Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Pesticides in the General Population (Non Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides)

  • Cristina Aprea

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACGIH (2002). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. ACGIH Cincinnati (Ohio).Google Scholar
  2. Angerer, J., R. Maaß and R. Heinrich (1983). Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane VI. Metabolism of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in man. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 52: 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angerer, J. M., B. Heinzow, K. H. Schaller, D. Welte and G. Lehnert (1992a). Determination of environmentally caused chlorophenol levels in urine of the general population. Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry 342: 433–438.Google Scholar
  4. Angerer, J., B. Heinzow, D. O. Reimann, W. Knorz and G. Lehnert (1992b). Internal exposure to organic substances in a municipal waste incinerator. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 64: 265–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aprea, C,G. Sciarra and L. Lunghini (1993). Analysis of ethylenethiourea in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with a spectrophotometric detector. Giornale degli Igienisti Industriali 18: 7–12.Google Scholar
  6. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, P. Sartorelli, F. Ceccarelli, M. Maiorano and G. Savelli (1994). Evaluation of omethoate and fenitrothion absorption in greenhouse workers using protective equipment in confined areas. La Medicina del Lavoro 85(3): 242–248.Google Scholar
  7. Aprea, C, P. Sartorelli, G. Sciarra, S. Palmi and S. Giambattistelli (1995). Elements for the definition of the limit values of the antiparasitic agents 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid). Prevenzione Oggi-ISPESL 4: 81–111.Google Scholar
  8. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra and L. Lunghini (1996a). Analytical method for the determination of urinary alkylphosphates in subjects occupationally exposed to organophosphorus insecticides and in the general population. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 20: 559–563.Google Scholar
  9. Aprea, C, A. Betta, G. Catenacci, A. Lotti, C. Minoia, V. Passini, I. Pavan, F. S. Robustelli della Cuna, C. Roggi, R. Ruggeri, C. Soave, G. Sciarra, P. Vannini and V. Vitalone (1996b). Reference values of urinary ethylenethiourea in four regions of Italy (multicentric study). The Science of the Total Environment 192: 83–93.Google Scholar
  10. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, D. Orsi, P. Boccalon, P. Sartorelli and E. Sartorelli (1996c) Urinary excretion of alkylphosphates in the general population (Italy). The Science of the Total Environment 177: 37–41.Google Scholar
  11. Aprea, C., A. Betta, G. Catenacci, A. Colli, A. Lotti, C. Minoia, P. Olivieri, V. Passini, I. Pavan, C. Roggi, R. Ruggeri, G. Sciarra, R. Turci, P. Vannini and V. Vitalone (1997a). Urinary excretion of ethylenethiourea in five volunteers on a controlled diet (multicentric study). The Science of the Total Environment 203: 167–179.Google Scholar
  12. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra and N. Bozzi (1997b). Analytical method for the determination of urinary 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid in occupationally exposed subjects and in the general population. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 21: 262–267.Google Scholar
  13. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, P. Sartorelli, E. Sartorelli, F. Strambi, G. A. Farina and A. Fattorini (1997c). Biological monitoring of exposure to chlorpyrifos-methyl by assay of urinary alkylphosphates and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 50: 581–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, P. Sartorelli, R. Mancini and V. Di Luca (1998). Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to mancozeb, ethylenethiourea and dimethoate during industrial formulation. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 53: 263–281.Google Scholar
  15. Aprea, C, A. Betta, G. Catenacci, A. Lotti, S. Magnaghi, A. Barisano, V. Passini, I. Pavan, G. Sciarra, V. Vitalone and C. Minoia (1999a). Reference values of urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in the Italian population — validation of analytical method and preliminary results (multicentric study). Journal of AOAC International 82(2): 305–312.Google Scholar
  16. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, P. Sartorelli, F. Ceccarelli and L. Centi (1999b). Multiroute exposure assessment and excretion of urinary metabolites of fenitrothion during manual operations on treated ornamental plants in greenhouses. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 36(4): 490–497.Google Scholar
  17. Aprea, C., M. Strambi, M. T. Novelli, L. Lunghini and N. Bozzi (2000). Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in 195 Italian children. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(6): 521–525.Google Scholar
  18. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, L. Lunghini, L. Centi and F. Ceccarelli (2001a). Evaluation of respiratory and cutaneous doses and urinary excretion of alkylphosphates by workers in greenhouses treated with omethoate, fenitrothion and tolclofos-methyl. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 62: 87–95.Google Scholar
  19. Aprea, C, G. Sciarra, L. Lunghini and N. Bozzi (2001b). Biological monitoring of pesticide exposure: occupationally exposed workers and general population. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanitsà 37(2): 159–174.Google Scholar
  20. Autio, K. (1983). Determination of ethylenethiourea (ETU) as a volatile N,N’-dimethyl derivative by GLC-MS and GLC-NPSD. Applications for determining ETU residues in berries and cigarette smoke condensate. Finnish Chemical Letters 4: 10–14.Google Scholar
  21. Bienick, G. (1994) The presence of 1-naphthol in the urine of industrial workers exposed to naphthalene. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 51: 357–359.Google Scholar
  22. Blair, A. (1990). Herbicides and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: new evidence from a study of Saskatchewan farmers. Journal of The National Cancer Institute 82: 544–545.Google Scholar
  23. Blair, A. and S. H. Zahm (1990). Herbicides and cancer: a review and discussion of methodologic issues. Recent Results. Cancer Research 120: 132–145.Google Scholar
  24. Bontoyan, W. R. and J. B. Looker (1973). Degradation of commercial ethylenebisdithiocarbamate formulations to ethylenethiourea under elevated temperature and humidity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 21(3): 338–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bontoyan, W. R., J. B. Looker, T. E. Kaiser, P. Giang and B. M. Olive (1972). Survey of ethylenethiourea in commercial ethylenebis-dithiocarbamate formulations. Journal of AOAC International 55: 923–925.Google Scholar
  26. Bradway, D. E. and T. M. Shafik (1977). Malathion exposure studies: determination of mono-and dicarboxylic acid and alkylphosphates in urine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 25: 1342–1344.Google Scholar
  27. Brugnone, F., G. Maranelli, G. Guglielmi, K. Ayyad, L. Soleo and G. Elia (1993). Blood concentrations of carbon disulphide in dithiocarbamate exposure and in the general population. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 64: 503–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CDC (2002).http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/report/.Google Scholar
  29. Cline, R. E., R. H. Hill, D. L. Phillips and L. L. Needham (1989). Pentachlorophenol measurements in body fluids of people in log homes and workplaces. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18: 475–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davies, J. E., J. H. Davis, D. E. Frazier, J. B. Mann and J. O. Welke (1966). Urinary p-nitrophenol concentrations in acute and chronic parathion exposures. In A. A. Rosen and A. F. Kraybill (eds.), Organic pesticides in the environment: A symposium. Advances in Chemistry Series Vol. 60. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 67–78.Google Scholar
  31. DFG (1993). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft — Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area. List of MAK and BAT values. Report no. 29 Kennedyallee 40 D-53175 Bonn (Germany).Google Scholar
  32. Driskell, W. J. and R. H. Hill Jr. (1997). Identification of a major human urinary metabolite of metolachlor by LC-MS/MS. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58(6): 929–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. EPA (1984) Wood preservative pesticides: creosote, pentachlorophenol, inorganic arsenicals. Position Document 4, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  34. Fenske, R. A. and K. P. Elkner (1990). Multi-route exposure assessment and biological monitoring of urban pesticide applicators during structural control treatments with chlorpyrifos. Toxicoogy and Industrial Health 6: 349–371.Google Scholar
  35. Gallelli, G. and S. Mangini (1995). Organochlorine residues in human adipose and hepatic tissues from autopsy sources in northern Italy. Journal ofToxicology and Environmental Health 46: 293–300.Google Scholar
  36. Gordon, S. M., P. J. Callahan, M. G. Nishioka, M. C. Brinkman, M. K. O’Rourke, M. D. Lebowitz and D. J. Moschandreas (1999). Residential environmental measurements in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) pilot study in Arizona: preliminary results for pesticides and VOCs. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 9: 456–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gurunathan, S., M. Robson, N. Freeman, B. Buckley, A. Roy, R. Meyer, J. Bukowski and P. J. Lioy (1998). Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Enviromental Health Perspectives 104: 202–209.Google Scholar
  38. Hansen, A. M., J. M. Christensen and D. Sherson (1994). Estimation of reference values for urinary 1-hydroxy-pyrene and α-naphthol in Danish workers. The Science of the Total Environment 168: 211–219.Google Scholar
  39. Hardt, J. and J. Angerer (2000). Determination of dialkyl phosphates in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 24: 678–684.Google Scholar
  40. Hill, R. H. Jr., T. To, J. S. Holler, D. M. Fast, S. J. Smith, L. L. Needham and S. Binder (1989). Residues of chlorinated phenols and phenoxy acid herbicides in the urine of Arkansas children. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18: 469–474.Google Scholar
  41. Hill, R. H. Jr, D. B. Shealy, S. L. Head, C. C. Williams, S. L. Bailey, M. Gregg, S. Baker and L. L. Needham (1995a). Determination of pesticide metabolites in human urine using an isotope dilution technique and tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 19: 323–329.Google Scholar
  42. Hill, R. H. Jr, S. L. Head, S. Baker, M. Gregg, D. B. Shealy, S. L. Bailey, C. C. Williams, E. J. Sampson and L. L. Needham (1995b). Pesticide residues in urine of adults living in the United States: reference range concentrations. Environmental Research 71: 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hill, R. H. Jr., D. L. Ashley, S. L. Head, L. L. Needham and J. L. Pirkle (1995c). p-Dichlorobenzene exposure among 1000 adults in the United States. Archives of Environmental Health 50(4): 277–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hill, R. H. Jr., S L. Head, S. E. Baker, C. Rubin, E. Esteban, S. L. Bailey, D. B. Shealy and L. L. Needham (1996). The use of reference range concentration in environmental health investigations. In J. N. Blancato, R. N. Brown, C. C. Dary and M. A. Saleh (eds.), Biomarkers for agrochemical and toxic substances. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  45. Holler, J. S., D. F. Fast, R. H. Hill, F. L. Cardinali, G. D. Todd, J. M. McCraw, S. L. Bailey and L. L. Needham (1989). Quantification of selected herbicides and chlorinated phenols in urine by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 13: 152–157.Google Scholar
  46. IARC (1974). International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to humans. Some antithyroid and related substances, nitrofurans and industrial chemicals. Vol 7. IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 45–52.Google Scholar
  47. IARC (1977). International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. An updating of IARC monographs. Vols. 1–42,Suppl. 7. IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  48. IARC (1983). International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to humans. Chemicals, industrial processes and industries associated with cancer in humans. Suppl. 4. IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 128–130.Google Scholar
  49. Ito, G., W. W. Kilgore and J. J. Seaburi (1979). Effect of freezer storage on alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22(4–5): 530–535.Google Scholar
  50. Knaak, J. B., M. J. Tallant, S. J. Kozbelt and L. J. Sullivan (1968). The metabolism of carbaryl in man, monkey, pig and sheep. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 16(3): 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kurttio, P. and K. Savolainen (1990). Ethylenethiourea in air and in urine as an indicator of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental & Health 16: 203–207.Google Scholar
  52. Kurttio, P., T. Vartiainen and K. Savolainen (1990). Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides and ethylenethiourea. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 47: 203–206.Google Scholar
  53. Kutz, F. W., B. T. Cook, O. D. Carter-Pokras, D. Brody and R. S. Murphy (1992). Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 37: 277–291.Google Scholar
  54. Lauwerys, R. R. and P. Hoet (1993) Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  55. Lebowitz, M. D., M. K. O’Rourke, S. Gordon, D. Moschandreas, T. Buckley and M. Nishioka (1995). Population-based exposure measurements in Arizona: a phase I field study in support of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 5: 297–325.Google Scholar
  56. Leenheers, L. H., D. G. Breugel, J. C. Ravensberg, W. J. A. Meuling and M. J. M. Jongen (1992). Determination of 2-isopropoxyphenol in urine using capillary gas chromatography and mass-selective detection. Journal Chromatography 578(2): 189–194.Google Scholar
  57. Lewis, R. G. (1989)Human exposure to pesticides used in and around the household. In S. R. Baker and C. F. Wilkinson (eds.), The effect of pesticides on human health. Princeton Scientific Publishing, Princeton NJ.Google Scholar
  58. Ministero della Sanità (1998) Pesticide residues in vegetable products, 1997. Roma, Sistema informativo sanitario (Editor).Google Scholar
  59. Morgan, D. R. (1992). Pesticides and public health — A case for scientific and medical concern? Pesticide Outlook 3: 24–29.Google Scholar
  60. Murphy, R. S., F. W. Kutz and S. C. Strassman (1983). Selected pesticide residues or metabolites in blood and urine specimens from a general population survey. Enviromental Health Perspectives 48: 81–86.Google Scholar
  61. NCHS (1994). Plan and Operation of NHANES III (1988–1994). Vital and health Statistics Series 1, No. 32. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyatteville, MD.Google Scholar
  62. Newsome, W. H. and G. W. Laver (1973). Effect of boiling on the formation of ethylenethiourea in zineb-treated foods. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 10(3): 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nolan, R. J., D. L. Rich, N. L. Frehour and J. H. Saunders (1984). Chlorpyrifos: pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 73: 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pagnotto, L. D. and J. E. Walkley (1965). Urinary dichlorophenol as an index of paradichlorobenzene exposure. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 26: 137–142.Google Scholar
  65. Pavan, I., E. Buglione, L. Pettinati, G. Perrelli, G. F. Rubino, C. Bicchi, A. D’Amato, F. Carlino, M. Bugiani and S. Polizzi (1987). Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue: data from the province of Turin. La Medicina del Lavoro 78(3): 219–228.Google Scholar
  66. Pekari, K., M. Luotamo, J. Jarvisalo, L. Lindroos and A. Aitio (1991). Urinary excretion of chlorinated phenol in saw-mill workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 63: 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Richardson, R. J. (1995). Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos relative to other organophosphorus compounds: a critical review of the literature. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 44: 135–165.Google Scholar
  68. Robertson, G. L., M. D. Lebowitz, M. K. O’Rourke, S. Gordon and D. Moschandreas (1999). The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) study in Arizona-introduction and preliminary results. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 9: 427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ross, R. D. and D. G. Crosby (1973). Photolysis of ethylenethiourea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 21(3): 335–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sciarra, G., C. Aprea and P. Sartorelli (1994). Evaluation of urinary excretion of ethylenethiourea in subjects occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates. Il Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro 16: 49–52.Google Scholar
  71. Sever, L. E., T. E. Arbuckle and A. Sweeney (1997). Reproductive and developmental effects of occupational pesticide exposure: the epidemiologic evidence. Occupational Medicine 12: 305–325.Google Scholar
  72. Shafik, M. T., H. C. Sullivan and H. F. Enos (1971). A method for the determination of 1-naphthol in urine. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 6: 34–39.Google Scholar
  73. Shafik, T. M., H. C. Sullivan and H. R. Enos (1973). Multiresidue procedure for halo-and nitrophenols. Measurement of exposure to biodegradable pesticides yielding these compounds as metabolites. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 21: 295–298.Google Scholar
  74. Sultatos, L. G., M. Shao and S. D. Murphy (1984). The role of hepatic biotransformation in mediating the acute toxicity of the phosphorothionate insecticide chlorpyrifos. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 73: 60–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thompson, T. S. and R. G. Treble (1994). Preliminary results of a survey of pentachlorophenol levels in human urine. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53: 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tilson, H. A. (1998). Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of information gaps and research needs. Enviromental Health Perspectives 106(suppl. 3): 807–811.Google Scholar
  77. Treble, G. and T. S. Thompson (1996). Normal values for pentachlorophenol in urine samples collected from a general population. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 20: 313–317.Google Scholar
  78. Wallace, L. A., E. D. Pellizzari, T. D. Hartwell, C. Sparacino, L. Whitmorer Sheldon, H. Zelon and R. Perrit (1987). The team study: Personal exposures to toxic substances in air, drinking water, and breath of 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota. Environmental Research 43: 290–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Watts, R. R. R. W. Storherr and J. H. Onley (1974). Effects of cooking on ethylenebisdithiocarbamate degradation to ethylenethiourea. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12: 224–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Weiss, T., J. Hardt and J. Angerer (1999). Determination of 2-thiazolidinethione-4-carboxylic acid after exposure to alkylene bisdithiocarbamates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal Chromatography B. Biomedical Science Application 726: 85–94.Google Scholar
  81. WHO (1982) World Health Organization. Recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to pesticides. Technical Report Series 677. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  82. WHO (1988) Environmental Health Criteria 78. Dithiocarbamate pesticides, ethylenethiourea and propylenethiourea: a general introdution. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  83. Zahm, S. H. and A. Blair (1992). Pesticides and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer Research 52(Suppl. 19): 5485s–5488s.Google Scholar
  84. Zhang, Z., J. Sun, S. Chen, Y. Wu and F. He (1991). Level of exposure and biological monitoring of pyrethroids in sprayman. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 48: 82–86.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Aprea
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Occupational Toxicology and Industrial HygieneNational Health Service (Local Health Unit 7), Strada del RuffoloSienaItaly

Personalised recommendations