Homeless People

  • Stephen W. Hwang
  • James R. Dunn


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Assertive Community Treatment Homeless People 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. (1992b). Prevention and control of tuberculosis among homeless persons. Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations & Reports 4: 13–23.Google Scholar
  2. Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (1992a). Prevention and control of tuberculosis among homeless persons. Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations & Reports 4:13–23.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, D. M., Lehman, J. S., Green, T. A., Lindegren, M. L., Onorato, I. M., and Forrester, W. (1994). HIV infection among homeless adults and runaway youth, United States, 1989–1992. Field Services Branch. AIDS. 8:1593–1598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, P. F., Yang, Z., Pogoda, J. M., Preston-Martin, S., Jones, B. E., Otaya, M., Eisenach. K.D., Knowles, L., Harvey, S., and Cave, M.D. (1999). Foci of tuberculosis transmission in central Los Angeles. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 159: 1081–1086.Google Scholar
  5. Barrow, S. M., Herman, D. B., Cordova, P., and Struening, E. L. (1999). Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City. Am. J. Public Health 89: 529–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bassuk, E. L., Weinreb, L. F., Dawson, R., Perloff, J. N., and Buckner, J. C. (1997). Determinants of behavior in homeless and low-income housed preschool children. Pediatrics 10: 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beech, B. M., Myers, L., Beech, D. J., and Kernick, N. S. (2003). Human immunodeficiency syndrome and hepatitis B and C infections among homeless adolescents. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 14:12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boudreau, J. A. (2000). The Megacity Saga: Democracy and Citizenship in This Global Age. Montreal: Black Rose Books.Google Scholar
  9. Boudreau, J. A. and Keil, R. (2001). Seceding from Responsibility? Secession Movements in Los Angeles. Urban Studies 38:1701–1731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buchanan, D., Rohr, L., Kehoe, L., Glick, S. B., and Jain, S. (2004). Changing attitudes toward homeless people. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 19:566–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buhrich, N., Hodder, T., and Teesson, M. (2000). Lifetime prevalence of trauma among homeless people in Sydney. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34: 963–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burt, M. R. (2001). Helping America’s Homeless. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chau, S., Chin, M., Chang, J., Luecha, A., Cheng, E., Schlesinger, J. Veena, R., Huang, D., Maxwell, A.E., Usatine, R., Bastani, R., and Gelberg, L. (2002). Cancer risk behaviors and screening rates among homeless adults in Los Angeles County. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 11: 431–438.Google Scholar
  14. Cheung, A. M., and Hwang, S. W. (2004). Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature. [see comment]. [Review] [40 refs]. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal 170:1243–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheung, R. C., Hanson, A. K., Maganti, K., Keeffe, E. B., and Matsui, S. M. (2002). Viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases in a homeless population. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 34: 476–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, C. I. (1994). Down and out in New York and London: A cross-national comparison of homelessness. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 45(8): 769–776.Google Scholar
  17. Connor, S. E., Cook, R. L., Herbert, M. I., Neal, S. M., and Williams, J. T. (2002). Smoking cessation in a homeless population: there is a will, but is there a way? Journal of General Internal Medicine 17: 369–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper, H., Moore, L., Gruskin, S., and Krieger, N. (2004). Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am. J. Public Health 94: 1109–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cousineau, M. R. (1997). Health status of and access to health services by residents of urban encampments in Los Angeles. Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved 8:70–82.Google Scholar
  20. Crane, M., and Warnes, A. M. (2001). The responsibility to care for single homeless people. Health & Social Care in the Community 9: 436–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Culhane, D., Dejowski, E. F., Ibanez, J., Needham, E., and Macchia, I. (1994). Public shelter admission rates in Philadelphia and New York City: The implications of turnover for sheltered population counts. Housing Policy Debate 5: 107–140.Google Scholar
  22. Dachner, N., and Tarasuk, V. (2002). Homeless “squeegee kids”: food insecurity and daily survival. Soc. Sci. Med. 54:1039–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davidson, P. J., Ochoa, K. C., Hahn, J. A., Evans, J. L., and Moss, A. R. (2002). Witnessing heroin-related overdoses: the experiences of young injectors in San Francisco. Addiction 97:1511–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis, M. (1990). City of Quartz. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  25. Dear, M. J., and Taylor, S. M. (1982). Not on Our Street: Community Attitudes to Mental Health Care. Pion, London.Google Scholar
  26. Dear, M. J., and Wolch, J. R. (1987). Landscapes of Despair: From Deinstitutionalization to Homelessness. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  27. Drier, P., Mollenkopf, J., and Swanstrom, T. (2001). Place Matters: Metropolitics for the Twenty-first Century. University Press of Kansas, Kansas CityGoogle Scholar
  28. Feldmann, J., and Middleman, A. B. (2003). Homeless adolescents: common clinical concerns. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 14:6–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fischer, B., Brissette, S., Brochu, S., Bruneau, J., el Guebaly, N., Noel, L., Rehm, M., Tyndall, C., Wild, P., Mun, E., Haydon, E., and Baliunas, D. (2004). Determinants of overdose incidents among illicit opioid users in 5 Canadian cities. CMAJ. 171: 235–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fischer, P. J., and Breakey, W. R. (1991). The epidemiology of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among homeless persons. American Psychologist. Special Issue: Homelessness 46(11):1115–1128.Google Scholar
  31. Folsom, D., and Jeste, D. V. (2002). Schizophrenia in homeless persons: a systematic review of the literature. [Review] Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 105: 404–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Folsom, D. P., McCahill, M., Bartels, S. J., Lindamer, L. A., Ganiats, T. G., and Jeste, D. V. (2002). Medical comorbidity and receipt of medical care by older homeless people with schizophrenia or depression. Psychiatr. Serv. 53: 1456–1460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fuller-Thomson, E., Hulchanski, J. D., and Hwang, S. W. (2000). The housing/health relationship: what do we know? Reviews on Environmental Health 15: 109–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gelberg, L., Gallagher, T. C., Andersen, R. M., and Koegel, P. (1997). Competing priorities as a barrier to medical care among homeless adults in Los Angeles. Am. J. Public Health 87: 217–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gelberg, L., Leake, B., Lu, M. C., Andersen, R., Nyamathi, A. M., Morgenstern, H., and Browner, C. (2002). Chronically homeless women’s perceived deterrents to contraception. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34: 278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gibson, G., Rosenheck, R., Tullner, J. B., Grimes, R. M., Seibyl, C. L., Rivera-Torres, A. Goodman, H.S., and Nunn, M.E. (2003). A national survey of the oral health status of homeless veterans. J. Public Health Den. 63: 30–37.Google Scholar
  37. Graser, D. (2000). Panhandling for change in Canadian law. Journal of Law and Social Policy 15: 45–91.Google Scholar
  38. Greene, J. M., Ennett, S. T., and Ringwalt, C. L. (1999). Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth. Am. J. Public Health 89: 1406–1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Greene, J. M., Ennett, S. T., and Ringwalt, C. L. (1997). Substance use among runaway and homeless youth in three national samples. Am. J. Public Health 87:229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Greene, J. M., and Ringwalt, C. L. (1996). Youth and familial substance use’ s association with suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth. Subst. Use Misuse 31: 1041–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greene, J. M., and Ringwalt, C. L. (1998). Pregnancy among three national samples of runaway and homeless youth. J. Adolesc. Health 23: 370–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Han, B., and Wells, B. L. (2003). Inappropriate emergency department visits and use of the Health Care for the Homeless Program services by Homeless adults in the northeastern United States. J. Public Health Manag. Pract. 9: 530–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hasson, S., and Ley, D. (1994). The limits of neighbourhood empowerment: Gentrification, resistance, and burn-out in Kitsilano. In: Neighbourhood Organizations and the Welfare State University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, pp. 239–270.Google Scholar
  44. Health Care for the Homeless Information Resource Center. Bureau of Primary Health Care. Bethesda, Maryland, (September 10, 2004); Scholar
  45. Hopper, K., and Barrow, S. M. (2003). Two genealogies of supported housing and their implications for outcome assessment. Psychiatr. Serv. 54: 50–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hwang, S. W. (2000a). Mortality among men using homeless shelters in Toronto, Ontario. JAMA. 283: 2152–2157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hwang, S. W., and Bugeja, A. L. (2000b). Barriers to appropriate diabetes management among homeless people in Toronto. [comment]. CMAJ. 163: 161–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hwang, S. W. (2001). Homelessness and health. CMAJ. 164: 229–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hwang, S. W., Orav, E. J., O’Connell, J. J., Lebow, J. M., and Brennan, T. A. (1997). Causes of death in homeless adults in Boston. Ann. Intern. Med. 126:625–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jencks, C. (1994). The Homeless. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  51. Kang, M., Alperstein, G., Dow, A., van, B., I, Martin, C., and Bennett, D. (2000). Prevalence of tuberculosis infection among homeless young people in central and eastern Sydney. Journal of Pediatrics & Child Health 36: 382–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Katz, B., and Bradley, J. (1999). Divided We Sprawl. The Atlantic Monthly 284:26–42.Google Scholar
  53. Kertesz, S. G., Horton, N. J., Friedmann, P. D., Saitz, R., and Samet, J. H. (2003). Slowing the revolving door: stabilization programs reduce homeless persons’ substance use after detoxification. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 24:197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kipke, M. D., Simon, T. R., Montgomery, S. B., Unger, J. B., and Iversen, E. F. (1997). Homeless youth and their exposure to and involvement in violence while living on the streets. J. Adolesc. Health 20:360–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krieger, J., and Higgins, D. L. (2002). Housing and health: time again for public health action. Am. J. Public Health 92:758–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuhn, R., and Culhane, D. P. (1998). Applying cluster analysis to test a typology of homelessness by pattern of shelter utilization: results from the analysis of administrative data. Am. J. Community Psychol. 26:207–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kushel, M. B., Evans, J. L., Perry, S., Robertson, M. J., and Moss, A. R. (2003). No door to lock: victimization among homeless and marginally housed persons. Arch. Intern. Med. 163: 2492–2499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kushel, M. B., Perry, S., Bangsberg, D., Clark, R., and Moss, A. R. (2002). Emergency department use among the homeless and marginally housed: results from a community-based study. Am. J. Public Health 92: 778–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kushel, M. B., Vittinghoff, E., and Haas, J. S. (2001). Factors associated with the health care utilization of homeless persons. JAMA. 285: 200–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamont, D. W., Toal, F. M., and Crawford, M. (1997). Socioeconomic deprivation and health in Glasgow and the west of Scotland-a study of cancer incidence among male residents of hostels for the single homeless. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 51: 668–671.Google Scholar
  61. Lehman, A. F., Dixon, L. B., Kernan, E., DeForge, B. R., and Postrado, L. T. (1997). A randomized trial of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 54: 1038–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Levy, B. D., and O’Connell, J. (2004). Health care for homeless persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 2329–2332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ligon, B. L. (2000). Infectious diseases among homeless children and adolescents: a national concern. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 11: 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Link, B. G., Susser, E., Stueve, A., Phelan, J., Moore, R. E., and Struening, E. (1994a). Lifetime and fiveyear prevalence of homelessness in the United States. [comment]. Am. J. Public Health 84:1907–1912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Malveaux, F. J. and Fletcher-Vincent, S. A. (1995). Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers. Environ. Health Perspect. 103(Suppl 6): 59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Marks, S. M., Taylor, Z., Burrows, N. R., Qayad, M. G., and Miller, B. (2000). Hospitalization of homeless persons with tuberculosis in the United States. Am. J. Public Health 90: 435–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Marmot, M., Ryff, C. D., Bumpass, L. L., Shipley, M., and Marks, N. F. (1997). Social inequalities in health: next questions and converging evidence. Soc. Sci. Med. 44: 901–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McElroy, P. D., Southwick, K. L., Fortenberry, E. R., Levine, E. C., Diem, L. A., Woodley, C. L., Williams, P.M., McCarthy, K.D., Ridzon, R., and Leone, P.A. (2003). Outbreak of tuberculosis among homeless persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: 1305–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McKenzie, E. (1994). Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  70. McLean, D. E., Bowen, S., Drezner, K., Rowe, A., Sherman, P., Schroeder, S., Redlener, K., and Redlener, I. (2004). Asthma among homeless children: undercounting and undertreating the underserved. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 158: 244–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Menke, R., Streich, W., Rossler, G., and Brand, H. (2003). Report on Socio-Economic Differences in Health Indicators in Europe: Health inequalities in Europe and the situation of disadvantaged groups. Bielefeld, Institute of Public Health, NRW, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  72. Metraux, S., Culhane, D., Raphael, S., White, M., Pearson, C., Hirsch, E. Ferrell, P., Rice, S., Ritter, B., and Cleghorn, J.S. (2001). Assessing homeless population size through the use of emergency and transitional shelter services in 1998: results from the analysis of administrative data from nine US jurisdictions. Public Health Rep. 116: 344–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Milby, J. B., Schumacher, J. E., McNamara, C., Wallace, D., Usdan, S., McGill, T., and Michael, M. (2000). Initiating abstinence in cocaine abusing dually diagnosed homeless persons. Drug Alcohol Depend. 60(1):55–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morrow, C. B., Cibula, D. A., and Novick, L. F. (2003). Outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless men’s shelter. Am. J. Prev. Med. 24:124–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morse, G. (1999). A review of case management for people who are homeless: Implications for practice, policy, and research. In: Fosburg, L.B., and Dennis, D.L. (eds.), Practical Lessons: The 1998 National Symposium on Homelessness Research (pp. 7-1–7-34). U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  76. Moss, A. R., Hahn, J. A., Tulsky, J. P., Daley, C. L., Small, P. M., and Hopewell, P. C. (2000). Tuberculosis in the homeless. A prospective study. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 162:460–464.Google Scholar
  77. Munoz, M., Vazquez, C., Koegel, P., Sanz, J., and Burnam, M. A. (1998). Differential patterns of mental disorders among the homeless in Madrid (Spain) and Los Angeles (USA). Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 33(10):514–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Noell, J., Rohde, P., Ochs, L., Yovanoff, P., Alter, M. J., Schmid, S., Bullard, J., and Black, C. (2001). Incidence and prevalence of chlamydia, herpes, and viral hepatitis in a homeless adolescent population. Sex Transm. Dis. 28:4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. North, C. S., Eyrich, K. M., Pollio, D. E., and Spitznagel, E. L. (2004). Are rates of psychiatric disorders in the homeless population changing? Am. J. Public Health 94:103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nyamathi, A. M., Dixon, E. L., Robbins, W., Smith, C., Wiley, D., Leake, B., Longshore, D., and Gelberg, L. (2002). Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 17:134–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. O’Flaherty, B. (1996). Making Room: The Economics of Homelessness. Harvard University Press, Cabridge, MA.Google Scholar
  82. O’Grady, B., and Greene, C. (2003). A Social and Economic Impact Study of the Ontario Safe Streets Act on Toronto Squeegee Workers. Online Journal of Justice Studies, 1.Google Scholar
  83. O’Toole, T. P., Gibbon, J. L., Hanusa, B. H., Freyder, P. J., Conde, A. M., and Fine, M. J. (2004). Selfreported changes in drug and alcohol use after becoming homeless. Am. J. Public Health 94:830–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Orfield, M. (1998). Metropolitics: A regional agenda for community and stability. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press and the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
  85. Poulin, C., Alary, M., Bernier, F., Carbonneau, D., Boily, M. C., and Joly, J. R. (2001). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among at-risk women, young sex workers, and street youth attending community organizations in Quebec City, Canada. Sex Transm. Dis. 28:437–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Raoult, D., Foucault, C., and Brouqui, P. (2001). Infections in the homeless. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 1:77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Robertson, M. J., Clark, R. A., Charlebois, E. D., Tulsky, J., Long, H. L., Bangsberg, D. R., and Moss, A.R. (2004). HIV seroprevalence among homeless and marginally housed adults in San Francisco. Am. J. Public Health 94:1207–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Robertson, M. J., and Winkleby, M. A. (1996). Mental health problems of homeless women and differences across subgroups. [Review] [74 refs]. Annu. Rev. Public Health. 17:311–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rose, G. (1985). Sick individuals and sick populations. Int. J. Epidemiol. 14: 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rosenblum, A., Nuttbrock, L., McQuistion, H. L., Magura, S., and Joseph, H. (2001). Hepatitis C and substance use in a sample of homeless people in New York City. J. Addict. Dis. 20:15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rosenheck, R. A., Dausey, D. J., Frisman, L., and Kasprow, W. (2000). Outcomes after initial receipt of social security benefits among homeless veterans with mental illness. Psychiatr. Serv. 51:1549–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roy, E., Haley, N., Leclerc, P., Boivin, J. F., Cedras, L., and Vincelette, J. (2001). Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among street youths. CMAJ. 165:557–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Roy, E., Haley, N., Leclerc, P., Cedras, L., Blais, L., and Boivin, J. F. (2003). Drug injection among street youths in Montreal: predictors of initiation. J. Urban Health 80:92–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Roy, E., Haley, N., Leclerc, P., Sochanski, B., Boudreau, J. F., and Boivin, J. F. (2004). Mortality in a cohort of street youth in Montreal. JAMA. 292: 569–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roy, E., Haley, N., Lemire, N., Boivin, J. F., Leclerc, P., and Vincelette, J. (1999). Hepatitis B virus infection among street youths in Montreal. CMAJ. 161:689–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rusk, D. (1999). Inside Game/Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America. Brookings Institution Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  97. Sherriff, L.C. and Mayon-White, R. T. (2003). A survey of hepatitis C prevalence amongst the homeless community of Oxford. J. Public Health Med. 25:358–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shinn, M., Weitzman, B. C., Stojanovic, D., Knickman, J. R., Jimenez, L., Duchon, L., James, S., and Krantz, D.H. (1998). Predictors of homelessness among families in New York City: from shelter request to housing stability. Am. J. Public Health 88:1651–1657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sleegers, J. (2000a). Similarities and differences in homelessness in Amsterdam and New York City. Psychiatr. Serv. 51:100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sleegers, J. (2000c). Similarities and differences in homelessness in Amsterdam and New York City. Psychiatr. Serv. 51:100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sleegers, J. (2000b). Similarities and differences in homelessness in Amsterdam and New York City. Psychiatr. Serv. 51:100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Smereck, G. A. D., and Hockman, E. M. (1998). Prevalence of HIV Infection and HIV Risk Behaviors associated with Living Place: On-the-Street Homeless Drug Users as a Special Target Population for Public Health Intervention. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse 24:299–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, M. Y., Rapkin, B. D., Winkel, G., Springer, C., Chhabra, R., and Feldman, I. S. (2000). Housing status and health care service utilization among low-income persons with HIV/AIDS. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 15: 731–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Snyder, L. D., and Eisner, M. D. (2004). Obstructive lung disease among the urban homeless. Chest 125:1719–1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. State Policy Documentation Project. Center for Law and Social Policy and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Washington D.C. (September 10, 2004); Scholar
  106. Staats, P. N., Jumbelic, M. I., and Dignan, C. R. (2002). Death by compaction in a garbage truck. Journal of Forensic Sciences 47:1065–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Stein, J. A., Lu, M. C., and Gelberg, L. (2000). Severity of homelessness and adverse birth outcomes. Health Psychology 19:524–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stewart, A. J., Steiman, M., Cauce, A. M., Cochran, B. N., Whitbeck, L. B., and Hoyt, D. R. (2004). Victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among homeless adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 43: 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stratigos, A. J., and Katsambas, A. D. (2003). Medical and cutaneous disorders associated with homelessness. Skinmed 2:168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stratigos, A. J., Stern, R., Gonzalez, E., Johnson, R. A., O’Connell, J., and Dover, J. S. (1999). Prevalence of skin disease in a cohort of shelter-based homeless men. J. Am. Academy Dermatology 41:197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Surratt, H. L., and Inciardi, J. A. (2004). HIV risk, seropositivity and predictors of infection among homeless and non-homeless women sex workers in Miami, Florida, USA. AIDS Care 16:594–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Svoboda, T., Henry, B., Shulman, L., Kennedy, E., Rea, E., Ng, W. Wallington, T., Yaffe, B., Gournis, E., Vicencio, E., Basrur, S., and Glazier, R.H. (2004). Public health measures to control the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome during the outbreak in Toronto. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:2352–2361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Szerlip, M. I., and Szerlip, H. M. (2002). Identification of cardiovascular risk factors in homeless adults. Am. J. Med. Sci. 324:243–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Takano, T., Nakamura, K., Takeuchi, S., and Watanabe, M. (1999b). Disease patterns of the homeless in Tokyo. J. Urban Health. 76:73–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Takano, T., Nakamura, K., Takeuchi, S., and Watanabe, M. (1999a). Disease patterns of the homeless in Tokyo. J. Urban Health. 76:73–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tanaka, M., and Tokudome, S. (1991). Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas. Int. J. Biometeorol. 34:242–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teesson, M., Hodder, T., and Buhrich, N. (2004). Psychiatric disorders in homeless men and women in inner Sydney. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 38:162–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tsemberis, S., Gulcur, L., and Nakae, M. (2004). Housing first, consumer choice, and harm reduction for homeless individuals with a dual diagnosis. Am. J. Public Health 94:651–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Van Leeuwen, J. M., Rietmeijer, C. A., LeRoux, T., White, R., and Petersen, J. (2002). Reaching homeless youths for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea screening in Denver, Colorado. Sex Transm. Infect. 78:357–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vostanis, P., Grattan, E., and Cumella, S. (1998). Mental health problems of homeless children and families: longitudinal study. BMJ. 316:899–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Weber, A. E., Boivin, J. F., Blais, L., Haley, N., and Roy, E. (2002). HIV risk profile and prostitution among female street youths. J. Urban Health 79:525–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  124. Wood, E., Spittal, P. M., Small, W., Kerr, T., Li, K., Hogg, R. S., Tyndall, M. W., Montaner, J. S. G., and Schechter, M. T. (2004). Displacement of Canada’s largest public illicit drug market in response to a police crackdown. CMAJ. 170:1551–1556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Wood, N., Wilkinson, C., and Kumar, A. (1997). Do the homeless get a fair deal from general practitioners? J. Royal Soc. Health 117:292–297.Google Scholar
  126. Yun, L. W., Reves, R. R., Reichler, M. R., Bur, S., Thompson, V., Mangura, B. Mangura, B., and Ford, J. (2003). Outcomes of contact investigation among homeless persons with infectious tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7:S405–S411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., and Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. J. Urban Health In Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+ Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen W. Hwang
    • 1
  • James R. Dunn
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s HospitalUniversity of TorontoToronto

Personalised recommendations