Neonatal Heat-Induced Convulsions Affect Behaviours in Neonatal, Juvenile and Adult Rats
Part of the
Advances in Behavioral Biology
book series (ABBI, volume 55)
Febrile convulsions are a common form of childhood seizure, occurring in approximately 2–5 % of infants and young children.1 Simple febrile convulsions are the most common, defined as a generalized seizure of short duration (<15 minutes) that occurs during a febrile illness,2, 3 in a child between the ages of 6 months to 6 years. The significance of simple febrile convulsions is debated, with many considering them to be benign, as they do not result in gross neuropathology4 nor do they increase the risk of partial-complex epilepsy (e.g., 5 2, 6) or cognitive impairments.7, 8, 9 Conversely, some researchers have observed that in adulthood, individuals who have experienced simple febrile convulsions have a slightly higher risk of partial-complex epilepsy in later life (e.g., 3, l0) and may exhibit cognitive deficits, including: decreased ability to sustain attention; deficits in some types of learning and non-verbal memory; delayed recognition; and decreased visuomotor skills (e.g., 1, 11). As such, the question of whether febrile convulsions enhance susceptibility to seizure disorders, cognitive impairments or other pathologies remains unresolved.
W. Kolfen, K. Pehle, and S. Konig, Is the long-term outcome of children following febrile convulsions favorable? Dev. Med. Child Neurol.
, 667–671 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
F.U. Knudsen, Febrile seizures: treatment and prognosis, Epilepsia
, 2–9 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
R.J. Baumann, Prevention and management of febrile seizures, Paediatr. Drugs
, 585–592 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
K.E. VanLandingham, E.R. Heinz, J.E. Cavazos, and D.V. Lewis, Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal injury after prolonged focal febrile convulsions, Ann. Neurol.
, 413–426 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J.F. Annegers, W.A. Hauser, S.B. Shirts, and L.T. Kurland, Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions, N. Engl. J. Med.
, 493–498 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
K. Lee, M. Diaz, and J.C. Melchior, Temporal lobe epilepsy-not a consequence of childhood febrile convulsions in Denmark, Acta Neurol. Scand.
, 231–236 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Y.C. Chang, N.W. Guo, S.T. Wang, C.C. Huang, and J.J. Tsai, Working memory of school-aged children with a history of febrile convulsions: a population study, Neurology
, 37–42 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
J.H. Ellenberg, D.G. Hirtz, and K.B. Nelson, Do seizures in children cause intellectual deterioration? N. Engl. J. Med.
, 1085–1088 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
CM. Verity, R. Greenwood, and J. Golding, Long-term intellectual and behavioral outcomes of children with febrile convulsions, N. Engl. J. Med.
, 1723–1728 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
K. Kanemoto, N. Takuji, J. Kawasaki, and I. Kawai, Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
, 245–248 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
S.J. Wallace, and A.M. Cull, Long-term psychological outlook for children whose first fit occurs with fever, Dev. Med. Child Neurol.
, 28–40 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
T.Z. Baram, A. Gerth, and L. Schultz, Febrile seizures: an appropriate-aged model suitable for long-term studies, Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res.
, 265–270 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
D. Holtzman, K. Obana, and J. Olson, Hyperthermia-induced seizures in the rat pup: a model for febrile convulsions in children, Science
, 1034–1036 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
G.L. Holmes, and Y. Ben-Ari, Seizures in the developing brain: perhaps not so benign after all, Neuron
, 1231–1234 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J.A. McCaughran, Jr., and N. Schechter, Experimental febrile convulsions: long-term effects of hyperthermia-induced convulsions in the developing rat, Epilepsia
, 173–183 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J.G. Nealis, N.P. Rosman, T.J. De Piero, and E.M. Ouellette, Neurologic sequelae of experimental febrile convulsions, Neurology
, 246–250 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
C. Dube, K. Chen, M. Eghbal-Ahmadi, K. Brunson, I. Soltesz, and T.Z. Baram, Prolonged febrile seizures in the immature rat model enhance hippocampal excitability long term, Ann. Neurol.
, 336–344 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
W. Jiang, T.M. Duong, and N.C. de Lanerolle, The neuropathology of hyperthermic seizures in the rat, Epilepsia
, 5–19 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Y.C. Chang, A.M. Huang, Y.M. Kuo, S.T. Wang, Y.Y Chang, and C.C. Huang, Febrile seizures impair memory and cAMP response-element binding protein activation, Ann. Neurol.
, 706–718 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. Werboff, and J. Havlena, Febrile Convulsions in Infant Rats, and Later Behavior, Science
, 684–685 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
R.A. Kornelsen, F. Boon, L.S. Leung, and D.P. Cain, The effects of a single neonatally induced convulsion on spatial navigation, locomotor activity and convulsion susceptibility in the adult rat, Brain Res
, 155–159 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
K. Janus, Effects of early separation of young rats from the mother on their open-field behavior, Physiol. Behav.
, 711–715 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. Kalinichev, K.W. Easterling, P.M. Plotsky, and S.G. Holtzman, Long-lasting changes in stress-induced corticosterone response and anxiety-like behaviors as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long-Evans rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
, 131–140 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
B. Zimmerberg, A.J. Rosenthal, and A.C. Stark, Neonatal social isolation alters both maternal and pup behaviors in rats, Dev. Psychobiol.
, 52–63 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
H.N. Shair, S.A. Brunelli, J.R. Masmela, E. Boone, and M.A. Hofer, Social, thermal, and temporal influences on isolation-induced and maternally potentiated ultrasonic vocalizations of rat pups, Dev. Psychobiol.
, 206–222 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
H.N. Shair, J.R. Masmela, S.A. Brunelli, and M.A. Hofer, Potentiation and inhibition of ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups: regulation by social cues, Dev. Psychobiol.
, 195–200 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
G. Sokoloff, and M.S. Blumberg, Thermogenic, respiratory, and ultrasonic responses of week-old rats across the transition from moderate to extreme cold exposure, Dev. Psychobiol.
, 181–194 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J.T. Allin, and E.M. Banks, Functional aspects of ultrasound production by infant albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), Anim. Behav.
, 175–185 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
S.M. Brudzynski, P. Kehoe, and M. Callahan, Sonographic structure of isolation-induced ultrasonic calls of rat pups, Dev. Psychobiol.
, 195–204 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
L. Velisek, and S.L. Moshe, Temporal lobe epileptogenesis and epilepsy in the developing brain: bridging the gap between the laboratory and the clinic. Progression, but in what direction? Epilepsia
, 51–59 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Y.C. Chang, N.W. Guo, C.C. Huang, S.T. Wang, and J.J. Tsai, Neurocognitive attention and behavior outcome of school-age children with a history of febrile convulsions: a population study, Epilepsia
, 412–420 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005