influence of nearbottom environmental conditions on the structure of bathyal macrobenthic crustacean assemblages from the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic). Acta Oecologia 20: 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mees, J. & M. Jones, 1997. The hyperbenthos. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 35: 221–255.Google Scholar
  17. Mouny, P., J. C. Dauvin & S. Zouhiri, 2000. Benthic Boundary Layer fauna from the Seine estuary (eastern English Channel, France): spatial distribution and seasonal changes. Journal of the marine biological Association of the United Kingdom 80: 959–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ohtsuka, S., H. S. J. Roe & G. A. Boxshall, 1993. A new family of calanoid copepods, the hyperbionycidae, collected from the deep-sea hyperbenthic community in the northeastern Atlantic. Sarsia 78: 69–82.Google Scholar
  19. Olivier, F., C. Vallet, J. C. Dauvin & C. Retière, 1996. Deposition-resuspension mechanisms involved in post-larval and juvenile populations dynamics in the Abra alba community of the eastern part of the Bay of Seine (English Channel). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 199: 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sorbe, J. C., 1999. Deep-sea macrofaunal assemblages within the Benthic Boundary Layer of the Cap-Ferret canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic). Deep-Sea Research II 46: 2309–2329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vallet, C. & J. C. Dauvin, 1998. Composition and diversity of the Benthic Boundary Layer macrofauna from the English Channel. Journal of the marine biological Association of the United Kingdom 78: 387–409.Google Scholar
  22. Vallet, C. & J. C. Dauvin, 1999. Seasonal changes of macrozooplankton and Benthic Boundary Layer macrofauna from the Bay of Saint Brieuc (western English Channel). Journal of Plankton Research 21: 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vallet, C. & J. C. Dauvin, 2001. Biomass changes and benthopelagic transfers throughout the Benthic Boundary Layer in the English Channel. Journal of Plankton Research 23: 903–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vereshchaka, A. L., 1995. Macrozooplankton in the nearbottom layer of continental slopes and seamounts. Deep-Sea Research I 42: 1639–1668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang, X. & J. C. Dauvin, 1994. The suprabenthic crustacean fauna of the infralittoral fine sand community in the Bay of seine (eastern English Channel): composition, swimming activity and diurnal variations. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 35: 135–155.Google Scholar
  26. Wishner, K. F. & M. M. Gowing, 1987. In situ filtering and ingestion rates of deep-sea benthic boundary layer zooplankton in the Santa Catalina Basin. Marine Biology 94: 358–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zouhiri, S., 1999. Composition qualitative de la faune démersale et structure trophique du suprabenthos en trois sites de l’Atlantique Nord-est (Manche, Golfe de Gascogne et seamounts du sud des Açores). Thèse de Doctorat du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Paris, 109 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Zouhiri, S. & J. C. Dauvin, 1995. Diel changes of the Benthic Boundary Layer macrofauna over coarse sand sediment in the western English Channel. Oceanologica Acta 19: 141–153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Claude Dauvin
    • 1
  • Carole Vallet
    • 2
  1. 1.Station Marine de Wimereux, UMR CNRS 8013 ELICOUniversite’ des Sciences et Technologies de LilleWimereuxFrance
  2. 2.Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Naturel, UMR CNRS 8013 ELICOUniversite’ du Littoral CÔte d’OpaleWimereuxFrance

Personalised recommendations