Metabolic engineering of glycinebetaine



Transgenic Plant Glycine Betaine Betaine Aldehyde Choline Oxidase Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hasegawa, P.M., Bressan, R.A., Zhu, J.K. and Bohnert, H.J. (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 463-499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ramanjulu, S. and Bartels, D. (2002) Drought-and desiccation-induced modulation of gene expression in plants. Plant Cell Environ. 25, 141-151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohnert, H.J. and Cushman, J.C. (2002) Plants and environmental stress adaptation strategies. In: Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants (Barz, M. and Oksman-Kaldentey, D., eds). New York : Marcel Dekker, pp. 635-664.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lucht, J.M. and Bremer, E. (1994) Adaptation of Escherichia coli to high osmolarity environments: osmoregulation of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system proU. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 14, 3-20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hanson, A.D., Rathinasabapathi, B., Rivoal, J., Burnet, M., Dillon, M.O. and Gage, D.A. (1994) Osmoprotective compounds in the Plumbaginaceae: a natural experiment in metabolic engineering of stress tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 306-310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McNeil, S.D., Nuccio, M.L. and Hanson, A.D. (1999) Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance. Plant Physiol. 120, 945-950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weretilnyk, E.A. and Hanson, A.D. (1990) Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 2745-2749.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rathinasabapathi, B., Burnet, M., Russell, B.L., Gage, D.A., Liao, P.C., Nye, G.J., Scott, P., Golbeck, J.H. and Hanson, A.D. (1997) Choline monooxygenase, an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine synthesis in plants: prosthetic group characterization and cDNA cloning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 3454-3458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Waditee, R., Tanaka, Y., Aoki, K., Hibino, T., Jikuya, H., Takano, J., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. (2003) Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4932-4942.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bolen, D.W. and Baskakov, I.V. (2001) The osmophobic effect: natural selection of a thermodynamic force in protein folding. J. Mol. Biol. 310, 955-963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Poolman, B., Spitzer, J.J. and Wood, J.M. (2004) Bacterial osmosensing: roles of membrane structure and electrostatics in lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1666, 88-104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kramer, R. and Morbach, S. (2004) BetP of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a transporter with three different functions: betaine transport, osmosensing, and osmoregulation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1658, 31-36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nuccio, M.L., Rhodes, D., McNeil, S.D. and Hanson, A.D. (1999) Metabolic engineering of plants for osmotic stress resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2,128-134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rontein, D., Basset, G., and Hanson, A.D. (2002) Metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant accumulation in plants. Metab. Eng. 4, 49-56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, T.H. and Murata, N. (2002) Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 5, 250-257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sakamoto, A. and Murata, N. (2002) The role of glycine betaine in the protection of plants from stress: clues from transgenic plants. Plant Cell Environ. 25, 163-171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Craig, S.A. (2004) Betaine in human nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 539-549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kempf, B. and Bremer, E. (1998) Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch. Microbiol. 170, 319-330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ishitani, M., Nakamura, T., Han, S.Y. and Takabe T. (1995) Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in barley in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. Plant Mol. Biol. 27, 307-315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perrino, L.A. and Pierce, S.K. (2000) Choline dehydrogenase kinetics contribute to glycine betaine regulation differences in chesapeake bay and atlantic oysters. J. Exp. Zool. 286, 250-261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perrino, L.A. and Pierce, S.K. (2000) Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase kinetics partially account for oyster population differences in glycine betaine synthesis. J. Exp. Zool. 286, 238-249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lamark, T., Rokenes, T.P., McDougall, J. and Strom, A.R. (1996) The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress. J. Bacteriol. 178,1655-1662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, Y. and Bolen, D.W. (1995) The peptide backbone plays a dominant role in protein stabilization by naturally occurring osmolytes. Biochemistry 34, 12884-12891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murata, N., Mohanty, P.S., Hayashi, H. and Papageorgiou, G.C. (1992) Glycinebetaine stabilizes the association of extrinsic proteins with the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex. FEBS Lett. 296, 187-189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Qu, Y., Bolen, C.L. and Bolen, D.W. (1998) Osmolyte-driven contraction of a random coil protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9268-9273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ikuta, S., Imamura, S., Misaki, H. and Horiuti, Y. (1977) Purification and characterization of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 82, 1741-1749.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hibino, T., Meng, Y.L., Kawamitsu, Y., Uehara, N., Matsuda, N., Tanaka, Y., Ishikawa, H., Baba, S., Takabe, T., Wada, K., Ishii, T. and Takabe, T. (2001) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betaine-accumulating mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Plant Mol. Biol. 45, 353-363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hibino, T., Waditee, R., Araki, E., Ishikawa, H., Aoki, K., Tanaka, Y. and Takabe T. (2002) Functional characterization of choline monooxygenase, an enzyme for betaine synthesis in plants. J Biol Chem. 277, 41352-41360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nakamura, T., Yokota, S., Muramoto, Y., Tsutsui, K., Oguri, Y., Fukui, K. and Takabe, T. (1997) Expression of a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in rice, a glycinebetaine nonaccumulator, and possible localization of its protein in peroxisomes. Plant J. 11, 1115-1120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nakamura, T., Nomura, M., Mori, H., Jagendorf, A.T., Ueda, A. and Takabe, T. (2001) An isozyme of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in barley. Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 1088-1092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Trossat, C., Rathinasabapathi, B. and Hanson, A.D. (1997) Transgenically expressed betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase efficiently catalyzes oxidation of dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde and omega-aminoaldehydes. Plant Physiol. 113, 1457-1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Incharoensakdi, A., Matsuda, N., Hibino, T., Meng, Y.L., Ishikawa, H., Hara, A., Funaguma, T., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. (2000) Overproduction of spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Structural and functional properties of wild-type, mutants and E. coli enzymes. Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 7015-7023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hayashi, H., Alia., Mustardy, L., Deshnium, P., Ida, M. and Murata, N. (1997) Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase; accumulation of glycinebetaine and enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stress. Plant J. 12, 133-42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McNeil, S.D., Nuccio, M.L., Ziemak, M.J. and Hanson, A.D. (2001) Enhanced synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 10001-10005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moffatt, B.A., Stevens, Y.Y., Allen, M.S., Snider, J.D., Pereira, L.A., Todorova, M.I., Summers, P.S., Weretilnyk, E.A., Martin-McCaffrey, L. and Wagner, C. (2002) Adenosine kinase deficiency is associated with developmental abnormalities and reduced transmethylation. Plant Physiol. 128, 812-821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Park, E.J., Jeknic, Z., Sakamoto, A., DeNoma, J., Yuwansiri, R., Murata, N. and Chen, T.H. (2004) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in tomato protects seeds, plants, and flowers from chilling damage. Plant J. 40, 474-487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jagendorf, A.T. and Takabe, T. (2001) Inducers of glycinebetaine synthesis in barley. Plant Physiol. 127, 1827-1835.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Waditee, R., Bhuiyan, M.N., Rai, V., Aoki, K., Tanaka, Y., Hibino, T., Suzuki, S., Takano, J., Jagendorf, A.T., Takabe, T. and Takabe T. (2005) Genes for direct methylation of glycine provide high levels of glycinebetaine and abiotic-stress tolerance in Synechococcus and Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1318-1323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schwacke, R., Grallath, S., Breitkreuz, K.E., Stransky, E., Stransky, H., Frommer, W.B. and Rentsch, D. (1999) LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. Plant Cell 11, 377-392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Waditee, R., Hibino, T., Tanaka, Y., Nakamura, T., Incharoensakdi, A., Hayakawa, S., Suzuki, S., Futsuhara, Y., Kawamitsu, Y., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. (2001) Functional characterization of betaine/proline transporters in betaine-accumulating mangrove. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 18373-18382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fetterer, R.H., Augustine, P.C., Allen, P.C. and Barfield, R.C. (2003) The effect of dietary betaine on intestinal and plasma levels of betaine in uninfected and coccidia-infected broiler chicks. Parasitol Res. 90, 343-348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fernandez-Figares, I., Wray-Cahen, D., Steele, N.C., Campbell, R.G., Hall, D.D., Virtanen, E. and Caperna, T.J. (2002) Effect of dietary betaine on nutrient utilization and partitioning in the young growing feed-restricted pig. J. Anim. Sci. 80, 421-428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Olthof, M.R. and Verhoef, P. (2005) Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Curr. Drug Metab. 6, 15-22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zeisel, S.H., Mar, M.H., Howe, J.C. and Holden, J.M. (2003) Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J. Nutr. 133, 1302-1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schwahn, B.C., Hafner, D., Hohlfeld, T., Balkenhol, N., Laryea, M.D. and Wendel, U. (2003) Pharmacokinetics of oral betaine in healthy subjects and patients with homocystinuria. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 55, 6-13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lever, M., Sizeland, P.C., Bason, L.M., Hayman, C.M., Robson, R.A. and Chambers, S.T. (1994) Abnormal glycine betaine content of the blood and urine of diabetic and renal patients. Clin. Chim. Acta 230, 69-79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hayes, K.C., Pronczuk, A., Cook, M.W., Robbins, M.C. (2003) Betaine in sub-acute and sub-chronic rat studies. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41, 1685-1700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Evans, J.C., Huddler, D.P., Jiracek, J., Castro, C., Millian, N.S., Garrow, T.A. and Ludwig, M.L. (2002) Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: zinc in a distorted barrel. Structure (Camb) 10, 1159-1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Park, E.I., Renduchintala, M.S., Garrow, T.A. (1997) Diet-induced changes in hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase activity are mediated by changes in steady-state levels of its mRNA. J. Nutr. Biochem. 8, 541-545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Institute of Meijo UniversityTenpaku-kuJapan
  2. 2.Research Institute of Meijo UniversityTenpaku-kuJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyMeijo UniversityTenpaku-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations