The Iron Age

  • Rolf E. Hummel


Cast Iron Pure Iron Sponge Iron Crude Steel Damascus Steel 
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Suggestions for Further Study

  1. R. Balasubramaniam, Delhi Iron Pillar: New Insights, Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla and Aryan Books International, New Delhi (2002).Google Scholar
  2. S. Das, The Economic History of Ancient India, Howrah, Calcutta (1925).Google Scholar
  3. J.G. Macqueen, The Hittites and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor, Thames and Hudson, London (1986).Google Scholar
  4. V.C. Pigott, “Iron Versus Bronze,” Journal of Metals, August 1992, pp. 42ff.Google Scholar
  5. R. Raymond, Out of the Fiery Furnace—The Impact of Metal on the History of Mankind, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA (1986).Google Scholar
  6. P.R. Schmidt and S.T. Childs, “Ancient African Iron Production,” American Scientist, 83 (1995), p. 524.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. R.F. Tylecote, A History of Metallurgy, The Metals Society, London (1976).Google Scholar
  8. J.C. Waldbaum, The Coming of the Age of Iron, T.A. Wertime and J.D. Muhly, Editors, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT (1980).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, LLC 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf E. Hummel
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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