Scientific and Technological Performance by Gender



The availability of sex-disaggregated data in the fields of research, technology and development is extremely important for supporting the growing political commitment to promote and monitor women participation in the different fields of S&T. During the late 1990s the European Commission identified as a priority the availability of this data. Even if scientific publications and patents are widely accepted indicators of scientific and technological performances, until now it has been impossible to measure bibliometric and patent output by gender in a large set of data. Starting from a feasibility study carried out for the European Commission on the whole set of patents published in 1998 by the European Patent Office and on 30,000 authors of items published in 1995 on scientific journals of international relevance, the paper demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust gender indicators on S&T output.


Bibliometric Indicator European Patent Office Technological Performance Female Contribution International Patent Classification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bochow, M., Joas, H. (1987). Wissenschaft und Karriere, der berufliche Verbleib der akademischen Mittelbaus. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.Google Scholar
  2. Campanelli, G., Segnana, M.L., Soci, A. (1999).Attività didattica, visibilità e pubblicazioni dei giovani economisti italiani. Una prospettiva di genere. In Carabelli, A., Parisi, D., Rosselli, A., 1999, Che genere di economista? Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  3. Cole, J.R., Cole, S. (1973). Social stratification in science. Chicago: University Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Di Cesare, R., Luzi, D., Valente, A. (2003). La produzione scientifica del Cnr nelle scienze sociali: considerazioni di genere. In A. Valente, D. Luzi (Eds.), Partecipare la scienza. Roma: Biblink (in press)Google Scholar
  5. European Commission — Directorate-General for Research, Science and Society. (2003). She figures: women and science, statistics and indicators. EUR 20733.Google Scholar
  6. European Commission — Directorate-General for Research, Knowledge-based economy and society competitiveness, economic analysis and indicators (2003). Third European Report on science and technology indicators, towards a knowledge based economy. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  7. Harding, S., Mc Gregor, E. (1996). The conceptual framework. In World Science Report (pp. 303–324). Paris: Unesco.Google Scholar
  8. Kaplan, S.H., Sullivan, L.M., Dukes, K.A., Phillis, C.F., Kelch, R.P., Schaller, J.G. (1996). Sex differences in academic advancement, England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1282–1289.Google Scholar
  9. Long, J.S. (Ed.). (2001). From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientist and Engineers. Panel for the study of gender differences in career outcomes of science and engineering Ph.D.s. Washington: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  10. Long, J.S. (1992). Measures of sex differences in scientific productivity. Social Forces, 71 (1), 159–178.Google Scholar
  11. Naldi, F., Vannini Parenti, I. (2002). Scientific and technological performance by gender — A feasibility study on patents and bibliometric indicators. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  12. Osborn, et al. (2000). ETAN Report science policies in the European Union — promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  13. Palomba, R. (ed.) (2000). Figlie di Minerva. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  14. Siltanen, J., et al. (1995). Gender inequicity in the labour market. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  15. Sonnert, G., Holton, G. (1996). Career pattern of women and men in sciences. American Scientist, 84, 67–71.Google Scholar
  16. Verspagen, B., van Moergastel, T., Slabbers, M. (1994). MERIT concordance table: IPC — ISIC (rev.2). RM1994-004,
  17. Xie, Y., Shauman, K.A. (1998). Sex differences in research productivity. New evidence about an old puzzle. American Sociological Review, Official Journal of the American Sociological Association, 63, 847–870.Google Scholar
  18. Zuckerman, H., Cole, J.R., Bruer, J.T. (Eds.). (1992). The outer circle, women in scientific community. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di ricerche sulla popolazione e le politiche socialiRomeItaly
  3. 3.DNSistemi srlMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations