Everything Provable is Provable in Zero-Knowledge

  • Michael Ben-Or
  • Oded Goldreich
  • Shafi Goldwasser
  • Johan Håstad
  • Joe Kilian
  • Silvio Micali
  • Phillip Rogaway
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 403)


Assuming the existence of a secure probabilistic encryption scheme, we show that every language that admits an interactive proof admits a (computational) zero-knowledge interactive proof. This result extends the result of Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson, that, under the same assumption, all of NP admits zero-knowledge interactive proofs. Assuming envelopes for bit commitment, we show tht every language that admits an interactive proof admits a perfect zero-knowledge interactive proof.


Proof System Oblivious Transfer Common Input Interactive Proof Public History 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Ben-Or
    • 1
  • Oded Goldreich
    • 2
  • Shafi Goldwasser
    • 3
  • Johan Håstad
    • 4
  • Joe Kilian
    • 3
  • Silvio Micali
    • 3
  • Phillip Rogaway
    • 3
  1. 1.Hebrew UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Technion — Israel Institute of TechnologyIsrael
  3. 3.Laboratory for Computer ScienceM.I.T.USA
  4. 4.Royal Institute of TechnologySweden

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