• Anne C. Neale
  • Timothy G. Wade
  • Chad L. Cross
  • James D. Wickham
  • Maliha S. Nash
  • Curtis M. Edmonds
  • Kurt H. Riitters
  • Robert V. O'Neill
  • Elizabeth R. Smith
  • Rick D. Van Remortel


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aber, J. D. 1997. Why don’t we believe the models? Bulletin Ecological Society America 73:232-233.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, J. D., D. L. Erickson, and J. Fay. 1997. The influence of catacment land use on stream integrity across multiple spatial scale. Freshwater Biology 37:149-161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Ator, S. W., and M. J. Ferrari. 1997. Nitrate and Selected Pesticides in Ground Water of the Mid-Atlantic Region. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resource Investigative Report 97-4139, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  5. Behrendt, H. 1996. Inventories of point and diffuse sources and estimated nutrient loads - a comparison for different river basins in central Europe. Water Science and Technology 33:99-107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breiman, L., J. H. Friedman, O. R. A., and C. J. Stone. 1984. Classification and Regression Trees. Wadsworth, Pacific Grove, CA.Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, G. M., D. K. Mueller, and M. A. Mast. 2000. Nutrient concentrations and yields in undeveloped stream basins of the United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36:849-860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, P. J. and F. C. Evans. 1954. Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationship in populations. Ecology 34:445-453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies, N. M., R. H. Norris, and M. C. Thoms. 2000. Prediction and assessment of local stream habitat features using large-scale catchment characteristics. Freshwater Biology 45:343-369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Detenbeck, N. E., S. L. Batterman, V. J. Brady, J. C. Brazner, V. M. Snarski, D. L. Taylor, and J. A. Thompson. 2000. A test of watershed classification systems for ecological risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:1174-1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donnelly, K. P. 1978. Simulations to determine the variance and edge effect of total nearest-neighbour distance. Pages 91-95 in Hodder, I., editor. Simulation Studies in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA).1996. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition Loading to the Chesapeake Bay: An Initial Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Control Options. EPA230-R-96-012, Annapolis, MD.Google Scholar
  14. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA).2000. Mid-Atlantic Highlands Stream Assessment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 3, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  15. ESRI. 1996. Introduction to ArcView GIS. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Griffith, G. E., J. M. Omernik, and A. J. Woods. 1999. Ecoregions, watersheds, basins, and HUCs: how state and federal agencies frame water quality. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 1999:666-677.Google Scholar
  17. Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Bolstad, G. S. Helfman, and E. B. D. Jones. 1998. Stream biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 95:14843-14847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herlihy, A. T., J. L. Stoddard, and C. B. Johnson. 1998. The relationship between stream chemistry and watershed land cover in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 105:377-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holland, D. M., P. P. Principe, and J. E. Sickles. 1999. Trends in atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen species in the eastern United States for 1989-1995. Atmospheric Environment 33:37-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hooge, P. N. and B. Eichenlaub. 1997. Animal movement extension to ArcView. Version 1.1. Alaska Biological Science Center, U. S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK.Google Scholar
  21. Hughes, R. M., E. Rexstad, and C. E. Bond. 1987. The relationship of aquatic ecoregions, river basins, and physiographic provinces to the ichthyogeographic regions of Oregon. Copeia 1987:423-432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunsaker, Carolyn T., and Daniel A. Levine. 1995. Hierarchical approaches to the study of water quality in rivers. BioScience 45:193-203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jennings, D. B., and S. T. Jarnagin. 2002. Changes in anthropogenic impervious surfaces, precipitation and daily streamflow discharge: a historical perspective in a Mid-Atlantic subwatershed. Landscape Ecology 17:471-489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jensen, M. E., R. Redmond, J. D. Benedetto, P. S. Bourgeron, and I. A. Goodman. 2000. Application of ecological classification and predictive modeling to broad-level assessment of ecosystem health. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 64:197-212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, K. B., A. C. Neale, M. S. Nash, R. D. V. Remortal, J. D. Wickham, K. H. Riitters, and R. V. O’Neill. 2001a. Predicting nutrient and sediment loadings to streams from landscape metrics: a multiple watershed study from the United States Mid-Atlantic Region. Landscape Ecology 16:301-312. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jones, K. B., A. C. Neale, T. G. Wade, J. D. Wickham, C. L. Cross, C. M. Edmonds, T. R. Loveland, M. S. Nash, K. H. Riitters, and E. R. Smith. 2001b. The consequences of landscape change on ecological resources: an assessment of the United States Mid-Atlantic Region, 1973-1993. Ecosystem Health 7:229-242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones, K. B., K. H. Riitters, J. D. Wickham, R. D. Tankersley, R. V. O’Neill, D. J. Chaloud, E. R. Smith, and A. C. Neale. 1997. An Ecological Assessment of the United states Mid-Atlantic Region: A Landscape Atlas. US EPA/600/R-97/130. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, K. B., J. D. Wickham, K. H. Riitters, and R. V. O. Neill. 1999. Taking a broader landscape view: an ecological assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States from space. Pages 572-588 in Y. Pykh, D. E. Hyatt, and R. J. M. Lenz, editors. Environmental Indices Systems Analysis Approach. EOLSS Publishers Co., Ltd., Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  29. Kennen, J. G., and M. A. Ayers. 2002. Relation of Environmental Characteristics to the Composition of Aquatic Assemblages Along a Gradient of Urban Land Use in New Jersey, 1996-98. U. S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 02-4069, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  30. Lammert, M., and J. D. Allan. 1999. Assessing biotic integrity of streams: effects of scale in measuring the influence of land use/cover and habitat structure on fish and macroinvertebrates. Environmental Management 23:229-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards. 2002. Landscape patterns as habitat predictors: building and testing models for cavity-nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, USA. Landscape Ecology 17:233-245.Google Scholar
  32. Lee, K. E., R. M. Goldstein, and P. E. Hanson. 2001. Relation between fish communities and riparian zone conditions at two spatial scales. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37:1465-1473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lowrance, R., R. Todd, J. J. Fail, O. Henderickson, R. Lenoard, and L. Asmussen. 1984. Riparian forests as nutrient filters in agricultural watersheds. Bioscience 34:374-377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nodvin, S. C., H. V. Miegroet, S. E. Lindberg, N. S. Nicholas, and D. W. Johnson. 1995. Acidic deposition, ecosystem processes, and nitrogen saturation in a high elevation Southern Appalachian watershed. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 85:1647-1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O'Connor, R. J., M. T. Jones, D. White, C. Hunsaker, T. Loveland, B. Jones, and E. Preston. 1996. Spatial partitioning of environmental correlates of avian biodiversity in the conterminous United States. Biodiversity Letters 3:97-110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O'Neill, R. V., A. R. Johnson, and A. W. King. 1989. A hierarchical framework for the analysis of scale. Landscape Ecology 3:193-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O'Neill, R. V., S. J. Turner, V. I. Cullinan, D. P. Coffin, R. Cook, W. Conley, J. Brunt, J. M. Thomas, M. R. Conley, and J. Gosz. 1991. Multiple landscape scales: an intersite comparison. Landscape Ecology 5:137-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Omernik, J. M. 1987. Aquatic ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77:118-125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peterjohn, W. T., and D. L. Correll. 1984. Nutrient dynamics in agricultural watersheds: Observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology 65:1466-1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rathert D., D. White, J. Sifneos, and R. M. Hughes. 1999. Environmental associations of species richness in Oregon freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography 26:257-273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roth, N. E., J. D. Allan, and D. L. Erickson. 1996b. Landscape influences on stream biotic integrity assessed at multiple spatial scales. Landscape Ecology 11:141-156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith, J. H., J. D. Wickham, D. Norton, T. G. Wade, and K. B. Jones. 2001. Utilization of landscape indicators to model potential pathogen impaired waters. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37:805-814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith, R. A., G. E. Schwarz, and R. B. Alexander. 1997. Regional interpretation of water-quality monitoring data. Water Resources Research 33:2781-2798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sourthern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program (SAMAB). 1996. The Southern Appalachian Assessment: Atmospheric Technical Report, Chapter 5, Acid deposition.
  45. Stauffer, J. C., R. M. Goldstein, and R. M. Newman. 2000. Relationship of wooded riparian zone and runoff potential to fish community composition in agriculture streams. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 57:307-316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steinberg, D., and P. Colla.1995. CART: Tree-Structured Non-Parametric Data Analysis. Salford Systems, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  47. Talmage, P. J., J. A. Perry, and R. M. Goldstein. 2002. Relation of instream habitat and physical conditions to fish and community of agricultural streams in the Northern Midwest. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:825-833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Turner, M. G., V. H. Dale, and R. H. Gardner. 1989. Predicting across scales: Theory development and testing. Landscape Ecology 3:245-252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Rompaey, A. J. J., and G. Govers. 2002. Data quality and model complexity for regional scale soil erosion prediction. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 16:663-680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vogelmann, J. E., S. M. Howard, L. Yang, C. R. Larson, B. K. Wylie, and N. V. Direl. 2001. Completion of the 1990s national land cover data set for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper data and ancillary data sources. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 67:650-662.Google Scholar
  51. Vuorenmaa, J., S. Rekolainen, A. Lepisto, K. Kennttamies, and P. Kauppila. 2001. Losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural and forest areas in Finland during the 1980s and 1990s. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 76:213-248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wickham, J. D., T. G. Wade, K. H. Riitters, R. V. O’Neill, J. H. Smith, E. R. Smith, K. B. Jones, and A. C. Neale. 2003. Upstream-to-downstream changes in nutrient export risk. Landscape Ecology 18:193-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Winters, T. C. 2001. The concept of hydrologic landscapes. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37:335-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu, J. 1999. Hierarchy and scaling: extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25:367-380.Google Scholar
  55. Wu, J., and R. Hobbs. 2002. Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis. Landscape Ecology 17:355-365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yang, L., S. V. Stehman, J. H. Smith, and J. D. Wickham. 2001. Thematic accuracy of MRLC land cover for the eastern United States. Remote sensing of Environment 76:418-422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis, 4th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
  • Anne C. Neale
    • 2
  • Timothy G. Wade
    • 3
  • Chad L. Cross
    • 4
  • James D. Wickham
    • 5
  • Maliha S. Nash
    • 6
  • Curtis M. Edmonds
    • 7
  • Kurt H. Riitters
    • 8
  • Robert V. O'Neill
    • 9
  • Elizabeth R. Smith
    • 10
  • Rick D. Van Remortel
    • 11
  1. 1.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E243-05), National Exposure Research Research Triangle ParkUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biology and Nicholas School of Environment & Earth SciencesDuke UniversityDurham,USA
  6. 6.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA
  7. 7.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA
  8. 8.U.S. Forest Service Southern Research StationResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  9. 9.Environmental Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  10. 10.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E243-05)National Exposure Research LaboratoryResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  11. 11.Lockheed Martin Environmental ServicesLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations