Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology

Part of the series Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects pp 187-212

An Invariant Approach to the Study of Fluctuating Asymmetry: Developmental Instability in a Mouse Model for Down Syndrome

  • Joan T. RichtsmeierAffiliated withDepartment of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State UniversityCenter for Craniofacial Development and Disorders, The Johns Hopkins University
  • , Theodore M. ColeIIIAffiliated withDepartment of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri—Kansas City
  • , Subhash R. LeleAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Summary and Conclusions

We have presented a novel method for statistical comparison of FA. The advantages of our method include:
  1. 1.

    the straightforward inclusion of three-dimensional data;

  2. 2.

    the lack of superimposition, so that the user does not need to arbitrarily select a fitting criterion;

  3. 3.

    identification of significant differences in FA by bootstrap confidence intervals;

  4. 4.

    presentation of local measures of FA, enabling identification of the affected anatomical structures and the proposal of testable developmental hypotheses.


The results of our analysis of FA in the Ts1Cje mouse provide preliminary support for the amplified DI hypothesis and provide the basis for a model of the interplay of dysmorphology and FA in aneuploidy that can be further explored in studies of development.