Mud Volcano Model Resulting from Geophysical and Geochemical Research

  • Akper A. Feyzullayev
  • Fakhretdin A. Kadirov
  • Chingiz S. Aliyev
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 51)


Measurements have been made of the gravitational field, the geodetic uplift together with a radioactive survey in the general area of the Lokbatan mud volcano after its explosion on 25 October 2001, as well as in the crater itself. In addition, geochemical measurements of vitrinite reflectance with depth and isotopic composition of carbon in methane and ethane have been performed. This massive compendium of information represents the most detailed investigation ever into the deep structural effects of a mud volcano and also of the mud and gas sources at outflow time. The data have been inte-grated into a combined picture showing the roots of both the mud outflow and the gas causing the flaming eruption, several km deep inside the sedimentary pile. The overall behavior is best served by a model in which a relatively thin jet of liquefied mud is extruded from depth following the action of the varying tectonic stresses in the region, as adduced from the GPS tectonic movement data [6]. The variation of Bouguer gravity across a profile including the Lokbatan mud volcano, and combined with the geodetic vertical motion straight after and a long time after (10 months) the explosion, confirms this basic model. The geochemical evidence, showing a low vitrinite maturity (<0.6%) down to a depth of around 6 km, indicates the origin of gas from greater depths, as do the isotopic carbon measurements of methane and ethane. To conclude, it would seem that the tectonic “squeezing” of a low strength plastic mud layer from depth through a narrow vent with entrained gas and mud is the primary driver for mud volcano explosions.

Key words

Model Mud Volcanoes Azerbaijan 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akper A. Feyzullayev
    • 1
  • Fakhretdin A. Kadirov
    • 1
  • Chingiz S. Aliyev
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of SciencesBakuAzerbaijan

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