Cost Effective Frequency Ranges for Multi-Beam Dishes, Cylinders, Aperture Arrays, and Hybrids
Five out of six Square Kilometre Array (SKA) science programs need extensive surveys at frequencies below 1.4 GHz and only four need high-frequency observations. The latter ones drive to expensive high surface accuracy collecting area, while the former ask for multi-beam receiver systems and extensive post correlation processing. In this paper, we analyze the system cost of a SKA when the field-of-view (Fov) is extended from 1 deg2 at 1.4 GHz to 200 deg2 at 0.7 GHz for three different antenna concepts. We start our analysis by discussing the fundamental limitations and cost issues of wide-band focal plane arrays (FPA) in dishes and cylinders and of wide-band receptors in aperture arrays. We will show that a hybrid SKA in three different antenna technologies will give the highest effective sensitivity for all six key science programs.
Keywordsaperture efficiency field-of-view focal plane arrays foreshortening efficiency system optimization
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- van Ardenne, A. and Lazio, J.: 2004, ‘SKA Hybrid, Three Aperture Arrays+Small Dishes’, Hybrid White Papers, Eng. Section on http://www.skatelescope.org.Google Scholar
- Bunton, J.D.: 2004, ‘A Cylinder plus 12-m Dish Hybrid’, November 2003, Section in SKA Memo 48, Contributions & Summary of First SKA Convergence Workshop Held in Cape Town, Eng. Section on http://www.skatelescope.org.Google Scholar
- Bregman, J.D.: 2000, ‘Concept Design For a Low Frequency Array’, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4015.Google Scholar
- Bregman, J.D.: 2004, ‘Survey Performance of Multi-Beam Aperture Synthesis Arrays’, in Exp. Astrono, this issue.Google Scholar
- D’Addario, L.R.: 2002, ‘Digital Processing for SKA’, SKA Memo 25.Google Scholar
- Ivashina, M.V.: 2004, ‘Efficiency Limitations of a 12 meter Dish System’, ASTRON Report-SKA-00916.Google Scholar
- Ivashina, M.V., Simons, J. and de bij Vaate, J.G.: 2004, ‘Efficiency Analysis of Focal Plane Arrays in Deep Dishes’, Exp. Astrono., this issue.Google Scholar
- Jones, D.L.: 2004, ‘SKA Science Requirements: Version 2’, SKA Memo 45.Google Scholar
- Udaya Shankar, N. and Ananthakrishnan, S.: 2004, ‘Present Indian Efforts Relating to SKA Demonstrator’, SKA demonstrator plans, Eng. Section on http://www.skatelescope.org.Google Scholar
- USSKA Consortium: 2002, ‘The Square Kilometer Array Preliminary Strawman Design LargeN — Small-D’, White Paper 2, SKA Design Concept White Papers 1–7, Eng. Section on http://www.skatelescope.org.Google Scholar
- Walden, R.H.: 1999, ‘Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis’, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 17(4).Google Scholar