Cell-Bound Complement Activation Products (CB-CAPs) as a Source of Lupus Biomarkers

  • Sarah J. Calano
  • Pei-an B. Shih
  • Chau-Ching Liu
  • Amy H. Kao
  • Jeannine S. Navratil
  • Susan Manzi
  • Joseph M. Ahearn
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (volume 586)

4. Summary

Measurement of serum C3 and C4 has been used for several decades to monitor disease activity in patients with SLE. Despite the limited utility and recognized weaknesses of these assays, they have remained the gold standard during an era of unprecedented discovery in the complement field. The current urgent need for lupus biomarkers warrants efforts to mine the complement system for assays superior to serum C3 and C4. Recent studies of soluble and cell-bound complement activation products hold promise for achieving this goal.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Complement Activation Monitor Disease Activity Inactive Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah J. Calano
    • 1
  • Pei-an B. Shih
    • 1
  • Chau-Ching Liu
    • 1
  • Amy H. Kao
    • 1
  • Jeannine S. Navratil
    • 1
  • Susan Manzi
    • 1
  • Joseph M. Ahearn
    • 1
  1. 1.Lupus Center of ExcellenceUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public HealthUSA

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