Autostereoscopic, Partial Pixel, Spatially Multiplexed, and other 3D Display Technologies

  • Monish R. Chatterjee
  • Shih-Tun Chen


The technologies and advances in the field of three-dimensional (3D) displays within the past two decades are reviewed. Specifically, the developments in diffractive, refractive, reflective and occlusive 3D display strategies are discussed, highlighting the advantages and limitations of the associated systems. The partial pixel and the partial object pixel architectures associated with autostereoscopic displays are discussed in some detail, while other techniques are briefly introduced. It is shown that major breakthroughs occurred with the development of computer-generated holography (CGH), liquid crystal arrays (LCA) and other spatial light modulators (SLM), and also the discrete fabrication of diffractive and holographic optical elements (DOE and HOE), micromirror arrays, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). These techniques and components have enabled the implementation of spatially and angularly multiplexed 3D images and scenes with potentially dynamic (time-varying) features.

Key words

3D displays partial pixels spatial multiplexing holographic gratings autostereoscopic displays holographic stereograms 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bains, S., 1996, Low-cost autostereoscopic screen creates 3-D views, Laser Focus World, 26–28.Google Scholar
  2. Boff, K.R., Kaufman, L., and Thomas, J.P., 1986, Handbook of perception and human performance, Vol.1, Sensory Processes and Perception, pp.10, 11, 23, Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  3. Börner, R., 1993, Autostereoscopic 3D-imaging by front and rear projection and on flat panel displays, Displays 14, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, S.-T., 1996, Analytical Investigations of Dynamic and Static Optical Gratings and Some Modern Applications. Ph.D. dissertation, Binghamton University, SUNY.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, S.-T., and Chatterjee, M.R., 1995, Computer generated spatially multiplexed message display using a holographic optical element array, Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, S.-T., and Chatterjee, M.R., 1998, Implementation of a spatially multiplexed pixelated three-dimensional display by use of a holographic optical element array, Appl. Opt. 37, 7504–7513.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cross, L., 1977, Multiplex Holography, SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  8. DeMeis, R., 1996, Parallax images provide 3-D color display, Laser Focus World, 39–40.Google Scholar
  9. Dodgson, N.A., 1996, Analysis of the viewing zone of the Cambridge autostereoscopic display, Appl. Opt. 35, 1705–1710.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ernst, H., Petzold, J., Larice, R., and Breide, S., 1996, Mixing of computer graphics and high quality stereographic video, IEEE Trans, on Consumer Elect. 42, 795–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamagishi, G., Sakata, M., Yamashita, A., Mashitani, K., Nakayama, E., Kishimoto, S., and Kanatani, K., 1995, New stereoscopic LC displays without special glasses, Asia Display’ 95, 791–794.Google Scholar
  12. Hashimoto, N., and Morokawa, S., 1995, Motion-picture holography using liquid-crystal television spatial light mondulators, SID 95 Digest, 847–850.Google Scholar
  13. Honda, T., 1995, Dynamic holographic 3D display using LCD, Asia Display’ 95, 777–780.Google Scholar
  14. Iizuka, K., 1985, Engineering Optics, Chapter 8, Spring-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  15. Joachimowicz, K.E., and Gold, R.S., 1990, Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing, Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, M.W., Nordin, G.P., Kulick, J.H., Lindquist, R.G., and Kowel, S.T., 1995, A liquid crystal display based implementation of a real-time ICVision holographic stereogram display, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154–164.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones, M.W., Nordin, G.P., Kulick, J.H., Lindquist, R.G., and Kowel, S.T., 1995, Real-time three-dimensional display based on the partial pixel architecture, Opt. Lett. 20, 1418–20.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khoo, I., 1995, Holographic grating formation in dye-or fullerence-C60-doped liquid crystals, Opt. Photon. News, p.29.Google Scholar
  19. King, M.C., 1968, Multiple exposure hologram recording of a 3-D image with 360° view, Appl. Opt. 7,1641–1642.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. King, M.C., Noll, A.M., and Berry, D.H., 1969, A new approach to computer generated holography, Appl. Opt. 9, 471–475.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kulick, J.H., Nordin, G.P., Parker, A., Kowel, S.T., Lindquist, R.G., Jones, M., and Nasiatka, P., 1995, Partial Pixels: a three-dimensional diffractive display architecture, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 73–83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MacFarlane, D.L., 1994, Volumetric three-dimensional display, App. Opt. 33, 7453–7457.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meerholz, K., 1994, A photorefractive polymer with high gain and diffraction near 100%, Nature 371, 497.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Mortensen, P., 1996, Stereoscopic display watches the viewer, Laser Focus World, 61–3.Google Scholar
  25. Murillo-Mora, L..M., Okada, K., Honda, T., and Tsujiuchi, J., 1995, Color Conical Holographic Stereogram, Opt. Eng. 34, 814.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Nordin, G.P., Kulick, J.H., Lindquist, R.G., Nasiatka, P.J., Jones, M.W., Friends, M., and Kowel, S.T., 1995, Liquid crystal-on-silicon implementation of the partial pixel three-dimensional display architecture, Appl. Opt. 34, 3756–63.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Okoshi, T., 1976, in Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Palais, J.C., and Miller, M.E., 1996, Holographic movies, Opt. Eng. 35, 2578–2582.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Pastoor, S., and Wörking, M., 1997, 3-D Displays: A review of current technologies, Displays 17, 100–110. Also available online at Scholar
  30. Sato, K., 1995, Development of 3-D TV by electro-holography, Proc. 2nd Int. Display Workshop, Hamamatsu, 73–76.Google Scholar
  31. Schulze, E., 1995, Synthesis of moving holographic stereograms with high-resolution spatial light modulators, Proc. SPIE 2406, 124–126.ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Soltan, P., Trias, J., Dahlke, W., Lasher, M., and McDonald, M., 1995, Laser-based 3D volumetric display system — Second generation, in K. Morgan, (Eds.), Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare, IOS Press and Ohmsha, 349–357.Google Scholar
  33. Spierings W., and van Nuland, E., 1992, Development of an office holoprinter II, SPIE 1667, Practical Holography VI, 52–62.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. St. Hilaire, P., Benton, S.A., Lucente, M., and Hubel, P.M., 1992, Color images with the MIT holographic video display, SPIE 1667, Practical Holography VI, 73–84.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. St. Hilaire, P., Benton, S.A., and Lucente, M., 1992, Synthetic aperture holography: a novel approach to three-dimensional displays, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1969–77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Takahashi, S., Toda, T., and Iwata, F., 1991, Three dimensional grating images, in Practical Holography V, S.A. Benton, ed., Proc. SP1E 1461, 199–205.Google Scholar
  37. Takeda, T., Fukui, Y., Hashimoto, K., and Hiruma, N., 1995, Three-dimensional visual stimulator, Appl. Opt. 34, 732–38.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Toda, T., Takahashi, S., and Iwata, F., 1995, 3D video system using grating image, Proc. SPIE 2406, 191–198.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Travis, A.R., 1990, Autostereoscopic 3-D display, Appl. Opt. 29, 4341–43.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Trayner, D., and Orr, E., 1996, Autostereoscopic display using holographic optical elements, Proc. SPIE 2653, 65–74.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xenotech Australia, 1996, The Xenotech 3-D auto stereoscopic display system. Technical Information. Suite 1, 41, Walters Drive, Osborne Park, Western Australia 6017.Google Scholar
  42. Yamada, H., Akiyama, K., Muraoka, K., and Yamaguchi, Y., 1993, The comparison of three kinds of screens for a volume scanning type 3D display, TAO First Int-Symp. 1993 (Telecom. Advancement Org. of Japan, 2-31-19, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105).Google Scholar
  43. Yan, J., Kowel, S.T., Cho, H.J., Ahn, C.H., Nordin, G.P., and Kulick, J.H., 2004, Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display based on a micromirror array, Appl. Opt. 43, 3686–3696.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Yaroslavski. L.P., and Merzlyakov, N.S., 1980, Methods of digital holography, Consultants Bureau, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Yoshikawa, H., 1993, Digital holographic signal processing, TAO First Int.Symp., 1993 (Telecom. Advancement Org. of Japan, 2-31-19, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monish R. Chatterjee
    • 1
  • Shih-Tun Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of DaytonDayton
  2. 2.Teradyne Inc.Agoura Hills

Personalised recommendations