Mud Volcanoes of Pakistan — an Overview

A report on three centuries of historic and recent investigations in Pakistan
  • George Delisle
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 51)

Abstract

The earliest reports on mud volcanoes in Pakistan stem from the year 1840. Despite recurrent visits ever since, progress in studying these features in detail has been slow. Increased interest in mud volcanoes occurred in the aftermath of an earthquake in 1945, which initiated the sudden emergence of islands offshore from the Makran Desert. These islands were built from highly viscous mud with a high gas content. The mud was driven up by high buoyancy forces. The study of mud volcanoes in Pakistan intensified concurrently with marine cruises offshore from the Pakistani coast, particularly during the last 15 years, by which mud volcanoes on the abyssal plain and widespread gas seeps in the shallow waters of the upper continental slope were identified. The discharged gases on and offshore are predominantly of bacterial origin and appear to rise from the upper km of the subsurface. Little is known about the periodicity of gas discharge. A new instrumentation to monitor gas flow periodicities is briefly described.

Keywords

Mud volcano Makran Pakistan Chandragup mud flow gas seep gas flux periodicity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bannert, D., Cheema, A., Ahmed, A., and Schäffer, U., 1992. The structural development of the western fold belt, Pakistan., Geol. Jahrb. Series B, 80, 1–60.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    DeJong, K. A., 1982. Tectonics of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and southern Pakistan region. In: Nain, A.E.M. and Staehli, F.G. (eds) The Ocean Basins and Margins, v6: The Indian Ocean, 315–351.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Delisle, G., Von Rad U., Andruleit H., Von Daniels CH., Tabrez A. R., and Inam, A., 2002. Active mud volcanoes on-and offshore eastern Makran, Pakistan, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 91, 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delisle, G., and Berner, U., 2002. Act gas hydrates as cap rock in the Makran accretionary prism? In: Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C. and Craig. J. (eds), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, Geol. Society, London, Special Publications, 195, 137–146.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeMets, C., Gordon, R.G., Argus, D.F., and Stein, S., 1990. Current plate motions: Geophysical Journal International, 101, 425–478.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gaedicke, Ch., Prexl, A., Schlüter, H-U., Meyer, H., Roeser, H., and Clift, P., 2002. Seismic stratigraphy and correlation of major regional unconformities in the north Arabian Sea.? In: Clift, P.D., Kroon,.D, Gaedicke, C., Craig, J., (eds), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, Geol. Society, London, Special Publications, 195, 137–146.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harrison, J. V., 1944. Mud volcanoes on the Makran coast. Geographical Journal, 103, 180–181.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hart, J, 1840. Some account of a journey from Kuzrachee to Hinglaj, in the Lus Territory, descriptive of the intermediate country, and of the port of Soumeanee, J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 9, 134–154.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hunting Survey Corporation Ltd., 1960. Reconnaissance geology of part of West Pakistan. Maracle Press, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lavrushin, V. U., Polyak, B. G., Prasolov, R. M., and Kamenskii, I. L., 1996. Sources of material in mud volcano products (based on isotopic, hydrochemical, and geological data), Lithology and Mineral Resources, 31,6, 557–578.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Minshull, T. A., and White, R. S., 1989. Sediment compaction and fluid migration in the Makran accretionary prism., Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 7387–7402.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roeser, H. A., and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1997. The Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan: Tectonic evolution and and Fluid migration-Part 1. BGR openfile report, Archive No 116 643.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stiffe, A. W., 1874. On the mud-craters and geological structure of the Mekran coast, Quarterly Journal of the Geol. Soc. London, 30, 50–53.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Skrine, C. P., 1936. The Quetta earthquake, Geographical Journal, 88, 414–430.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Snead, R. J., 1964. Active mud volcanoes of Baluchistan, west Pakistan, The Geograpical Review, 54, 545–560.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sondhi, V. P., 1947. The Makran Earthquake, 28 November 1945, the birth of new islands, Indian Minerals 1, 146–154.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taponnier, P., Mattauer, M., Proust, F., and Cassaigneau, Ch., 1982. Mesozoic Ophiolites, Sutures, and large scale Tectonic Movements of Afghanistan, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 52, 355–371.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Von Rad, U., Berner, U., Delisle, G., Doose-Rolinski, H., Fechner, N., Linke, P., Lückge, A., Roeser, H. A., Schmaljohann, R., Wiedicke, M., and Sonne 122/130 Scientific Parties, 2000. Gas and fluid venting at the Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan, Geo-Marine Letters 20, 10–19.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    White, R. S., and Louden, K. E., 1982. The Makran continental margin: Structure of a thickly sedimented convergent plate boundary. In: Watkins J.S., Drake C.L. (eds) Studies in continental margin geology, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 34, 499–518.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wiedicke, M., Neben, S., and Spiess, V., 2001. Mud volcanoes at the front of the accretionary complex, Pakistan, Marine Geology, 172, 57–73.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Delisle
    • 1
  1. 1.Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)HannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations