Advertisement

Keywords

Landscape Ecology Characteristic Scale Modifiable Areal Unit Problem Ecological Phenomenon Spatial Scaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, T. F. H., R. V. O’Neill, and T. W. Hoekstra. 1984. Interlevel relations in ecological research and management: some working principles from hierarchy theory. USDA Forest Service General Tech Report RM-110, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.Google Scholar
  3. Bierkens, M. F. P., P. A. Finke, and P. de Willigen. 2000. Upscaling and Downscaling Methods for Environmental Research. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  4. Blöschl, G., and M. Sivapalan. 1995. Scale issues in hydrological modelling: a review. Hydrological Processes 9:251-290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, J. H., and G. B. West, editors. 2000. Scaling in Biology. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Calder, W. A. 1983. Ecological scaling: mammals and birds. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14:213-230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chave, J., and S. A. Levin. 2003. Scale and scaling in ecological and economic systems. Environmental and Resource Economics 26:527-557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, W. C. 1985. Scales of climate impacts. Climatic Change 7:5-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Courtois, P. J. 1985. On time and space decomposition of complex structures. Communications of the ACM 28:590-603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dale, M. R. T., P. Dixon, M.-J. Fortin, P. Legendre, D. E. Myers, and M. S. Rosenberg. 2002. Conceptual and mathematical relationships among methods for spatial analysis. Ecography 25:558-577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delcourt, H. R., and P. A. Delcourt. 1988. Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time. Landscape Ecology 2:23-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dungan, J. L., J. N. Perry, M. R. T. Dale, P. Legendre, S. Citron-Pousty, M.-J. Fortin, A. Jakomulska, M. Miriti, and M. S. Rosenberg. 2002. A balanced view of scale in spatial statistical analysis. Ecography 25:626-640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gardner, R. H., W. M. Kemp, V. S. Kennedy, and J. E. Petersen, editors. 2001. Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative Plant Ecology. University of California Press, Berkeley.  14J. WU AND H. LIGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall, O., G. J. Hay, A. Bouchard, and D. J. Marceau. 2004. Detecting dominant landscape objects through multiple scales: an integration of object-specific methods and watershed segmentation. Landscape Ecology 19:59-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hay, G., D. J. Marceau, P. Dubé, and A. Bouchard. 2001. A multiscale framework for landscape analysis: object-specific analysis and upscaling. Landscape Ecology 16:471-490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jelinski, D. E., and J. Wu. 1996. The modifiable areal unit problem and implications for landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 11:129-140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jenerette, G. D., and J. Wu. 2000. On the definitions of scale. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 81:104-105.Google Scholar
  19. King, A. W. 1991. Translating models across scales in the landscape. Pages 479-517 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner, editors. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  20. King, A. W., A. R. Johnson, and R. V. O’Neill. 1991. Transmutation and functional representation of heterogeneous landscapes. Landscape Ecology 5:239-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. LaBarbera, M. 1989. Analyzing body size as a factor in ecology and evolution. Annual Reviews Ecology and Systematics 20:97-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lam, N. S.-N., and D. A. Quattrochi. 1992. On the issues of scale, resolution, and fractal analysis in the mapping sciences. Professional Geographer 44:88-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Legendre, P., M. R. T. Dale, M.-J. Fortin, J. Gurevitch, M. Hohn, and D. Myers. 2002. The consequences of spatial structure for the design and analysis of ecological field surveys. Ecography 25:601-615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73:1943-1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levin, S. A., and S. W. Pacala. 1997. Theories of simplification and sclaing of spatially distributed processes. Pages 271-295 in D. Tilman and P. Kareiva, editors. Spatial Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  26. Marceau, D. J. 1999. The scale issue in social and natural sciences. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25:347-356.Google Scholar
  27. Meadowcroft, J. 2002. Politics and scale: some implications for environmental governance. Landscape and Urban Planning 61:169-179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meentemeyer, V. 1989. Geographical perspectives of space, time, and scale. Landscape Ecology 3: 163-173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Niklas, K. J. 1994. Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  30. O’Neill, R. V. 1979. Natural variability as a source of error in model predictions. Pages 23-32 in G. S. Innis and R. V. O’Neill, editors. Systems Analysis of Ecosystems. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland.Google Scholar
  31. O’Neill, R. V., and B. Rust. 1979. Aggregation error in ecological models. Ecological Modelling 7: 91-105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Neill, R. V., D. L. DeAngelis, J. B. Waide, and T. F. H. Allen. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  33. O’Neill, R. V., R. H. Gardner, B. T. Milne, M. G. Turner, and B. Jackson. 1991. Heterogeneity and Spatial Hierarchies. Pages 85-96 in J. Kolasa and S. T. A. Pickett, editors. Ecological Heterogeneity. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Openshaw, S. 1984. The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Geo Books, Norwich.Google Scholar
  35. Peterson, D. L., and V. T. Parker, editors. 1998. Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Pierce, L. L., and S. W. Running. 1995. The effects of aggregating sub-grid land surface variation on large-scale estimates of net primary production. Landscape Ecology 10:239-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1984. Scaling: Why Is Animal Size So Important? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. Schneider, D. C. 2001. Spatial allometry. Pages 113-153 in R. H. Gardner, W. M. Kemp, V. S. Kennedy, and J. E. Petersen, editors. Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Simon, H. A. 1973. The organization of complex systems. Pages 1-27 in H. H. Pattee, editor. Hierarchy Theory: The Challenge of Complex Systems. George Braziller, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Stevens, S. 1946. On the theory of scales of measurement. Science 103:677-680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Stewart, J. B., E. T. Engman, R. A. Feddes, and Y. Kerr, editors. 1996. Scaling up in Hydrology Using Remote Sensing. Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  42. Stommel, H. 1963. Varieties of oceanographic experience. Science 139:572-576. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Torgerson, W. S., editor. 1958. Theory and Methods of Scaling. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Turner, M. G. 1989. Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20:171-197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Turner, M. G., V. H. Dale, and R. H. Gardner. 1989a. Predicting across scales: theory development and testing. Landscape Ecology 3:245-252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Turner, M. G., R. V. O’Neill, R. H. Gardner, and B. T. Milne. 1989b. Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology 3:153-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Turner, S. J., R. V. O’Neill, W. Conley, M. R. Conley, and H. C. Humphries. 1991. Pattern and scale: statistics for landscape ecology. Pages 17-49 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner, editors. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Urban, D. L., R. V. O’Neill, and H. H. Shugart. 1987. Landscape ecology: a hierarchical perspective can help scientists understand spatial patterns. BioScience 37:119-127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Gardingen, P. R., G. M. Foody, and P. J. Curran, editors. 1997. Scaling-Up: From Cell to Landscape. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  50. ver Hoef, J. M., and D. C. Glenn-Lewin. 1989. Multiscale ordination: a method for detecting pattern at several scales. Vegetatio 82:59-67.Google Scholar
  51. White, J. D., and S. Running. 1994. Testing scale dependent assumptions in regional ecosystem simulations. Journal of Vegetation Science 5:687-702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wiens, J. A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology 3:385-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wood, E. F. 1998. Scale analyses for land-surface hydrology. Pages 1-29 in G. Sposito, editor. Scale Dependence and Scale Invariance in Hydrology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  54. Wu, J. 1999. Hierarchy and scaling: extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25:367-380.Google Scholar
  55. Wu, J. 2004. Effects of changing scale on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relations. Landscape Ecology 19:125-138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu, J., and S. A. Levin. 1994. A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs 64(4):447-464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wu, J., and O. L. Loucks. 1995. From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology 70:439-466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wu, J., D. Jelinski, M. Luck, and P. Tueller. 2000. Multiscale analysis of landscape heterogeneity. Geographic Information Sciences 6:6-19.Google Scholar
  59. Young, F. W., and R. M. Hamer. 1994. Theory and Applications of Multidimensional Scaling. Eribaum Associates., Hillsdale, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • JIANGUO WU
    • 1
  • HARBIN LI
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of SustainabilityArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.USDA Forest Service Southern Research StationCenter for Forested Wetlands ResearchCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations