Advertisement

A Conservation Plan for Metasequoia in China

  • Gaytha A. Langlois
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 22)

Abstract

Models for resource protection are examined in this chapter, including the program challenges and successes for the redwood forests in California, rainforests in Central and South America, coral reefs in Australia and the giant panda in China. A Metasequoia Conservation Plan is discussed and tools for assessing effectiveness of conservation programs are suggested. In addition, the Appendices include an education plan, a Metasequoia fact sheet, funding sources, international support organizations and an example of an endangered species management plan.

Key words

California redwoods conservation assessment dawn redwood conservation Metasequoia glyptostroboides, redwood conservation resource protection models Sequoia sempervirens, Sequoiadendron giganteum 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

12. References Cited

  1. All Species Foundation. 2004. Available at http://www.all-species.org/ (Accessed January 18, 2004).Google Scholar
  2. Animal Diversity Web. 2003. Alluropoda melanoleuca (Panda, Panda Bear, Giant Panda): Narrative. Available at http://www.animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/alluropoda/a._melanoleuca:narrative.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  3. Baker, H.G. 1965. Redwood Botany. Available at http://www.batnet.com/askmar/Redwoods/Masters_Thesis.html (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  4. BBC Monitoring, Media Reports. 2001. China’s Great Green Wall. Available at http://news.bbc.com.uk/1/hi/world/monitoring/media_reports/1199218.stm (Accessed August 24, 2003)Google Scholar
  5. Botkin, D.B. & E.A. Keller. 1995. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  6. Brinegar, C. 2002. Ask the Redwood Doctor. Available at http://www.sempervirens.org.doctor.htm Accessed April 25, 2002.Google Scholar
  7. Brumback, W. L.J. Mehrhoff, R.W. Enser, S.C. Gawler, R.G. Popp, P. Somers, D.D. Sperduto, W.D. Countryman & C.B. Hellquist. 1996. Flora Conservanda: New England. The New England Plant Conservation Program (NEPCoP) list of plants in need of conservation. Rhodora 98: 233–361.Google Scholar
  8. California Environmental Resources Evaluation System. 2004. The Klamath/North Coast Bioregion—An Overview. Available at http://ceres.ca.gov/geo_area/bioregions/Klamath/about.html (Accessed February 27, 2004).Google Scholar
  9. Chaney, R.W. 1948. The bearing of the living Metasequoia on problems of Tertiary paleobotany. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 34: 503–515.Google Scholar
  10. Chaney, R.W. 1951. A revision of fossil Sequoia and Taxodium in western North America based on the recent discovery of Metasequoia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 40: 171–263.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, D., S. Liu & J. Qu. 2002. Study on the habitat and classification of the native Dawn redwoods in Lichuan, Hubei, China. 1st International Metasequoia Symposium. Wuhan, China, August 5–7, 2002 (abstract).Google Scholar
  12. China Daily. 2003. Panda ABC. Available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/highlights/pandas/panda-abc.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  13. China Internet Information Network. 2003a. National Flower, Tree, Bird to be Chosen. Available at http://service.china.org.cn/link/wcm/Show_Text?info_id=64698&p_qry=Metasequoia (Accessed January 21, 2004).Google Scholar
  14. China Internet Information Network. 2003b. Environmental Protection. Available at http://china.org.cn/english/eng-Shuzi2003/hb/baio/p177.htm(Accessed January 21, 2004).Google Scholar
  15. China Internet Information Network. 2003c. Major Reforestation Project Announced. Available at http://www.10thnpc.org.cn/english/2002/May/32599.htm (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  16. China Internet Information Network. 2003d. Tree Variety to Grow in Local Forests. Available at http://service.china.org.cn/link/wcm/Show_Text?info_id=60517&p_qry=Metasequoia (Accessed January 21, 2004).Google Scholar
  17. China Internet Information Network. 2003e. China Publicizes Program of Action for Sustainable Development. Available at http://service.china.org.cn/link/wcm/Show_Text?info_id=70908&p_qry=afforestation (Accessed January 21, 2004).Google Scholar
  18. Costarican National Chamber of Tourism. 2004. Ecotourism. Available at http://www.costarica.tourism.co.cr/ecotourism.html (Accessed February 10, 2004).Google Scholar
  19. Davies, B. 2001. Ecological Economics. New York University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Ecological Society of America. 2003. Biodiversity of Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes. Available at http://www.esa.orghttp://www.esa.org (Accessed January 19, 2003)Google Scholar
  21. Energy Information Administration, United States Department of Energy. 1999. International Energy Outlook 1999-Hydroelectricity and other Renewable Sources. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/ieo99/hydro.htmlGoogle Scholar
  22. Environment News Service. 2002. Three Gorges Reservoir Will Change Local Weather. Available at http://climateark.org/articles/reader.asp?linked+18748 (Accessed February 10, 2004).Google Scholar
  23. Enser, R.W. 2001. Hypericum adpressum (Creeping St. John’s Wort) Conservation and Research Plan. New England Wild Flower Society. Framingham, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  24. Enser, R.W. 2002. Schoenoplectus etuberculatus (Swamp Bulrush) Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society. Framingham, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  25. Fackler, Martin. 2002. Three Gorges Dam Will Raise Temperatures in Central China, Meteorologist Predicts. Available at http://enn.com/news/wire-stories/2002/04/04112002/ap_46918.asp (Accessed February 15, 2004).Google Scholar
  26. Fang, J., A. Chen, C. Peng, S. Zhao & L. Ci. 2001. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science 292: 2320–2322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fowells, H.A. 1965. Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). In Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, Agriculture Handbook 271. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service. [Summary available at: http://www.askmar.com/Redwoods/Coastal_Redwoods.htmlGoogle Scholar
  28. Fritz, E. 1957. The Life Habits of Redwood the Extraordinary. West Conservation Journal 14: 4–7, 38.Google Scholar
  29. Garden Club of America. 2002. Available at http://gcamerica.org (Accessed May 15, 2002).Google Scholar
  30. Geatz, R. 1999. Great Rivers of Yunnan. Conservation in a Changing China. Nature Conservancy 49: 10–16.Google Scholar
  31. Geatz, R. 2002. High Energy on the Edge of the Himalayas. Nature Conservancy 52: 28–37.Google Scholar
  32. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 2003. Legislation. Available at http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_gbrmpa/legislation_regulations.htmlGoogle Scholar
  33. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 2004a. Zoning. Available at http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/management/zoning.htmlGoogle Scholar
  34. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 2004b. Permits. Available at http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/permits/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
  35. Hill, J.B. 2000. The Legacy of Luna. Harper Publishers, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  36. Hu, H.H. 1948. How Metasequoia, the “living fossil” was discovered in China. Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 201–207.Google Scholar
  37. Janzen, D. 2003. Rincon Rainforest Project. Available at http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu/caterpillars/RR/rincon_rainforest.htm (Accessed January 20, 2004).Google Scholar
  38. Jien, G. 1991. Ailuropoda melanoleuca. IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group Newsletter, No.2, February.Google Scholar
  39. Jing, F. 2002. Government Website Keeps Tabs on Climate Change. Available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/ (Accessed November 5, 2002).Google Scholar
  40. Kuser, J.E., D.L. Sheely & D.R. Hendricks. 1997. Genetic variation in two ex situ collections of the rare Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Cupressaceae). Silvae Genetica 46: 258–264.Google Scholar
  41. Lazaroff, C. 2004. Landmark Deal Will Protect Rainforests in Belize. Available at http://www.rainforests.net/landmarkbelizedeal.htmGoogle Scholar
  42. Leng, Q., H. Yang, Q. Yang & J. Zhou. 2001. Variation of cuticle micromorphology of Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Taxodiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 207–219.Google Scholar
  43. LePage, B.A. & H. Yang. 2002. The evolution and biogeographic history of Metasequoia. 1st International Metasequoia Symposium. Wuhan. China, August 5–7, 2002 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  44. Li, C. & Q. Yang. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae from 28S rDNA sequences. Hereditas 25: 177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu, S. & K. Wang. 2002. The environmental conditions and endangered status of Dawn redwood in China. 1st International Metasequoia Symposium. Wuhan. China, August 5–7, 2002 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  46. Ma, J.-S. 2003. The chronology of the ‘living fossil’ Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Taxodiaceae): A review (1943–2003). Harvard Papers in Botany 8: 9–18.Google Scholar
  47. Menghu, W. & H. Tiegin. 1989. National Conservation Management Plan for the Giant Panda and Its Habitat: Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces, The People’s Republic of China. Joint Report of the WWF & Ministry of Forestry of the Peoples’ Republic of China.Google Scholar
  48. Merrill, E.D. 1948. Another “living fossil”. Arnoldia 8: 1–8.Google Scholar
  49. Middle East News Online. 2002. Ethiopia: Report Warns of Looming Environmental Disaster. Available http://MiddleEastWire.com (Accessed October 21, 2002).Google Scholar
  50. Miki, S. 1941. On the change of flora in eastern Asia since the Tertiary period (I). The clay or lignite beds flora in Japan with special reference to the Pinus trifolia beds in central Hondo. Japanese Journal of Botany 11: 237–303.Google Scholar
  51. Miller Jr., G. T. 1998. Living in the Environment, 10th ed. Wadsworth Publishers, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
  52. Mongabay Project. 2004. Ecological Corridor Project. Available at http://www.mongabay.com/index.html (Accessed February 10, 2004).Google Scholar
  53. Monteverde Costa Rica Rainforest. 2004. Santa Elena Cloud Forest Reserve. Available at http://www.monteverdeinfo.com/reserve.htm (Accessed February 10, 2004).Google Scholar
  54. Natural Resources Defense Council. 2002. NRDC Campaign to Save Giant Sequoias Bolstered by President’s Declaration for a National Monument. Available at http://www.nrdc.org/media/pressreleases/000415.asp (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  55. Noss, R.F. 2000. The Redwood Forest: History, Ecology and Conservation of the Coast Redwoods. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  56. Office of the Governor of California. 2002. State Acquires 25,000 Acres of North Coast Redwoods. Available at http://my.ca.gov/state/govsite/gov_htmlprint.jsp?BV_SessionID=@@@@0433990816.1028 (Accessed July 31, 2002).Google Scholar
  57. Oji Paper Company. 2004. Overseas Forest Plantation Project. Available at http://www.ojipaper.co.jp/english/planting/pla03.html (Accessed February 10, 2004).Google Scholar
  58. People’s Daily Online. 2000. Green Project to Protect the Great Wall. Available at http://English.peopledaily.com/20008/15/eng20000815_48200.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  59. Pivotal Ecosystems International. 2004. The Daintree Lowlands Rainforest Land Purchase Program. Available at http://wwwpivotalecosystems.org/PES-The%20Great%20Barrier%20Reef.htmGoogle Scholar
  60. Price, R.A. & J.M. Lowenstein. 1989. An immunological comparison of the Sciadopityaceae, Taxodiaceae, and Cupressaceae. Systematic Botany 14: 141–149.Google Scholar
  61. Rainforest Action Network. 2004. Rates of Rainforest Loss. Available at http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04b.htmlGoogle Scholar
  62. Rainforest Information Centre. 2004. The Causes of Rainforest Destruction. Available at http://www.rainforest.info.org.au/background/causes.htmGoogle Scholar
  63. Ratliff, E. 2003. The Green Wall of China. Wired Magazine 11.04, April. Available at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.04/greenwall.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  64. Raven, P.H. & L.R. Berg. 2001. Environment, 3rd ed. Harcourt College Publishers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  65. Redwoods Young & Old, Big & Tall. 2002. Available at http://home.att.net/nestel/nelder3.html (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  66. Royer, D.L., C.P. Osborne & D.J. Beerling. 2002. High CO2 increases the freezing sensitivity of plants: Implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions from fossil floras. Geology 30: 963–966.Google Scholar
  67. San Francisco Chronicle. 1999. A Hard-Won Deal to Save Headwaters. Available at http://my.ca.gov/state/govsite/gov_htmlprint.jsp?BV_SessionID=@@@@0433990816.1028 (Accessed July 31, 2002).Google Scholar
  68. San Simon. 2003. San Simon High School Endangered Species Art Project-Giant Panda Protection. Available at http://www.sansimon.k12.az.us/Art%20Archive/99-00/endspecprog/brendam/protection.htm (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  69. Save the Redwoods League. 2002. Available at http://www.savetheredwoods.org (Accessed May 15, 2002).Google Scholar
  70. Schlarbaum, S.E., L.C. Johnson & T. Tsuchiya. 1983. Chromosome studies of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum. Botanical Gazette 114: 559–565.Google Scholar
  71. Schrepfer, S.R. 1983. The Fight to Save the Redwoods: A History of Environmental Reform, 1917–1983. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  72. Sempervirens Fund. 2002a. Latest Projects and Progress. The Mountain Echo, Winter. Available at: http://www.sempervirens.org/mtecho.htm (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  73. Sempervirens Fund. 2002b. Latest Projects and Progress-The San Lorenzo River Redwoods. Available at: http://www.sempervirens.org/slrr/index.html (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  74. Snyder, J.A. 1992. The Ecology of Sequoia sempervirens. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, San Jose State University, San Jose, California. Available at: http://www.batnet.com/askmar/Redwoods/Masters_Thesis.html (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  75. Starbucks Corporation. 2004. Commitment to Origins. Available at http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/origins.aspGoogle Scholar
  76. Stebbins. G.L. 1948. The chromosomes and relationship of Metasequoia and Sequoia. Science 108: 95–98.Google Scholar
  77. Stone, C.D. 1996. Should Trees Have Standing? Ocean Publications. Dobbs Ferry, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Stone, E.C. 1965. Ecology of the Redwoods. Available at http://www.batnet.com/askmar/Redwoods/Masters_Thesis.html (Accessed April 25, 2002).Google Scholar
  79. Strieker, G. 1999. Africa Takes Tentative Steps Toward Protecting Rainforests. Available at http://www.cnn.com/NATURE/9908/06/africa.rainforests/ (Accessed January 18, 2004).Google Scholar
  80. TerraDaily. 2003. Australia Unveils Massive Plan to Protect Great Barrier Reef. Available at http://www.terradaily.com/2003/030602052557.7d611z4a.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  81. The Foundation Center. 2002. Establishing a Nonprofit Organization. Available at http://www.fdncenter.org/learn/classroom/establish/index.html (Accessed October 30, 2003).Google Scholar
  82. Toyota Corporation. 2002. Tree Planting in China. Available at http://www.toyaota.co.jp/Irweb/corp_info/eco/beyond07.html#a (Accessed January 20, 2004).Google Scholar
  83. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 1999. State of the World’s Forests 1999. Available at http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y7581E/Y7581E00.HTM (Accessed January 15, 2004).Google Scholar
  84. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 2003. State of the World’s Forests 2003. Available at http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y7581E/Y7581E00.HTM (Accessed January 15, 2004).Google Scholar
  85. United States Geological Survey. 2004. Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources-California. Available at http://biology.usgs.gov/s%2Bt/SNT/noframe/ca162.htm (Accessed April 30, 2004).Google Scholar
  86. Waldron, G. 1998. Resource Inventory-Animal Life: Big Basin Redwoods State Park. Available at http://www.parks.ca.gov/pages21299/files/wildlife.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2004).Google Scholar
  87. Wanglang Natural Reserve. 2003. Available at http://www.4panda.com/panda/pandasite/wanglang.htm (Accessed August 24, 2003)Google Scholar
  88. Ward, P. & S. Kynaston. 1995. Bears of the World. Blandford, London.Google Scholar
  89. World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development. 1999. Summary Report. Available at http://www.iisd.org/wcfsd/ (Accessed January 18, 2004).Google Scholar
  90. World Resources Institute. 2003. Species Extinction: Causes and Consequences. Available at http://www.wri.org (Accessed January 19, 2003).Google Scholar
  91. World Wildlife Federation. 2003. Panda Habitats Outside Existing Reserves are Essential to Panda’s Long Term Survival. Available http://www.wwfchina.org/english/loca.php?loca=80 (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  92. World Wildlife Fund, Great Barrier Reef Campaign. 2003. Available at http://www.gbr.wwf.org.au. (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  93. Xinhua News Agency. 2001. South Korea to Invest Six Million Dollars to Plant Trees in China. Available at fpeng.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200104/06/eng20010406_66995.html (Accessed January 21, 2004).Google Scholar
  94. Yale Bulletin & Calendar. 2001. Scholar Urges Expansion of Efforts to Save Giant Pandas. Available http://yale.edu/opa/v30.n14/story8.html (Accessed August 24, 2003).Google Scholar
  95. Yang, H. 1999. From fossils to molecules: The Metasequoia tale continues. Arnoldia 58/59: 60–71Google Scholar
  96. Yang, H. & J.H. Jin. 2000. Phytogeographic history and evolutionary stasis of Metasequoia: Geological and genetic information contrasted. Acta Palaeontogica Sinica 39: 288–307.Google Scholar
  97. Yaryan, W., D. Verardo & J. Verardo. 2000. The Sempervirens Story: A Century of Preserving California’s Ancient Redwood Forest, 1900–2000. Sempervirens Fund Press, San Francisco.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaytha A. Langlois
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Science and TechnologyBryant UniversitySmithfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations