Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology pp 443-491
Gram negative, straight or curved rods. Motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Do not form endospores or cysts. Chemoheterotrophs which are either facultative anaerobes or strictly aerobic. If able to grow anaerobically, growth occurs by respiration and, less commonly, by fermentation. Oxygen is used universally as an electron acceptor. Most strains are catalase and oxidase positive. Possess psychrophilic, psychrotolerant, and mesophilic growth regimes. Most species require Na+ions for growth and most species grow optimally on seawater-based media. Most species are able to utilize ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some species have a requirement for amino acids. Primarily marine inhabitants found in a wide range of oceanic ecosystems ranging from surface waters and sea ice to abyssal sediments. Usually nonpathogenic. The major coenzyme Q type is ubiquinone- 8.
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