Defining the Concept of Sustainability - a Matter of Systems Thinking and Applied Systems Analysis

  • Harald Sverdrup
  • Mats G. E. Svensson


Interest Rate Critical Load Base Cation Time Perspective Economic Sustainability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Azar, C, Holmberg, J., & Lindgren, K. (1996). Socio-ecological indicators for sustainability. Ecological Economics, 18, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahn, P. & Flenley, J. (1992). Easter Island Earth Island. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, K.D. (1997). Systems entropy analysis. Kybernetes, 26, 674–688.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop, R.C. (1978). Endangered species and uncertainty: The economics of a safe minimum standard. American Journal of Agricultural economics, 60, 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Comins, H.N. (1997). Analysis of nutrient-cycling dynamics for predicting sustainability and CO2-response of nutrient-limited forest ecosystems. Ecological Modelling, 99, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dallmeier, F. & Cominskey, J.A. (Eds.) (1998). Forest Biodiversity, Research, Monitoring and Modelling. Man and the biosphere series. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. Daly, H. & Cobb, J. (1994). For the Common Good. 2nd Ed. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dryzek, J.S. & Schlosberg, D. (Eds.) (1998). Debating the Earth. The Environmental Political Reader. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Eckersley, R. (1992). Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach. New York: SUNY.Google Scholar
  10. Eddington, A.S. (1987). Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory. Cambridge Science classics Series. London: Cambridge University Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Ehrlich, P. (1988). The loss of biodiversity: Causes and Consequences. In E.O. Wilson & F. Peter (Eds.), Biodiversity (pp. 21–27). Washington DC: National Academy.Google Scholar
  12. Falkengren-Grerup, U. & Eriksson, H. (1990). Changes in soil, vegetation and forest yield between 1947 and 1988 in beech an oak sites in southern Sweden. Environmental Pollution, 43, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Falkengren-Grerup, U. & Tyler, G. (1991). Changes in cation pool of the topsoil in south Swedish beech forests between 1979 and 1989. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 6, 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gale, R.P. & Cordray, S.M. (1991). Eight answers. Journal of Forestry, 5, 31–36.Google Scholar
  15. Gilman, R. (1990). Sustainability: The state of the movement. Context, 25, 10.Google Scholar
  16. Holden, C. (1995). Betting on the future. Science, 268, 1281.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Hueting, R. (1989). Correcting national income for environmental losses: Towards a practical solution. In I. Ahmed, S. El Serafy, & E. Lutz (Eds.), Environmental Accounting for Sustainable Development (pp. 28–50). Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  18. Jaeger, W.K. (1995). Is sustainability optimal? Examining the differences between economists and environmentalists. Ecological Economics, 15, 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kimmins, H. (1997). Balancing Act, Environmental Issues in Forestry. 2nd Ed. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  20. M’Gonigle, M. & Parfitt, B. (1994). Forestopia, Vancouver, Canada: Harbour Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Norgaard, R.B. (1984). Coevolutionary development potential. Land Economics, 60, 160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. O’Riordan, T. (1988). The politics of sustainability. In R. Turner (Ed.), Sustainable Environmental Management: Principles and Practice (pp. 23–27). London: Belhaven.Google Scholar
  23. Pearce, D.W. & Atkinson, G. (1995). Measuring sustainability development. In D.W. Bromley (Ed.), The Handbook of Environmental Economics (pp. 166–181). London: Blackwells.Google Scholar
  24. Ponting, C. (1993). The Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  25. Simon, J.L. (1996). The Ultimate Resource 2. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Solow, R.M. (1986). On the intertemporal allocation of natural resources. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 88, 141–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SOU 1992:76. Skogspolitiken inför 2000-talet. Huvudbetänkande, Bilagor I, Bilagor II; 1990 års skogspolitiska kommitté. SOU 1992:76. Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget.Google Scholar
  28. Sverdrup, H. & Rosén, K. (1999). Long-term base cation mass balances for Swedish forests and the concept of sustainability. Forest Ecology and Management, 110, 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sverdrup, H. & Svensson, M.G.E. (2001). Defining sustainability. In H. Sverdrup & I. Stjernquist (Eds.), Developing Principles and Models for Sustainable Forestry in Sweden. Report from a Multidisciplinary Research Programme for Sustainable Forest Management, SUFOR (pp. 21–32). Dortrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  30. Sverdrup, H. & Warfvinge, P. (1988). Assessment of critical loads of acid deposition on forest soils. In Critical loads for Sulphur and Nitrogen, Environmental Report 1988:15 (pp. 221–236). Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.Google Scholar
  31. Van Kooten, C. & Bulte, E.H. (2000). The Economics of Nature-Managing Biological Assets. London: Blackwells.Google Scholar
  32. Van Pelt, M.J.F., Kuyvenhoven, A., & Nijkamp, P. (1995). Environmental sustainability: Issues of definition and measurement, International Journal of Environmental Pollution, 5, 204–223.Google Scholar
  33. Wackernagel, M. & Rees, W (1996). Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, BC and Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Warfvinge, P., Falkengren-Grerup, U., & Sverdrup, H. (1993). Modelling long-term cation supply in acidified forest stands. Environmental Pollution, 80, 209–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams, B.A. & Matheney, A.R. (1995). Democracy, Dialogue and Environmental Disputes. New York: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  36. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Sverdrup
    • 1
  • Mats G. E. Svensson
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering IICenter for Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringLundSweden

Personalised recommendations