The GEF/UNDP/UNIDO Global Mercury Project — Environmental and Health Results from a Small-Scale Gold Mining Site in Tanzania

  • Appleton D. 
  • Drasch G. 
  • Böse O’Reilly S. 
  • Roider G. 
  • Lister R. 
  • Taylor H. 
  • Smith B. 
  • Tesha A. 
  • Beinhoff C. 
Chapter

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appel, P.W.U. et al. An integrated approach to mineral exploration and environmental assessment in southern and eastern Africa — a pilot study in Tanzania. 2000/16, Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersø gelse, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. Appleton, J.D., Taylor, H., Lister, T.R., Smith, B., Drasch, G., Boese-O’Reilly, S. Final report for an assessment of the environment and health in the Rwamagasa area, Tanzania. UNIDO Project EG/GLO/10/G34. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report CR/04/129, 2004.Google Scholar
  3. Asano, S. et al., Acute inorganic mercury vapor inhalation poisoning. Pathology International, 50(3), 169–174. 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell, L. M., D. G., Dixon, et al. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: Implications for human and ecosystem health. J. Toxk. and Env. Health, Part B-Critical Reviews 6, 325–356, 2003a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell, L. M., O. Osano, et al. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa. Env. Pollut., 125, 281–286, 2003b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Drasch G., Boese-O’Reilly S., Beinhoff C., Roider G., Maydl S. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines 1999 — assessing mercury intoxication of the population by small scale gold mining. Sci. Tot Env., 267, 151–168, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harada, M., S. Nakachi, et al. Monitoring of mercury pollution in Tanzania: relation between head hair mercury and health. Sci. Tot. Env., 227, 249–256, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ikingura, J. R. and H. Akagi. Monitoring of fish and human exposure to mercury due to gold mining in the Lake Victoria goldfields, Tanzania. Sci. Tot. Env., 191, 59–68, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikingura, J.R., Mutakyahwa, M.K.D. Kahatano, J.M.J., Mercury and mining in Africa with special reference to Tanzania. Water Air Soil Pollut., 97, 223–232, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. Ikingura, Akagi Proceedings of the International Workshop on Health and Environmental Effects of Mercury, Impacts of Mercury from Artisanal Gold Mining in Africa. University of Dar es Salaam, 19-20 November 2002, 56–65, 2002.Google Scholar
  11. Kahatano et al. Study of Mercury Levels in Fish and Humans in Mwakitolyo Mine and Mwanza Town in the Lake Victoria Goldfields, Tanzania. In Landner L (ed) 1997. Small Scale Mining in African Countries. Prospects, Policy and Environmental Impacts, 159–170, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. Kinabo, C., Lyimo, E., Preliminary studies of mercury contamination in various food crops at Mgusu mining village in Geita, Tanzania, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Health and Environmental Effects of Mercury — Impacts of Mercury from Artisanal Gold Mining in Africa. National Institute for Minamata Disease, Japan & University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, pp. 204–214, 2002.Google Scholar
  13. Kinabo, C., Mercury pollution associated with artisanal mining on Lake Victoria Goldfield, in Tanzania. In: R. Ebinghaus, G. Petersen and U. von Tuempling (Editors), Fourth international conference on mercury as a global pollutant; book of abstracts. GKSS-Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht, Federal Republic of Germany, 335, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. Kinabo, C., Comparative analyses of Hg-concentration in domestic ducks (Anser sp.) from Mgusu mining village in Geita, Mwanza and Dar es Salaam, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Health and Environmental Effects of Mercury — Impacts of Mercury from Artisanal Gold Mining in Africa. National Institute for Minamata Disease, Japan & University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 215–222, 2002a.Google Scholar
  15. Kinabo, C.P., Comparative analyses of mercury contents in cosmetics and soaps used in the city of Dar es Salaam, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Health and Environmental Effects of Mercury — Impacts of Mercury from Artisanal Gold Mining in Africa. National Institute for Minamata Disease, Japan & University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 173–186, 2002b.Google Scholar
  16. Kishe, M.A., Machiwa, J.F., Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Env. International, 28, 619–625, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamborg, C.H., Fitzgerald, W.F., O’Donnell, J., Torgersen, T. A non-steady-state compartment model of global-scale mercury biogeochemistry with interhemispheric gradients. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 1105–1118, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Machiwa, J.F., Kishe, M.A., Mbilinyi, H.G., Mdamo, A. Mnyanza, O. Impact of gold mining in Lake Victoria Basin on mercury levels in the environment. Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project Report, 46, 2003.Google Scholar
  19. MMSD, Breaking New Ground: Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development. International Institute for Environment and Development. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London, UK. As available at http://www.iied.org/mmsd/finalreport/index.html per September 2002.Google Scholar
  20. Mutakyahwa, M.K.D., Mercury contamination due to gold mining in Tanzania, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Health and Environmental Effects of Mercury — Impacts of Mercury from Artisanal Gold Mining in Africa. National Institute for Minamata Disease, Japan & University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 21–29, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. Pirrone, N., Munthe, J., Barregård, L., Ehrlich, H.C., Petersen, G., Fernandez, R., Hansen, J.C., Grandjean, P., Howat, M., Steinnes, E., Ahrens, R., Pacyna, J.M., Borowiak, A., Boffetta, P., Wichmann-Fiebig, M. Ambient Air Pollution by Mercury (Hg;) — Position Paper. Office for Official Publications of the EC. (available on http://europa. eu.int/comm/environment/air/background.htm#mercury) 2001.Google Scholar
  22. Semu, E., Guttormsen, D. Bakken, L. Microbial-Populations and Activity in 2 Soils of Tanzania as Influenced by Mercury. Mircen J. Appl. Microbial. Biotech., 5, 33–542, 1989.Google Scholar
  23. Sindayigaya, E., Van Cauwenbergh, R., Robberecht, H. Deelstra, H., Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in fish from Lake Tanganyika, Burundi. Sci. Tot. Env., 144, 103–115, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. UNIDO,. Protocols for Environmental and Health Assessment of Mercury Released by Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners. UNIDO, Vienna, 2003.Google Scholar
  25. University of Dar es Salaam,. Monitoring of mercury and other heavy metal pollution in gold mining areas around lake Victoria, Tanzania. Final report, Department of Geology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, 55, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. van Straaten, P., Human exposure to mercury due to small scale gold mining in northern Tanzania. Sci. Tot. Env., 259, 45–53, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. van Straaten, P.,. Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Sci. Tot. Env., 259, 105–113, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Appleton D. 
    • 1
  • Drasch G. 
    • 2
  • Böse O’Reilly S. 
    • 2
  • Roider G. 
    • 1
  • Lister R. 
    • 1
  • Taylor H. 
    • 1
  • Smith B. 
    • 3
  • Tesha A. 
    • 4
  • Beinhoff C. 
    • 4
  1. 1.British Geological SurveyKeyworth, NottinghamUK
  2. 2.Institute of Forensic MedicineLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichGermany
  3. 3.Ministry of Energy and MineralsDar es SalaamTanzania
  4. 4.United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)Vienna International CentreViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations