Polyomaviruses and Human Diseases

  • Nasimul Ahsan
  • Keerti V. Shah
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 577)


Polyomaviruses are small, nonenveloped DNA viruses, which are widespread in nature. In immunocompetent hosts, the viruses remain latent after primary infection. With few exceptions, illnesses associated with these viruses occur in times of immune compromise, especially in conditions that bring about T cell deficiency. The human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV are known to cause, respectively, hemorrhagic cystitis in recipients of bone marrow transplantation and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in immunocompromised patients, for example, by HIV infection. Recently, transplant nephropathy due to BKV infection has been increasingly recognized as the cause for renal allograft failure. Quantitation of polyomavirus DNA in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine, identification of virus laden “decoy cells” in urine, and histopathologic demonstration of viral inclusions in the brain parenchyma and renal tubules are the applicable diagnostic methods. Genomic sequences of polyomaviruses have been reported to be associated with various neoplastic disorders and autoimmune conditions. While various antiviral agents have been tried to treat polyomavirus-related illnesses, current management aims at the modification and/or improvement in the hosts’ immune status. In this chapter, we provide an overview of polyomaviruses and briefly introduce its association with human diseases, which will be covered extensively in other chapters by experts in the field.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Padgett BL, Walker DL, Zu Rhein GM et al. Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Lancet 1971; i:1257–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gardner SD, Field AM, Coleman DV et al. New human papovavirus (B.K.) isolated from urine after renal transplantation. Lancet 1971; i:1253–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sweet BH, Hillemean MR. The vacuolating virus, SV 40. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1960; 105:420–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mortimer EA, Lepow ML, Gold E et al. Long-term follow-up of persons inadvertently inoculated with SV40 as neonates. N Engl J Med 1981; 305:1517–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahsan N, Shah KV. Polyomaviruses: An overview. Graft 2002; 5:S9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walker DL, Frisque RJ. The biology and molecular biology of JC virus. In: Salzman NP, ed. The papovaviridae, the polyomaviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1986: 1:327–377.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moens U, Johansen T, Johansen JI et al. Noncoding control region of naturally occurring BK virus variants: Sequence comparison and functional analysis. Virus Genes 1995; 10:261–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kristoffersen AK, Johnsen JI, Seternes OM et al. The human polyomavirus BK T antigen induces genes expression in human cytomegalovirus. Virus Res 1997; 52:61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cubitt c, Stoner G. Molecular genetics of the BK virus. Graft 2002; 5:S20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Imagawa M, Chiu R, Karin M. Transcription factor AP-2 mediates induction by two different signal-transduction pathways: Protein kinase C and cAMP. Cell 1987; 51:251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moens U, Sundsfjord A, Flaegstad T et al. BK virus early RNA transcripts in stably transformed cells: Enhanced levels induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. J Gen Virol 1990; 71:1461–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knepper JE, DiMayorca G. Cloning and characterization of BK virus-related DNA sequences from normal and neoplastic human tissues. J Med Virol 1987; 21:289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman JT, Frisque RJ. Detection of archetype and rearranged variants of JC virus in multiple tissues from a pediatric PML patient. J Med Virol 1997; 52:243–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Loeber G, Domes K. DNA rearrangements in organ-specific variants of polyomavirus JC strain GS. J Virol 1988; 62:1730–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ault GS, Stoner GL. Brain and kidney of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients contain identical rearrangements of the JC virus promoter/enhancer. J Med Virol 1994; 44:298–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moens U, Rekvig OP. Molecular biology of BK virus and clinical and basic aspects of BK virus renal infection. In: Khalili K, Stoner GL, ed. Human polyomaviruses. Molecular and clinical perspectives. New York: Willey-Liss Inc., 2001:359–408.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moens U, Seternes OM, Johansen B et al. Mechanism of transcriptional regulation of cellular genes SV40 larger T-and small t-antigens. Virus Genes 1997; 15:135–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kornberg RD. Structure of chromatin. Annu Rev Biochem 1977; 46:931–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McGhee JD, Felsenfeld G. Nucleosome structure. Annu Rev Biochem 1980; 49:1115–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kornberg RD, Lorch Y. Twenty-five years of nucleosome, fundamental particle of the eukaryotic chromosome. Cell 1999; 98:285–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andreassen K, Bredholt G, Moens U et al. T cell lines specific for polyomavirus T-antigen recognize T-virus complexed with nucleosomes: A molecular basis for anti-DNA antibody production. Eur J Immunol 1999; 29:2715–2728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liddington RC, Yan Y, Moulat J et al. Structure of seminal virus 40 at 3.8—A resolution. Nature 1991; 554:278–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rayment I, Baker TS, Casper DL et al. Polyoma virus capsis structure at 22.5 A resolution. Nature 1982; 295:13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Resnick J, Shenk T. Simian virus 40 agnoprotein facilitates normal nuclear location of the major capsid polypeptide and cell-to-cell spread of virus. J Virol 1986; 60:1098–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Endo S, Okada Y, Nishihara H et al. JC virus agnoprotein co localizes with tubulin. J Neuro Virol 2003; 9:10–14.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beckmann A, Shah K. Propagation and primary isolation of JCV and BKV in urinary epithelial cell cultures. In: Sever JL, Madden DL, eds. Polyomaviruses and human neurological diseases. New York: Alan R Liss, 1983:3–14.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marshall WF, Telenti A, Proper J et al. Rapid detection of polyomavirus BK by a shell vial cell culture assay. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 28:1613–1615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Padgett B, Walker D. Natural history of human polyomavirus infections. In: Stevens JG, Todaro GJ, Fox CF, eds. Persistent viruses. New York: Academic Press, 1978:751–758.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Assouline JG, Major EO. Human fetal Schwann cells support JC virus multiplication. J Virol 1991; 65:1001–1006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Major EO, Vacante D. Human fetal astrocytes in culture support the growth of the neurotropic human polyomavirus JCV. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1989; 48:425–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aoki N, Mori M, Kato K et al. Antibody against synthetic multiple antigen peptides (MAP) of JC virus capsid protein (VP1) without cross reaction to BK virus: A diagnostic tool for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Neurosci Lett 1996; 205:111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Knowles WA, Gibson PE, Gardner SD. Serological typing scheme for BK-like isolates of human polyomavirus. J Med Virol 1989; 28:118–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Knowles WA, Gibson PE, Hand JF et al. An M-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA) for detection of JC virus-specific IGM. J Virol Mehtods 1992; 40:95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marshall J, Smith AE, Cheng SH. Monoclonal antibody specific for BK virus large T antigens. Oncogene 1991; 6:1673–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frisque RJ, Rifkin DB, Walker DL. Transformation of primary hamster brain cells with JC virus and its DNA. J Virol 1980; 35:265–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pater MM, Pater A, di Mayorca G et al. BK virus-transformed inbred hamster brain cells: Status of viral DNA in subclones. Mol Cell Biol 1982; 2:837–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Takemoto KK, Linke H, Miyarnura T et al. Persistent BK papovavirus infection of transformed human fetal brain cells. J Virol 1979; 29:1177–1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thiele M, Grabowski G. Mutagenic activity of BKV and JCV in human and other mammalian cells. Arch Virol 1990; 113:221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Apperly JF, Rice SJ, Bishop JA et al. Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis associated with urinary excretion of polyomaviruses after bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1987; 43:108–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arthur RR, Shah KV, Charache P et al. BK and JC virus infections in recipients of bone marrow transplants. J Infect Dis 1988; 158:563–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Atwood WJ. Cellular receptors for the polyomaviruses. In: Khallili K, Stoner GL, eds. Human polyomaviruses: Molecular and clinical perspectives. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001:179–96.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu CK, Wei G, Atwood WJ. Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC is mediated by an N-linked glycoprotein containing terminal alpha (2–6) linked sialic acids. J Virol 1998; 72:4643–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Breau WC, Atwood WJ, Norkin LC. Class I major histocompatibility proteins are an essential component of the simian virus 40 receptor. J Virol 1992; 66:2037–2045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Atwood WJ, Norkin LC. Class I major histocompatibility proteins as cell surface receptors for simian virus 40. J Virol 1989; 63:4474–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kenney S, Natarajan V, Strike D et al. JC virus enhancer-promoter active in human brain cells. Science 1984; 226:1337–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Corallini A, Pagnani M, Caputo A et al. Cooperation in oncogenesis between BK virus early region gene and the activated human c-Harvey ras oncogene. J Gen Virol 1988; 69:2671–2679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Knepper JE, di Mayorca G. Cloning and characterization of BK virus-related DNA sequences from normal and neoplastic human tissues. J Med Virol 1987; 21:289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Monaco MC, Jensen PN, Hou J et al. Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: Evidence for site of initial viral infection. J Virol 1998; 72:9918–9923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weber T, Major EO. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: Molecular biology, pathogenesis, and clinical impact. Intervirology 1997; 40:98–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sundsfjord A, Spein AR, Lucht E et al. Detection of human polyomavirus BK DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with respiratory infections but not in saliva from immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32:1390–1394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Taguchi F, Nagaki D, Saito M et al. Transplacental transmission of BK virus in human. Jpn J Micrbiol 1975; 19:395–398.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pietropaolo V, Di Taranto C, Degener AM et al. Transplacental transmission of human polyomavirus BK. J Med Virol 1998; 56:372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shah K, Daniel R, Madden D et al. Serological investigation of BK papovavirus infection pregnant women and their offspring. Infect Immun 1980; 30:29 (in recipients of renal allografts. J Infect Dis 1998; 158:176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arthur RR, Dagostin S, Shah KV. Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27:1174–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Andrews CA, Shah KV, Daniel RW et al. A serological investigation of BK virus and JC virus infections in recipients of renal allografts. J Infect Dis 198; 158:176–181Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Major EO, Amemiya K, Tornatore CS et al. Pathogenesis and molecular biology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain. Clin Microbiol Rev 1992; 5:49–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dorries K, Vogel E, Gunther S et al. Infection of human polyomaviruses JC and BK in peripheral blood leukocytes from immunocompetent individuals. Virology 1994; 198:59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tornatore C, Berger JR, Houff SA et al. Detection of JC virus DNA in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann Neurol 1992; 31:454–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Holmberg C, Gribble D, Takernoto K et al. Isolation of simian virus 40 from rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta) with spontaneous progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Infect Dis 1977; 136:593–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Horvath CJ, Simon MA, Bergsagel DJ et al. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Pathol 1992; 140:1431–1440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosen S, Harmon W, Krensky A et al. Tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with polyomavirus (BK type) infection. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:1192–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gorder MA, Pelle PD, Henson JW et al. A new member of the polyoma virus family causes interstitial nephritis, ureteritis, and enteritis in immunocompromised cynomolgus monkeys. Am J Pathol 1999; 154:1273–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goudsmit J, Wertheim-van Dillen P, van Strein A et al. The role of BK virus in acute respiratory tract disease and the presence of BKV DNA in tonsils. J Med Virol 1982; 10:91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mantyjarvi R, Meumian O, Vihma L et al. Human papovavirus (B.K.), biological properties and seroepidemiology. Ann Dis Res 1973; 5:283–287.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Coleman D, Wolfendale M, Daniel R et al. A prospective study of human polyomavirus infection in pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1980; 142:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Arthur RR, Shah KV. The occurrence and significance of papovaviruses BK and JC in the urine. Prog Med Virol 1989; 36:42–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chang D, Wang M, Ou WC et al. Genotypes of human polyomaviruses in urine samples of pregnant women in Taiwan. J Med Virol. 1996; 48:95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rekvig OP, Moens U. Polyoma BK and autoimmunity to nucleosomes. Graft 2002; 5:S36–S45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Christie KE, Flaegstad T, Traavik T. Characterization of BK virus-specific antibodies in human sera by Western immunoblotting, native DNA are produced during BK virus infection, but not after immunization with noninfectious BK DNA. Scand J Immunol 1992; 36:487–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rekvig OP, Moens U, Fredriksen K et al. Human polyomavirus BK and immunogenicity of mammalian DNA: A conceptual framework. Methods 1997; 11:44–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sundsfjord A, Osei A, Rosenqvist H et al. BK and JC viruses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalent and persistent BK viruria, sequence stability of the viral regulatory regions, and nondetectable viremia. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gheule MV, Moens U, Beniksen S et al. Autoimmunity to nucleosomes related to viral infection: A focus on hapten-carrier complex formation. J Autoimmunity 2003; 20:171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chang D, Tsai RT, Wang M et al. Different genotypes of human polyomaviruses found in patients with autoimmune diseases in Taiwan. J Med Virol 1996; 48(2):204–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tsai RT, Wang M, Ou WC et al. Incidence of JC viruria is higher than that of BK viruria in Taiwan. J Med Virol 1997; 52(3):253–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Boldorini R, Omodeo-Zorini E, Nebuloni M et al. Lytic JC virus infection in the kidneys of AIDS subjects. Mod Pathol 2003; l6(1):35–42.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Markowitz RB, Thompson HC, Mueller JF et al. Incidence of BK virus and JC virus viruria in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected subjects. J Infect Dis 1993; 167:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shah KV, Daniel RW, Stricker HD et al. Investigation of human urine for genome sequences of the primate polyomaviruses simian 40, BK virus, and JC virus. J Infect Dis 1997; 176:1618–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sundsfjord A, Flaegstad T, Flo R et al. BK and JC viruses in human immunodeficiency virus 1 infected persons: Prevalence, excretion, viremia, and viral regulatory regions. J Infect Dis 1994; 169:485–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Knowles WA, Pillay D, Johnson MA et al. Prevalence of long term BK and JC excretion in HIV-infected adults and lack of correlation with serological markers. J Med Virol 1999; 59:474–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bratt G, Hammarin AL, Grandien M et al. BK virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS 1999; 18:1071–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cubukcu-Dimopulo O, Greco A, Kumar D et al. BK virus infection in AIDS. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 24:145–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Vallbracht A, Lohler J, Gossmann J et al. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease. Am J Pathol 1993; 143:29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gluck TA, Knowles WA, Johnson MA et al. BK virus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis in an HIV-infected man. AIDS 1994; 8(3):391–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barouch DH, Faquin WC, Chen Y et al. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patient. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(3):326–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hirsch HH, Knowles W, Dickenmann M et al. Prospective study of polyomavirus type BK replication and nephropathy in renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(7):488–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ramos E, Drachenberg CB, Portocarrero M et al. BK virus nephropathy diagnosis and treatment: Experience at the University of Maryland Renal Transplant Program. Clin Transpl 2002; 143–53.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schmitz M, Brause M, Hetzel G et al. Infection with polyomavirus type BK after renal transplantation. Clin Nephrol 2003; 60(2):125–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Randhawa PS, Finkelstein S, Scantlebury V et al. Human polyoma virus-associated interstitial nephritis in the allograft kidney. Transplantation 1999; 67:103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ginevri F, De Santis R, Comoli P et al. Polyomavirus BK infection in pediatric kidney-allograft recipients: A single-center analysis of incidence, risk factors, and novel therapeutic approaches. Transplantation 2003; 75(8):1266–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lin PL, Vats AN, Green M. BK virus infection in renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 2001; 5(6):398–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lee JM, Park JH, Kim SK. BK polyomavirus interstitial nephritis in a renal allograft recipient. Ultrastruct Pathol 2003; 27(1):61–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hirsch HH. Polyomavirus BK nephropathy: A (re)emerging complication in renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 2002; 2(1):25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Randhawa P, Vats A, Shapiro R et al. BK virus: Discovery, epidemiology, and biology. Graft 2002; 5:S 19–S27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nickleit V, Steiger J, Mihatsch M. BK virus infection after kidney transplantation. Graft 2002; 5:S46–S57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Randhawa PS, Demetris AJ. Nephropathy due to polyomavirus type BK. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(18):1361–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nickeleit V, Singh HK, Mihatsch MJ. Polyomavirus nephropathy: Morphology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2003; 12(6):599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Binet I, Nickeleit V, Hirsch HH. Polyomavirus infections in transplant recipients. Curr Opin Organ transplant 2000; 5:210–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hirsch HH, Steiger J. Polyomavirus BK. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3(10):611–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kazory A, Ducloux D. Renal transplantation and polyomavirus infection: Recent clinical facts and controversies. Transpl Infect Dis 2003; 5(2):65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mylonakis E, Goes N, Rubin RH et al. BK virus in solid organ transplant recipients: An emerging syndrome. Transplantation 2001; 72(10):1587–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fishman JA. BK virus nephropathy-polyomavirus adding insult to injury. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(7):527–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pahari A, Rees L. BK virus-associated renal problems-clinical implications. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18(8):743–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB. BK virus: A clinical review. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33(2):191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Li RM, Mannon RB, Kleiner D et al. BK virus and SV40 coinfection in polyomavirus nephropathy. Transplantation 2002; 74(11):1497–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ding R, Medeiros M, Dadhania D et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of BK virus nephritis by measurement of messenger RNA for BK virus VP1 in urine. Transplantation 2002; 74(7):987–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Randhawa P, Zygmunt D, Shapiro R et al. Viral regulatory region sequence variations in kidney tissue obtained from patients with BK virus nephropathy. Kidney Int 2003; 64(2):743–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Randhawa PS, Vats A, Zygmunt D et al. Quantitation of viral DNA in renal allograft tissue from patients with BK virus nephropathy. Transplantation 2002; 74(4):485–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Randhawa PS, Khaleel-Ur-Rehman K, Swalsky PA et al. DNA sequencing of viral capsid protein VP-1 region in patients with BK virus interstitial nephritis. Transplantation 2002; 73(7):1090–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Leung AY, Chan M, Tang SC et al. Real-time quantitative analysis of polyoma BK viremia and viruria in renal allograft recipients. J Virol Methods 2002; 103(1):51–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bergallo M, Merlino C, Bollero C et al. Human polyoma virus BK DNA detection by nested PCR in renal transplant recipients. New Microbiol 2002; 25(3):331–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    CF, Randhawa P. Molecular genotyping of BK and JC viruses in human polyomavirus-associated interstitial nephritis after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38(2):354–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Boldorini R, Zorini EO, Fortunato M et al. Molecular characterization and sequence analysis of polyomavirus BKV-strain in a renal-allograft recipient. Hum Pathol 2001; 32(6):656–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fogazzi GB, Cantu M, Saglimbeni L. ‘Decoy cells’ in the urine due to polyomavirus BK infection: Easily seen by phase-contrast microscopy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16(7):1496–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Randhawa P, Baksh F, Aoki N et al. JC virus infection in allograft kidneys: Analysis by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Transplantation 2001; 71(9):1300–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Limaye AP, Jerome KR, Kuhr CS et al. Quantitation of BK virus load in serum for the diagnosis of BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2001; 183(11):1669–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen CH, Wen MC, Wang M et al. A regulatory region rearranged BK virus is associated with t tubulointerstitial nephritis in a rejected renal allograft. J Med Virol 2001; 64(1):82–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nickeleit V, Hirsch HH, Zeiler M et al. BK-virus nephropathy in renal transplants-tubular necrosis, MHC-dass II expression and rejection in a puzzling game. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15(3):324–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nickleit V, Klimkait T, Binet IF et al. Testing for polyomavirus type BK DNA in plasma to identify renal-allograft recipients with viral nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1309–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jin L. Molecular methods for identification and genotyping of BK virus. Methods Mol Biol 2001; 165:33–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Andrews CA, Shah KV, Daniel RW et al. A serologic investigation of BK virus and JC virus infections in recipients of renal allografts. J Infect Dis 1988; 158:176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Coleman D, Mackenzie S, Gardner S et al. Human polyomavirus (BK) infection and ureteral stenosis in renal allograft recipients. J Clin Pathol 1978; 31:338–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Constantinescu A, Ahsan N, Lim JW. Polyomavirus allograft nephropathy — parenchymal and extra-parenchymal manifestations. GRAFT 2002; 5:S98–S103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Agha IA, Brennan DC. BK virus and current immunosuppressive therapy. Graft 2002; 5:S65–S72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Petrogiannis-Haliotis T, Sakoulas G, Kirby J et al. BK-related polyomavirus vasculopathy in a renal-transplant recipient. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bedi A, Miller CB, Hanson JL et al. Association of BK virus with failure of prophylaxis against hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13(5):1103–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nevo S, Swan V, Enger C et al. Acute bleeding after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) incidence and effect on survival. A quantitative analysis in 1,402 patients. Blood 1998; 91(4):1469–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Seber A, Shu XO, Defor T et al. Risk factors for severe hemorrhagic cystitis following BMT. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999; 23(1):35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kondo M, Kojima S, Kato K et al. Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998; 22(10):995–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Arthur RR, Shah KV, Baust SJ et al. Association of BK viruria with hemorrhagic cystitis in recipients of bone marrow transplants. N Engl J Med 1986; 315:230–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chapman C, Flower AJ, Dunant ST. The use of vidarabine in the treatment of human polyomavirus associated acute haemorrhagic cystitis. Bone Marrow Transplant 1991; 7:481–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cottier-Fox M, Lynch M, Deeg JH et al. Human polyomavirus: Lack of relationship of viruria to prolonged or severe hemorrhagic cystitis after bone marrow transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989; 4:279–282.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Johnson R. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. In: Johnson R, ed. Viral infections of the nervous system. New York: Raven Press, 1982:255–263.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Richardson EP. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 30 years later. N Engl J Med 1988; 318:315–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Walker DL. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Demyelinating diseases. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, Klawans HL, Koetsier JC, eds. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press, 1985:4(7):503–524.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Berger JR, Kaszovita B, Donovan Post J et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Intern Med 1987; 107:78–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Berger JR, Levy RM. The neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus infections. Med Clin North Am 1993; 77:1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Major EO, Amemiya K, Tornatore CS et al. Pathogenesis and molecular biology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain. Clin Microbiol Rev 1992; 5:49–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    White IIIrd FA, Ishaq M, Stoner GL et al. JC virus DNA is pre sent in many human brain samples from patients without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Virol 1992; 66:5726–5734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    von Giesen HJ, Neuen-Jacob E, Dorries K et al. Diagnostic criteria and clinical procedures in HIV-1 associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurol Sci 1997; l47(1):63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Berger JR, Major EO. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Semin Neurol 1999; 19(2):193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gibson PI, Knowles WA, Hand JF et al. Detection of JC virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Med Virol 1993; 39:278–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Grinnell B, Padgett B, Walker D. Distribution of nonintegrated DNA from JC papovavirus in organs of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Infect Dis 1983; 147:669–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Knowles WA, Pipkin P, Andrews N et al. Population-based study of antibody to the human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV and the simian polyomavirus SV40. J Med Virol 2003; 71(1):115–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shah KV, Daniel RW, Strickler HD et al. Investigation of human urine for genomic sequences of the primate polyomaviruses simian virus 40, BK virus, and JC virus. J Infect Dis 1997; 176:1618–1621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    David H, Mendoza S, konishi T et al. Simian virus 40 is present in human lymphomas and normal blood. Cancer let 2001; 162:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Martini F, Iaccheri L, Lazzarin L et al. SV40 early region and large T antigen in human brain tumors, peripheral blood cells, and sperm fluids from healthy individuals. Cancer Res 1996; 56(20):4820–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Li RM, Branton MH, Tanawattanacharoen S et al. Molecular identification of SV40 infection in human subjects and possible association with kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13(9):2320–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Butel JS, Jafar S, Wong C et al. Evidence of SV40 infections in hospitalized children. Hum Pathol 1999; 30(12):l496–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shah K, Nathanson N. Human exposure to SV40: Review and comment. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 103:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lee W, Langhoff E. polyomavirus and human cancer. Graft 2002; 5:S73–S81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mayall F, Barratt K, Shanks J. The detection of Simian virus 40 in mesotheliomas from New Zealand and England using real time FRET probe PCR protocols. J Clin Pathol 2003; 56(10):728–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Reiss K, Khalili K. Viruses and cancer: Lessons from the human polyomavirus, JCV. Oncogene 2003; 22(42):6517–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tognon M, Corallini A, Martini F et al. Oncogenic transformation by BK virus and association with human tumors. Oncogene 2003; 22(33):5192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Khalili K, Del Valle L, Otte J et al. Human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, and its role in carcinogenesis. Oncogene 2003; 22(33):5181–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Carbone M, Pass HI, Miele L et al. New developments about the association of SV40 with human mesothelioma. Oncogene 2003; 22(33):5173–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Vilchez RA, Butel JS. SV40 in human brain cancers and nonHodgkin’s lymphoma. Oncogene 2003; 22(33):5164–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    MacKenzie J, Wilson KS, Perry J et al. Association between simian virus 40 DNA and lymphoma in the United kingdom. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95(13):1001–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Vilchez RA, Kozinetz CA, Arrington AS et al. Simian virus 40 in human cancers. Am J Med 2003; 114(8):675–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Carbone M, Bocchetta M, Cristaudo A et al. SV40 and human brain tumors. Int J Cancer 2003; 106(1):140–2, author reply 143–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Rinaldo CH, Myhre MR, Alstad H et al. Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) transiently transforms and persistently infects cultured osteosarcoma cells. Virus Res 2003; 93(2):181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rinaldo CH, Myhre MR, Alstad H et al. Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) transiently transforms and persistently infects cultured osteosarcoma cells. Virus Res 2003; 93(2):181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vilchez RA, Kozinetz CA, Butel JS. Conventional epidemiology and the link between SV40 and human cancers. Lancet Oncol 2003; 4(3):188–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Gardner SD. Prevalence in England of antibody to human polyomavirus BK. Br Med J 1973; 1:77–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Shah K, Daniel R, Warszawski R. High prevalence of antibodies to BK virus, an SV40-related papovavirus, in residents of Maryland. J Infect Dis 1973; 128:784–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Drachenberg CB, Beskow CO, Cangro CB et al. Human polyoma virus in renal allograft biopsies: Morphological findings and correlation with urine cytology. Hum Pathol 1999; 30:970–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Purighalla R, Shapiro R, McCauley J et al. BK virus infection in a kidney allograft diagnosed by needle biopsy. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26:671–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ginevri F, Pastorino N, De Santis R et al. Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: Successful outcome without original allograft nephrectomy. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42(4):821–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ramos E, Drachenberg CB, Papadimitriou JC et al. Clinical course of polyoma virus nephropathy in 67 renal transplant patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13(8):2145–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Trofe J, Cavallo T, First MR et al. Polyomavirus in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplantation: A defined protocol for immunosuppression reduction and histologic monitoring. Transplant Proc 2002; 34(5):1788–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hirsch HH, Mohaupt M, Klimkait T. Prospective monitoring of BK virus load after discontinuing sirolimus treatment in a renal transplant patient with BK virus nephropathy. J Infect Dis 2001; 184:1494–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Poduval RD, Meehan SM, Woodle ES et al. Successful retransplantation after renal allograft loss to polyoma virus interstitial nephritis. Transplantation 2002; 73:1166–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Fishman JA. BK nephropathy: What is the role of antiviral therapy? Am J Transplant 2003; 3(2):99–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Scantlebury V, Shapiro R, Randhawa P et al. Cidofovir: A method of treatment for BK virus-associated transplant nephropathy. Graft 2002; 5:S82–S87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kadambi PV, Josephson MA, Williams J et al. Treatment of refractory BK virus-associated nephropathy with cidofovir. Am J Transplant 2003; 3(2):186–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Vats A, Shapiro R, Singh Randhawa P et al. Quantitative viral load monitoring and cidofovir therapy for the management of BK virus-associated nephropathy in children and adults. Transplantation 2003; 75(1):105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bjorang O, Tveitan H, Midtvedt K et al. Treatment of polyomavirus infection with cidofovir in a renal-transplant recipient. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17(11):2023–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Held TK, Biel SS, Nitsche A et al. Treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and simultaneous CMV reactivation with cidofovir. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 26:347–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cibrik DM, O’Toole JF, Norman SP et al. IVIG for the treatment of BK nephropathy. Am J Transplantation 2003; 3:370, (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cheesman SH, Black PH, Rubin RH et al. Interferon and BK Papovavirus—clinical and laboratory studies. J Infect Dis 1980; 141:157–61.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Snoeck R, Andrei G, Lilja HS et al. Activity of malonoitrilamide compounds against murine and simian polyomavirus. Switzerland: 5th International conference on New Trends in Clinical and experimental immunosuppression, 2002, (Abstract).Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Poduval RD, Kadambi PV, Javaid B et al. Leflunomide — a potential new therapeutic agent for BK nephropathy. Am J Transplantation 2003; 3:189, (abstract).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Foster PF, Wright F, McLean D et al. Leflunomide administration as an adjunct in treatment of BK-polyoma viral disease in kidney allografts. Am J Transplantation 2003; 3:421, (abstract).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Feiden W, Bise K, Steude U et al. The stereotactic biopsy diagnosis of focal intracerebral lesions in AIDS patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 87:228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hair LS, Nuovo G, Powers JM et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Hum Pathol 1992; 23:663–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Koralnik IJ, Du Pasquier RA, Kuroda MJ et al. Association of prolonged survival in HLA-A2+ progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients with a CTL response specific for a commonly recognized JC virus epitope. J Immunol 2002; 168:499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Eurekah.com and Springer Science+Business Media 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nasimul Ahsan
    • 1
  • Keerti V. Shah
    • 2
  1. 1.Mayo Clinic Transplant CenterMayo Clinic - College of MedicineJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HeathBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations