Properties of Solid-State Laser Materials
Materials for laser operation must possess sharp fluorescent lines, strong absorption bands, and a reasonably high quantum efficiency for the fluorescent transition of interest. These characteristics are generally shown by solids (crystals or glass) that incorporate in small amounts elements in which optical transitions can occur between states of inner, incomplete electron shells. Thus the transition metals, the rare earth (lanthanide) series, and the actinide series are of interest in this regard. The sharp fluorescence lines in the spectra of crystals doped with these elements result from the fact that the electrons involved in transitions in the optical regime are shielded by the outer shells from the surrounding crystal lattice. The corresponding transitions are similar to those of the free ions.
KeywordsYttrium Aluminum Garnet Phosphate Glass Laser Action Lower Laser Level Tunable Laser
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