Complex Network-Based Information Systems (CNIS) Standards: Toward an Adoption Model

  • David Kelly
  • Joseph Feller
  • Patrick Finnegan
Part of the IFIP International Federation for Information Processing book series (IFIPAICT, volume 206)


This paper proposes an adoption model for complex network-based information systems (CNIS) standards which extends current diffusion of innovation theory within a specific technological context, that of ambient intelligence (AmI). The issue of open and closed standards is especially important for networked information systems; however, a range of factors impact the adoption decision and challenge existing models of adoption. Such models are based on DOI theories that have their roots in more simplistic technological innovations. In order to extend the current view on adoption, the adoption context must be closely considered. Agile organizations must constantly survey the external environment to determine the potential of emerging technology. Open standards may make organizations less vulnerable to environmental flux due to uncertainties caused by the lack of transparency of proprietary standards. Accordingly, the proposed model moves toward providing a means to assess factors impacting the adoption of open and proprietary standards.


Emerging IS/IT diffusion of innovation standards adoption 


  1. Abowd, G., and Mynatt, E. “Charting Past, Present and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing” ACM Transactions on Computer-human Interaction (7), 2000, pp. 29–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abowd, G., Mynatt, E., and Rodden, T. “The Human Experience,” IEEE Pervasive Computing (1), 2002, pp. 48–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abrahamson, E. “Managerial Fads and Fashions: The Diffusion and Rejection of Innovations,” Academy of Management Journal (16), 1991, pp. 586–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Afuah, A. “Redefining Firm Boundaries in the Face of the Internet: Are Firms Really Shrinking?,” Academy of Management Review (28), 2003, pp. 34–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvai, M., and Carlson, P. “A Review of MIS Research and Disciplinary Development,” Journal of Management Information Systems (3), 1992, pp. 45–62.Google Scholar
  6. Attewell, P. “Technology Diffusion and Organizational Learning: The Case of Business Computing,” Organization Science (3), 1992, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  7. Banavar, G., and Bernstein, A. “Software Infrastructure and Design Challenges for Ubiquitous Computing Applications,” Communications of the ACM (45), 2002, pp. 92–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baskerville, R., and Preis-Heje, J. “Information Technology Diffusion: Building Positive Barriers,” European Journal of Information Systems (7), 1998, pp. 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayer, J., and Melone, N. “A Critique of Diffusion Theory as a Managerial Framework for Understanding Adoption of Software Engineering Innovations,” Journal of Systems and Software (9), 1989, pp. 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Besen, S. M., and Farrell, J. “Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization,” Journal of Economic Perspectives (8), 1994, pp. 117–131.Google Scholar
  11. Boddupalli, P., Al-Bin-Ali, F., Davies, N., Friday, A., Storz, O., and Wu, M. “Payment Support in Ubiquitous Computing Environments,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, October 2003, p. 110.Google Scholar
  12. Borriello, G., Chalmers, M., Lamarca, A., and Nixon, P. “Delivering Real-World Ubiquitous Location Systems,” Communications of the ACM (48), 2005, pp. 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chau, P. Y. K., and Tarn, K. Y. “Factors Affecting the Adoption of Open Systems: An Exploratory Study,” MIS Quarterly (21:1), 1997, pp. 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, W., and Hirschheim, R. A. “A Paradigatic and Methodological Examination of Information Systems Research from 1991 to 2001,” Information Systems Journal (14:3), 2004, pp. 197–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, L., and Tan, J. “Technology Adaption in E-Commerce: Key Determinants of Virtual Stores Acceptance,” European Management Journal (22), 2004, pp. 74–86.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christiaanse, E., Van Diepen, T., and Damsgaard, J. “Proprietary Versus Internet Technologies and the Adoption and Impact of Electronic Marketplaces,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems (13), 2004, pp. 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chung, J., Lin, K., and Mathieu, R. G. “Web Services Computing: Advancing Software Interoperability,” Computer (36), 2003, pp. 35–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cilliers, P. Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems, London: Routledge, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. Claver, E., Gonzales, R., and Llopis, J. “An Analysis of Research in Information Systems,” Information and Management (37), 2000, pp. 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Culnan, M. J. “Mapping the Intellectual Structures of MIS, 1980–1985: A Co-citation Analysis,” MIS Quarterly (11), 1987, pp. 340–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Damsgaard, J., and Truex, D. “Binary Trading Relations and the Limits of EDI Standards: The Procrustean Bed of Standards,” European Journal of Information Systems (9), 2004, pp. 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies, N., and Gellersen, H.-W. “Beyond Prototypes: Challenges in Deploying Ubiquitous Computing Systems,” IEEE Pervasive Computing (1), 2002, pp. 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dedrick, J., and West, J. “Why Firms Adopt Open Source Platforms: Grounded Theory of Innovation and Standards Adoption,” in J. L. King and K. Lyytinen (eds.), Proceedings of the MIS Quarterly Special Issue Workshop on Standard Making: A Critical Research Frontier for Information Systems, Seattle, WA, 2003, pp. 236–257.Google Scholar
  24. Drury, D. H., and Farhoomand, A. “Innovation Diffusion and Implementation,” International Journal of Innovation Management (3), 1999, pp. 133–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ducatel, K., Bogdanowicz, Scapolo, F., Leijten, J., and Burgelman, J.-C. “Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence in 2010,” Technical Report, Information Society Technology Advisory Group (ISTAG), European Commission, February 2001 (available from Scholar
  26. Ethiraj, S. K., and Levinthal, D. “Modularity and Innovation in Complex Systems,” Management Science (50), 2004, pp. 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Farrell, J., and Saloner, G. “Standardization, Compatibility, and Innovation,” Rand Journal of Economics (16), 1985, pp. 70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feng, P. “Studying Standardization: A Review of the Literature,” in T. M. Egyedi, K. Krechmer, and K. Jakobs (eds.), Proceedings of the 3 rd IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  29. Fichman, R. G. “Information Technology Diffusion: A Review of Empirical Research,” in J. I. DeGross, J. D. Becker, and J. J. Elam (eds.), Proceedings of the 13 th International Conference on Information Systems, Dallas, TX, December 1992, pp. 195–206.Google Scholar
  30. Fichman, R. G. “The Diffusion and Assimilation of Information Technology Innovations,” in R. W. Zmud (ed.), Framing the Domains of it Management: Projecting the Future Through the Past, Cincinnati, OH: Pinnaflex Publishing, 2000.Google Scholar
  31. Funk, J. L., and Mehte, D. T. “Market-and Committee-Based Mechanisms in the Creation and Diffusion of Global Industry Standards: The Case of Mobile Communication,” Research Policy (30), 2001, pp. 589–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gabel, H. L. Competitive Strategies for Product Standards: The Strategic Use of Compatibility Standards for Competitive Advantage, Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1991.Google Scholar
  33. Gallivan, M. J. “Organizational Adoption and Assimilation of Complex Technological Innovations: Development and Application of a New Framework,” ACM SIGMIS Database (32), 2001, pp. 51–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garlan, D., Siewiorek, D., and Steenkiste, P. “Project Aura: Toward Distraction-Free Pervasive Computing,” Pervasive Computing (1), 2002, pp. 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geroski, P. A. “Models of Technology Diffusion,” Research Policy (29), 2000, pp. 603–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Helal, S. “Programming Pervasive Spaces,” Pervasive Computing (4), 2005, pp. 84–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Henricksen, K., Indulska, J., and Rakotonirainy, A. “Infrastrucure for Pervasive Computing: Challenges,” in K. Bauknecht, W. Brauer, and T. A. Muck (eds.), Proceedings of the Informatik 2001: Workshop on Pervasive Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2001, pp. 214–222.Google Scholar
  38. Hovav, A., Patnayakuni, R., and Schuff, D. “A Model of Internet Standards Adoption: The Case of IPV6,” Information Systems Journal (14), 2004, pp. 265–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Islam, N., and Fayad, M. “Toward Ubiquitous Acceptance of Ubiquitous Computing,” Communications of the ACM (46), 2003, pp. 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Iversen, E. J. “Raising Standards: Innovation and the Emerging Global Standardization Environment for ICTs,” in T. D. Schoechle and C. B. Wagner (eds.), Proceedings of the 2 nd IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001, pp. 13–24.Google Scholar
  41. Jakobs, K. “A Broader View on Some Forces Shaping Standardization,” in T. D. Schoechle and C. B. Wagner (eds.), Proceedings of the Second IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001, pp. 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karlsbjerg, J. “Staying Outside the Mainstream: An Empirical Study of Standards Choices,” in R. H. Sprague (ed.), Proceedings of the 35 th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Volume 8), Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2002, pp. 3335–3343.Google Scholar
  43. Katz, M. L., and Shapiro, C. “Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility,” The American Economic Review (75), 1985, pp. 424–440.Google Scholar
  44. Katz, M. L., and Shapiro, C. “Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities,” Journal of Political Economy (94), 1986, pp. 822–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. King, J. L., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K. L., McFarlan, F. W., Raman, K. S., and Yap, C. S. “Institutional Factors in Information Technology Innovation,” Information Systems Research (5), 1994, pp. 139–169.Google Scholar
  46. Krechmer, K. “The Meaning of Open Standards,” in D. King and A. Dennis (eds.), Proceedings of the 38 th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, January 2005, p. 204b.Google Scholar
  47. Kumar, R. L. “A Framework for Assessing the Business Value of Information Technology Infrastructures,” Journal of Management Information Systems (21:2), 2004, pp. 11–32.Google Scholar
  48. Langlois, R. N. “Modularity in Technology and Organization,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (49), 2002, pp. 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lassila, O. “Serendipitous Interoperability,” in E. Hyvonen (ed.), Semantic Web Kick-off in Finland—Vision, Technologies, Research and Applications, Helsinki, Finland: HUT Publications, 2002, pp. 243–256.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, G., and Xia, W. “Development of a Measure to Assess the Complexity of Information Systems Development Projects,” in L. Applegate, R. Galliers, and J. I. DeGross (eds.), Proceedings of the 23 rd International Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 2002, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  51. Lyytinen, K., and Damsgaard, J. “What’s Wrong with the Diffusion of Innovation Theory? The Case of a Complex and Networked Technology,” in M. A. Ardis and B. L. Marcolin (eds.), Diffusing Software Products and Process Innovations, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 173–190.Google Scholar
  52. Lyytinen, K., and Rose, G. M. “Disruptive Information System Innovation: The Case of Internet Computing,” Information Systems Journal (13), 2003, pp. 301–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lyytinen, K., Rose, G. M., and Welke, R. “The Brave New World of Development in the Internetwork Computing Architecture (Internca): Or How Distributed Computing Platforms Will Change Systems Development,” Information Systems Journal (8), 1998, pp. 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lyytinen, K., and Yoo, Y. “The Next Wave of Nomadic Computing: A Research Agenda for Information Systems Research,” Information Systems Research (13), 2002, pp. 377–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maekawa, M. “ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) Solutions,” NEC Journal of AdvancedTechnology (1), 2004, pp. 194–199.Google Scholar
  56. Markus, M. L. “Toward a ‘Critical Mass’ Theory of Interactive Media: Universal Access, Interdependence and Diffusion,” Communications Research (14), 1987, pp. 491–511.Google Scholar
  57. Munkvold, B. E. “Adoption and Diffusion of Collaborative Technology in Interorganizational Networks,” in J. F. Nunamaker (ed.), Proceedings of the 31 st Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences (Volume 1), Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998, pp. 424–433.Google Scholar
  58. Nakajima, T., Ishikawa, H., Tokunaga, E., and Stajano, F. “Technology Challenges for Building Internet-Scale Ubiquitous Computing,” Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE Workshop on Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems (Words 2002), Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2002, pp. 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson, M. L., and Shaw, M. J. “The Adoption and Diffusion of Interorganizational System Standards and Process Innovations,” in J. L. King and K. Lyytinen (eds.), Proceedings of the MIS Quarterly Special Issue Workshop on Standard Making: A Critical Research Frontier for Information Systems, Seattle, WA, 2003, pp. 258–301.Google Scholar
  60. Newell, S., Swan, J. A., and Galliers, R. D. “A Knowledge-Focused Perspective on the Diffusion and Adoption of Complex Information Technologies: The BPR Example,” Information Systems Journal (10), 2000, pp. 239–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Orlikowski, W., and Baroudi, J. J. “Studying Information Technology in Organizations: Research Approaches and Assumptions,” Information Systems Research (2), 1991, pp. 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prekop, P., and Burnett, M. “Activities, Context and Ubiquitous Computing,” Computer Communications (26), 2003, pp. 1168–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reimers, K., Johnston, R. B., and Klein, S. “The Shaping of Interorganizational Information Systems: Main Design Considerations of an International Comparative Research Project,” in J. Gricar and G. Lenart (eds.), Proceedings of the 17 th Bled E-Commerce Conference, eGlobal, Bled, Slovenia, June 21–23, 2004.Google Scholar
  64. Rice, J. “Collaboration and Competition in Emerging Standards: An Assessment of the Implications for Knowledge Management,” in T. D. Schoechle and C. B. Wagner (eds.), Proceedings of the 2 nd IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001, pp. 272–281.Google Scholar
  65. Rogers, E. Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  66. Romano, N. C, and Fjermestad, J. “Electronic Commerce Customer Relationship Management: An Assessment of Research,” International Journal of Electronic Commerce (6), 2002, pp. 61–113.Google Scholar
  67. Shapiro, C. “Setting Compatibility Standards: Cooperation or Collusion?,” paper presented at the Conference of the Engelberg Center on Innovation Law and Policy, La Pietra, Italy, 1998.Google Scholar
  68. Shapiro, C, and Varian, H. R. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  69. Sharifi, H., and Zhang, Z. “A Methodology for Achieving Agility in Manufacturing Organizations: An Introduction,” International Journal of Production Economics (62), 1999, pp. 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Simon, H. A. “The Architecture of Complexity,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (106), 1962, pp. 467–482.Google Scholar
  71. Sirkemaa, S. “IT Infrastructure Management and Standards,” in P. Srimani and H. Yu (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2002, pp. 201–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sprott, D. “Componentizing the Enterprise Application Packages,” Communications of the ACM (43), 2000, pp. 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stegwee, R. A., and Rukanova, B. D. “Identification of Different Types of Standards for Domain-Specific Interoperability,” in Proceedings of the MIS Quarterly Special Issue Workshop on Standard Making: A Critical Research Frontier for Information Systems, Seattle, WA, 2003.Google Scholar
  74. Strand, E. J., Mehta, R. P., and Jairam, R. “Applications Thrive on Open Systems Standards,” Standardview (2), 1994, pp. 148–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tassey, G. “Standardization in Technology-Based Markets,” Research Policy (29), 2000, pp. 587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thomke, E., and Reinersten, D. G. “Agile Product Development: Managing Development Flexibility in Uncertain Environments,” California Management Review, Fall 1998, pp. 8–30.Google Scholar
  77. Tornatzky, L. G., and Klein, K. J. “Innovation Characteristics and Innovation Adoption Implementation: A Meta-Analysis of Findings,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management (EM-29), 1982, pp. 28–45.Google Scholar
  78. Weiser, M. “The Computer for the 21st Century,” Scientific American (265), 1991, pp. 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. West, J. “What Are Open Standards? Implications for Adoption, Competition and Policy,” paper presented at the Standards and Public Policy Conference, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 2004.Google Scholar
  80. West, J., and Dedrick, J. “Innovation and Control in Standards Architectures: The Rise and Fall of Japan’s PC-98,” Information Systems Research (11), 2000, pp. 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Williams, R. “ICT Standard Setting from an Innovation Studies Perspective,” in First IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, September 1999, pp. 15–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Federation for Information Processing 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Kelly
    • 1
  • Joseph Feller
    • 1
  • Patrick Finnegan
    • 1
  1. 1.University College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations