Chapter

Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2

Volume 114 of the series Springer Series in Optical Sciences pp 535-569

Photosensitivity and Treatments for Enhancing the Photosensitivity of Silica-Based Glasses and Fibers

  • P. NiayAffiliated withLaboratoire de Physique, Atomes et Molécules (PHLAM), Unité Mixte de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, UMR 8523), Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille
  • , B. PoumellecAffiliated withLaboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Unité Mixte de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, UMR 8182), ICMMO (Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay), Université de Paris Sud-Orsay
  • , M. LancryAffiliated withLaboratoire de Physique, Atomes et Molécules (PHLAM), Unité Mixte de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, UMR 8523), Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille
  • , M. DouayAffiliated withLaboratoire de Physique, Atomes et Molécules (PHLAM), Unité Mixte de Recherche du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, UMR 8523), Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille

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Abstract

Due to excellent physical and chemical properties, vitreous silica-based (v-SiO2- based) glasses prove to be key materials in optical waveguides, metal-oxide semiconductors, and other optical elements. Thus, numerous elaboration methods are used to produce v-silica-based devices. For example, the techniques of vaporphase deposition (e.g., flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD), modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)) are common in the fabrication of most standard telecommunication silica fibers or planar waveguides [1–4]. Moreover, planar waveguides or thin films can be produced from silica-containing solid source by physical vapor-deposition techniques such as rf reactive sputtering deposition [5–6] and helicon-activated reactive evaporation (HARE) [7]. Waveguides can also be fabricated by means of electron [8] or ion (Si, Ge, Se, O, B, P, or H) implantation in pure silica [9–13]. Furthermore, other processes including sol-gel synthesis [14–15] and conventional melting of raw materials are routinely used to manufacture sol-gel fiber [15], glassy thin films, or multicomponent glass in which waveguides are realized by means of techniques such as ion exchange [16–17].