Exposure to Mercury in the Americas

  • Kathryn R. Mahaffey


Mercury Concentration Total Mercury Mercury Level Inorganic Mercury Mercury Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs. Dental mercury hygiene recommendations. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 134, 1498–9, 2003.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, D.H., McMichael, R.H. Mercury levels in marine and estaurine fishes of Florida. Florida Marine Research Institute Technical Report. TR-6.35 pp. 2001.Google Scholar
  3. Adebajo, S.B. An epidemiological survey of the use of cosmetic skin lightening cosmetics among traders in Lagos, Nigeria. West Afr. J. Med., 21, 51–5, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. Akagi, H., Malm, O., Kinjo, Y., Harada, M., Branches, F.J.P., Pfeiffer W.C., Kata, H. Methylmercury pollution in the Amazon, Brazil. Sci. Tot. Env., 175, 85–96, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albers, J.W., Cavender, G.D., Levine, S.P., Langolf, G.D. Asymptomatic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in workers exposed to elemental mercury. Neurology, 32, 1168–74, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Saleh, I., Khogali, F., Al-Amodi, M., El-Doush, I., Shinwari, N., Al-Baradei, R., Histopathological effects of mercury in skin-lightening cream. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 22, 287–99, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Shahristani, H., Shihab, K.M. Variation of biological half-life of methylmercury in man. Arch. Environ. Health, 28, 342–344, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. Arribere, M.A., Ribeiro Guevara, S., Sanchez, R.S., Gil, M.I., Roman Ross, G., Daurade, L.E., Fajon, V., Horvat, M., Al Calde, R., Kestelman, A.J. Heavy metals in the vicinity of a chlor-alkali factory in the Upper Negro River ecosystem, Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Sci. Tot. Env., 301, 187–203, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahnick, D., Sauer, C., Butterworth, B., Kuehl, D. A national study of mercury contamination of fish. Chemosphere, 29, 537–46, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balluz, L.S., Philen, R.M., Sewell, C.M., Voorhees, R.E., Falter, K.H., Paschal, D. Mercury toxicity associated with a beauty lotion, New Mexico. Intern. J. Epidemiol., 26, 1131–1132, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbosa, A.C., Jardim, W., Dorea, J.G., Fosberg, B., Souza, J. Hair mercury speciation as a function of gender, age, and body mass index in inhabitants of the Negro River basin, Amazon, Brazil. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 40, 439–44, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbosa, A.C., Silva, S.R., Dorea, J.G. Concentration of mercury in hair of indigenous mothers and infants from the Amazon basin. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 34, 100–105, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barregård, L., Hultberg, B., Schutz, A., Salsten, G. Enzymuria in workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 61, 65–9, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barregård, L., Sallsten, G., Jarholm, B. People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam fillings. Occup. Environ. Med., 52, 124–28, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. Barregård, L., Sallsten, G., Schutz, A., Attewell, R., Skerfving, S., Jarvholm, B. Kinetics of mercury in blood and urine after brief occupational exposure. Arch. Environ. Health, 47, 176–84, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. Barrios-Guerra, C.A. Mercury contamination in Chile: a chronicle of a problem foretold. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 183, 1–19, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Bellanger, T.M., Caesar, E.M., Trachtman, L. Blood mercury levels and fish consumption in Louisiana. J. La State Med. Soc., 152, 64–73, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. Bidone, E.D., Castilhos, Z.C., Cid de Souza, T.M., Lacerda, L.D. Fish contamination and human exposure to mercury in the Tapajos River Basin, Para State, Amazon, Brazil: a screening approach. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 59, 194–201, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bird, H.R., Canino, I. The sociopsychiatry of espiritismo: findings of a study in psychiatric populations of Puerto Rican and other Hispanic children. J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiatry, 20, 725–40, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. Birke, G., Johnels, A.G., Plantin, L.O., Sjostrand, B., Skerfving, S., Westermark, T. Studies on humans exposed to methyl mercury through fish consumption. Arch. Environ. Health, 25, 77–91, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Bloom, N.S. On the chemical form of mercury in edible fish and marine invertebrate tissue. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49, 1010–1017, 1992.Google Scholar
  22. Boischio, A.A., Cernichiari, E. Longitudinal hair mercury concentration in riverside mothers along the upper Madeira river (Brazil). Environ. Res., 77, 79–83, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boischio, A.A., Henshel, D.S. Linear regression models of methyl mercury exposure during prenatal and early postnatal life among riverside people along the upper Madeira river, Amazon. Environ. Res., 83, 150–61, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bruhn, C.G., Rodriguez, A.A., Banios, C., Jaramillo, V.H., Becera, J., Gonzales, U., Gras, N.T., Reyes, O., Seremi-Salud. Determination of total mercury in scalp hair of pregnant and nursing women resident in fishing villages in the Eighth Region of Chile. J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Diss., 8, 79–86, 1994.Google Scholar
  25. Burbacher, T., Shen, D., Clarkson, T. Mercury in Macaque infants following oral ingestion of methylmercury or IM injection of vaccines containing thimerosal. Presented in: “Mercury: Medical and Public Health Issues” Tampa, Florida, USA, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. Burge, P., Evans, S. Mercury contamination in Arkansas game fish. A public health perspective. J. Ark. Med. Soc., 90, 542–4, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. Camara, V.M., Corey, G. Epidemiologic surveillance for substances banned from use in agriculture. Bull. Pan. Am. Health. Organ., 28, 355–9, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, D., Gonzales, M., Sullivan, J.B. “Mercury” In: Hazardous Materials Toxicology. Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. JB Sullivan and G Rigger, eds. Baltimore, MD, Williams and Wilkins, 1992.Google Scholar
  29. Carta, P., Flore, C., Alinovi, R., Ibba, A., Tocco, M.G., Aru, G., Carta, R., Girei, I., Mutti, A., Lucchini, R., Randaccio, F.S. Sub-clinical neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with low level of mercury exposure through fish consumption. Neurotoxicology, 24, 617–623, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Caurant, F., Navarro, M., Amiard, J-C. Mercury in pilot whales: possible limits to the detoxicifaction process. Sci Tot. Env., 186, 95–104, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. CDC. Centers for Disease Control. Thimerosal in vaccines: a joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep., 48, 563–5, 1999.Google Scholar
  32. CDC. Centers for Disease Control. Summary of the joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines. American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Public Health Service. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep., 49, 622–631, 2000.Google Scholar
  33. CDC. Centers for Disease Control. Mercury poisoning associated with beauty cream — Texas, New Mexico, and California, 1995-1996. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep., 45, 400, 1996.Google Scholar
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. NCEH Pub. No. 03-0022. January 2003. <>Google Scholar
  35. Chan, H.M., A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and Arctic Canada: development and applications. Food Addit. Contam., 15, 127–34, 1998.Google Scholar
  36. Chang, S.R., Siew, C., Gruninger, S.E. Factors affecting blood mercury concentrations in practicing dentists. J. Dent. Res., 71, 66–74, 1992.Google Scholar
  37. Cherian, M.G., Hursh, J.R., Clarkson, T.W., Allen, J. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor. Arch. Environ. Health, 33, 109–114, 1978.Google Scholar
  38. Children’s Amalgam Trial Study Group. The Children’s Amalgam Trial: design and methods. Control Clin. Trials, 24, 795–814, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. Cordier S., Grasmick C., Paquier-Passelaigue M., Mandereau L., Weber J., Jouan M. Mercury exposure in French Guiana: levels and determinants. Arch. Environ. Health, 53, 299–303, 1998.Google Scholar
  40. Dallaire, F., Dewailly, E., Muckle, G., Ayotte, P. Time trends of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in umbilical cord blood of Inuit infants born in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada) between 1994 and 2001. Environ. Health Perspect., 111, 1660–4, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Kom, J.F., van der Voet, G.B., de Wolff, F.A. Mercury exposure of Maroon workers in the small scale gold mining in Suriname. Environ. Res., 77, 91–97, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dietz, R., Riget, F., Johansen, P. Lead, cadmium, mercury, and selenium in Greenland marine animals. Sci Tot. Env., 186, 67–93, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dolbec, J., Mergler, D., Lanibe, F., Roulet, M., Lebel, J., Lucotte, M. Sequential analysis of hair mercury levels in relation to fish diet of an Amazonian population, Brazil. Sci. Tot. Env., 23, 87–97, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dolbec, J., Mergler, D., Sousa Passos, C-J., Sousa de Morais, S., Lebel, J. Methylmercury exposure affects motor performance of a riverine population of the Tapajós river, Brazilian Amazon. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 73, 195–203, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dorea, J., Barbosa, A.C., Ferrari, I., de Souza, J.R. Mercury in hair and in fish consumed by Riparian women of the Rio Negro, Amazon, Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 13, 239–48, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dos Santos, L.S., Muller, R.C., de Sarkis, J.E., Alves, C.N., Brabo, E.S., Santos, E.C., Bentes, M.H. Evaluation of total mercury concentrations in fish consumed in the municipality of Itaituba, Tapajos River Basin, Para, Brazil. Sci Tot. Env., 261, 1–8, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dumont, C., Girard, M., Bellavance, F., Noel, F. Mercury levels in the Cree population of James Bay, Quebec From 1988 to 1993/94. CMAJ, 158, 439–45, 1998.Google Scholar
  48. Dunne, S.M., Gainsford, I.D., Wilson, N.H. Current materials and techniques for direct restorations in posterior teeth. Part 1. Silver amalgam. Int. Dent. J., 47, 123–36, 1997.Google Scholar
  49. Eisler, R. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 181, 139–98, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ekstrand, J., Bjorkman, L., Edlund, C., Sandborgh-Englund, G. Toxicological aspects on the release and systemic uptake of mercury from dental amalgam. Eur. J. Oral. Sci., 106, 678–86, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Eley, B.M. The future of dental amalgam: a review of the literature. Part 4: Mercury exposure hazards and risk assessment. Br. Dent. J., 182, 373–81, 1997a.Google Scholar
  52. Eley B.M. The future of dental amalgam: a review of the literature. Part 6: Possible harmful effects of mercury from dental amalgam. Br. Dent. J., 182, 455–9, 1997b.Google Scholar
  53. Falter, R., Scholer, H.F. Determination of methyl-, ethyl-, phenyl and total mercury in Neckar River fish. Chemosphere, 29, 1333–38, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Forman, J., Moline, J., Cernichiari, E., Sayegh, S., Torres, J.C., Landrigan, M.M., Hudson, J., Adel, H.N., Landrigan, P.J. A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Environ. Health Perspect., 108, 575–7, 1994.Google Scholar
  55. Francis, P.C., Birge, W.J., Roberts, B.L., Black, J.A. Mercury content of human hair: a survey of dental personnel. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 10, 667–72, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Geffner, M.E., Sandler, A. Oral metallic mercury. A folk medicine remedy for gastroenteritis. Clin. Pediatr. (Phila)., 19, 435–37, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gill, U.S., Schwartz, H.M., Bigras, L. Results of multiyear international interlaboratory comparison program for mercury in human hair. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 43, 466–72, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gilmour, C.C., Riedel, G.S. A survey of size-specific mercury concentrations in game fish from Maryland fresh and estaurine waters. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 39, 53–59, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gotelli, C.A., Astolfi, E., Cox, C., Cernichiari, E., Clarkson, T.W. Early biochemical effects of an organic mercury fungicide of infants: “dose makes the poison”. Science, 227, 638–40, 1985.Google Scholar
  60. Goyer, R.A., Clarkson, T.A. Toxic Effects of Metals pgs. 811–867. In: Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons 6th Edition. Klaassen C.D. (Ed). McGraw-Hill Pubs. New York, 2001.Google Scholar
  61. Gunderson, E.L. FDA Total Diet Study. July 1986–April 1991. Dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. JAOAC Int., 78, 1353–1363, 1995.Google Scholar
  62. Hacon, S., Yokoo, E., Valenta, J., Campos, R.C., da Silva, V.A., de Menezes, A.C., de Moraes, L.O., Ignotti, E. Exposure to mercury in pregnant women from Alta Floresta-Amazon basin, Brazil. Environ. Res., 84, 204–10, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hall, R.A., Zook, E.G., Meaburn, G.M. National Marine Fisheries Survey of Trace Elements in the Fishery Resource. NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-721. Washington, D.C: US Department of Commerce. 1998.Google Scholar
  64. Harada, M., Nakanishi, J., Yasoda, E., Pinheiro, M.C., Oikawa, T., De Assis Guimaraes, G., da Silva Cardoso, B., Kizaki, T., Ohno, H. Mercury pollution in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon: mercury level of head hair and health effects. Environ. Int., 27, 285–90, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Haxton, J., Lindsay, D.G., Hislop, J.S., Salmon, L., Dixon, E.J., Evans, W.H., Reid, J.R., Hewitt, C.J., Jeffries, D.F. Duplicate diet study on fishing communities in the United Kingdom: mercury exposure in a “ critical group”. Environ. Res., 18, 351–368, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hempel, M., Chau, Y.K., Dutka, B.J., McInnis, R., Kwan, K.K., Liu, D. Toxicity of organomercury compounds: bioassay results as a basis for risk assessment. Analyst, 120, 721–4, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henderson B. Dental amalgam: scientific consensus and CDA policy. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 61, 429–31, 1995.Google Scholar
  68. Hightower, J.M., Moore, D. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish. Environ. Health Perspect., 111, 604–608, 2003.Google Scholar
  69. Hightower, J.M. “Mercury and clinical practice”. Presented in: Mercury: Medical and Public Health Issues. April 28-30, 2004. Tampa, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  70. Ipolyi, I., Massanisso, P., Sposato, S., Fodor, P., Morabito, R. Concentration of levels of total and methylmercury in muscle samples collected along the coasts of Sardinia Island (Italy). Analytica Chim. Acta, 505, 145–51, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iyengar, V., Woittiez, J. Trace elements in human clinical specimens: evaluation of literature data to identify reference values. Clin Chem 1988; 34:474–81.Google Scholar
  72. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Sixty-first meeting. Rome. 10–19. June 2003. Summary and conclusions. Available from: URL:ftp:/lftp/ Accessed June 8, 2004.Google Scholar
  73. Jensen, J., Adare, K., Shearer, R. Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 10 Wellington. Ottawa. Ontario KIA 0H4. Canada 1997.Google Scholar
  74. Jewett, S.C., Zhang, X., Naidu, AS., Kelley, J.J., Dasher, D., Duffy, L.K. Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers. Chemosphere, 50, 383–92, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Johnsson, C., Sällsten, G., Schütz, A., Sjörs, A., Barregåd, L. Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies. Environ. Res., 96, 257–63, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jones, D.W. Exposure or absorption and the crucial question of limits for mercury. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 65, 42–46, 1999.Google Scholar
  77. Kales, S.N., Goldman, R.H. Mercury exposure: current concepts, controversies, and a clinic’s experience. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 44, 143–54, 1999.Google Scholar
  78. Kannan, K., Smith, R.G.Jr, Lee, R.F., Windon, H.L., Heitmuller, P.T., Macauley, J.M. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from south Florida estuaries. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 34, 109–18, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kershaw, T.G., Dhahir, P.H., Clarkson, T.W. The relationship between blood levels and dose of methylmercury in man. Arch. Environ. Health., 35, 28–36, 1980.Google Scholar
  80. Kingman, A., Albertini, T., Brown, L.J. Mercury concentrations in urine and whole blood associated with amalgam exposure in a U S military population. J. Dent. Res., 77, 461–71, 1980.Google Scholar
  81. Kosatsky, T., Przybysz, R., Armstrong, B. Mercury exposure in Montrealers who eat St. Lawrence River sportfish. Environ. Res., 84, 36–43, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kosatsky, T., Przybysz, R., Shatenstein, B., Weber, J-P., Armstrong, B. Fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area sport fishers: pilot study. Environ. Res., 80, S150–S158, 1999a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kosatsky, T., Przybysz, R., Shatenstein, B., Weber, J-P., Armstrong, B. Contaminant exposure in Montrealers of Asian origin fishing the St. Lawrence River: Exploratory assessment. Environ. Res., 80, S159–S165, 1999b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Larsen, E.H., Andersen, N.L., Moller, A., Petersen, A., Mortensen, G.K., Petersen J. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark. Food. Addit. Contam., 19, 33–46, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lauwerys, R., Roels, H., Buchet, J.P., Bernard, A. Non-job related increased urinary excretion of mercury. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 39, 33–6, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Branches, F., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Larribe, F., Dolbec, J. Neurotoxic effects of low-level methylmercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Environ. Res., 79, 20–32, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lecloux, A.J. Scientific activities of Euro Chlor in monitoring and assessing naturally and man-made organohalogens. Chemosphere, 52, 521–9, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lefever, H.G. When the saints go riding in: Santeria in Cuba and the United States. J. Sci. Study Religion, 35, 318–30, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Litovitz, T.L., Smilkstein, M., Felberg, L., Klein-Felberg, L., Klein-Schwartz, W., Berlin, R, Morgan, J.L. 1996 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am. J. Emerge. MM., 15, 447–500, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lodenius, M., Malm, O. Mercury in the Amazon. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1998; 157:25–52.Google Scholar
  91. MacIntosh D.L., Spengler J.D., Ozkaynak H., Tsai L., Ryan P.B. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. Environ. Health. Perspect., 104, 202–09, 1996.Google Scholar
  92. Mahaffey, K.R., Clickner, R.P., Bodurow, C.C. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ. Health. Perspect., 112, 562–570, 2004.Google Scholar
  93. Mahaffey, K.R., Mergler D. Blood levels of total and organic mercury in residents of the upper St. Lawrence River basin, Quebec: association with age, gender, and fish consumption. Environ. Res., 77, 104–114, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marcovecchio, J.E., Gerpe, M.S., Bastida, R.O., Rodriguez, D.H., Moron, S.G. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview. Sci. Tot. Env., 154, 141–51, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mason, H.J., Hindell, P., Williams, N.R. Biological monitoring and exposure to mercury. Occup. Med. (Lond.), 51, 2–11, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McDowell, M.A., Dillon, C.F., Osterloh, J., Bolger, P.M., Pellizzari, E., Fernando, R., Montes de Oca, R., Schoeber, S. E., Sinks, T., Jones, R. L., Mahaffey, K. R. Hair mercury levels in US children and women of childbearing age. Reference range data from NHANES 1999-2000. Environ. Health Perspect., 112, 1165–71, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McKinney, P.E. Elemental mercury in the appendix: an unusual complication of Mexican-American folk remedy. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 37, 103–7, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Midthun, K. Thimerosal as a preservative in vaccines: An FDA perspective. Presented 2004 in “Mercury: Medical and Public Health Issues” Tampa, Florida. April 25–28, 2004.Google Scholar
  99. Mol, J.H., Ramlal, J.S., Lietar, C., Verloo, M. Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America. Environ. Res., 82, 183–97, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morgan, J.N., Berry, M.R.Jr., Graves, R.L. Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentrations in fish and their impact on exposure assessments. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol., 7, 119–133, 1997.Google Scholar
  101. Morrissette, J., Takser, L., St.Amour, G., Smargiassi, A., Lafond, J., Mergler, D. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River. Environ. Res., 95, 363–74, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Muckle, G., Ayotte, P., Dewailly, E.E., Jacobson, S.W., Jacobson, J.L. Prenatal exposure of the northern Quebec Inuit infants to environmental contaminants. Environ. Health Perspect., 109, 1291–9, 2001.Google Scholar
  103. Nakagawa, R., Yunita, Y., Hiromoto, M. Total mercury intake from fish and shellfish by Japanese people. Chemosphere, 35, 2909–2913, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council. Committee on Toxicology of Methylmercury. Toxicology of Methylmercury. Washington DC: National Academy Press. 2000.Google Scholar
  105. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Immunization Safety Review Committee. Immunization Safety Review. Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Stratton, K., Gable, A., and McCormick, M.C. Eds. Washington DC: National Academy Press. 2004.Google Scholar
  106. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Health (NIOSH). A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. Washington, D.C. 1977Google Scholar
  107. Niencheski, L.F., Windom, H.L., Baraj, B., Wells, D., Smith, R. Mercury in fish from Patos and Mirim Lagoons, Southern Brazil. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 42, 1403–6, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nilson, S.A. Jr., Costa, M., Akagi, H., Total and methylmercury levels of a coastal human population and of fish from the Brazilian northeast. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 8, 280–4, 2001.Google Scholar
  109. Ortiz-Roque, C., Lopez-Rivera, Y. Mercury contamination in reproductive age women in a Caribbean island: Vieques. J. Epidemiol. Community Health, 58, 756–7, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Palheta, D., Taylor, A. Mercury in environmental and biological samples from a gold mining area in the Amazon region of Brazil. Sci Tot. Env., 19, 63–9, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Passos, C.J., Mergler, D., Gaspar, E., Morais, S., Lucotte, M., Larribe, F., Davidson, R., de Grosbois, S. Eating tropical fruit reduces mercury exposure from fish consumption in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ. Res., 93, 123–130, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Penedo de Pinho, A., Daves Guinaraes, J.R., Martins, AS., Costa, P.A., Olavo, G., Valentin, J. Total mercury in muscle tissue of five shark species from Brazilian offshore waters: effects of feeding habit, sex, and length. Environ. Res., 89, 250–58, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peters-Haefeli, L., Michod, J., Aellig, A., Varone, J.J., Schelling, J.L., Peters, G. Urinary mercury excretion in professional users of an antiseptic soap containing 0,04% phenylmercury borate. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr., 106, 171–8, 1976.Google Scholar
  114. Pichichero, M.E., Cernichiari, E., Lopreiato, J., Tremor, J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study. Lancet, 360, 1737–41, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Piikivi, L., Tolonen, U. EEG findings in chlor-alkali workers subjected to low long term exposure to mercury vapour. Br. J. Ind. Med., 46, 370–5, 1989.Google Scholar
  116. Rhainds, M., Levallois, P., Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P. Lead, mercury, and organchlorine compound levels in cord blood in Quebec, Canada. Arch. Environ. Health, 54, 40–47, 1999.Google Scholar
  117. Rice, D.C., Schoeny, R., Mahaffey, K.R. Methods and rationale for derivation of a reference dose for methylmercury by US. EPA. Risk Anal., 23, 107–15, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Risher, J.F., Murray, H.E., Prince, G.R. Organic mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 18, 109–60, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rothschild, R.F., Duffy, L.K. Methylmercury in the hair of subsistence food users in a rural Alaskan village. Alaska Med., 44, 2–7, 2002.Google Scholar
  120. Saint-Phard, D., Gonzalez, P.G., Sherman, P. Poster 88. Unsuspected mercury toxicity linked to neurologic symptoms: A case Series. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 85, E25, 2004.Google Scholar
  121. Sakamoto, M., Kubota, M., Liu, X.J., Murata, K., Nakai, K., Satoh, H. Maternal and mercury and —3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a risk and benefit of fish consumption to fetus. Env. Sci Technol., 38, 3860–63, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Santos, E.C., de Jesus, I.M., Camara Vde, M., Brabo, E., Loureiro, E.C., Mascarenhas, A., Weirich, J., Luiz, R.R., Cleary, D. Mercury exposure in Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, State of para, Brazil. Environ. Res., 90, 98–103, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sanzo, J.M., Dorrosoro, M., Amiano, P., Amumo, A., Aguinagalde, F.X., Azpiri, M.A. Estimation and validation of mercury intake associated with fish consumption in an EPIC cohort of Spain. Public Health Nutr., 4, 981–988, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schober, S.E., Sinks, T.H., Jones, R.L., Bolger, P.M., McDowell, M., Osterloh, J., Garrett, E.S., Canady, RA., Dillon, C.F., Sun, Y., Joseph, C.B., Mahaffey, K.R Blood mercury levels in US children and women of childbearing age, 1999-2000. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 289, 1667–74, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schultz, C.D., Crer, D., Pearson, J.E., Rivera, J.E., Hylin, J. W. Total and organic mercury in the Pacific blue marlin. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 15, 230–234, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Seidel, S., Kreutzer, R., Smith, D., McNeel, S., Gilliss, D. Assessment of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. JAM, 285, 67–72, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sherlock, J.C., Hislop, J.E., Newton, D., Topping, G., Whittle, K. Elevation of mercury in human blood from controlled chronic ingestion of methylmercury in fish. Hum. Toxicol., 3, 117–31, 1984.Google Scholar
  128. Sherlock, J.C., Lindsay, D.R., Hislop, J.E., Evans, W.H., Collier, T.R. Duplication diet study on mercury by fish consumers in the United Kingdom. Arch. Environ. Health, 37, 271–278, 1982.Google Scholar
  129. Sin, K.W., Tsang, H.F. Large-scale mercury exposure due to a cream cosmetic: community-wide case series. Hon’ Kong Med. J., 95, 329–34, 2003.Google Scholar
  130. Sing, K.A., Hryhorczuk, D., Saffrio, G., Sinks, T., Paschal, D.C., Sorensen, J., Chen, E.H. Organic mercury levels among the Yanomama of the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Ambio, 32434–9, 2003.Google Scholar
  131. Skerfving, S. Methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood and hair, and health status in Swedes consuming contaminated fish. Toxicology, 2, 3–23, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith, J.C., Allen, P.V., Turner, M.D., Most, B., Fisher, H.L., Hall, L.L. The kinetics of intravenously administered methyl mercury in man. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 128, 251–56, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Smith, R.G., Vorwald, A.J., Patil, L.S., Mooney, T.F. Jr. Effects of exposure to mercury in the manufacture of chlorine. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 31, 687–700, 1970.Google Scholar
  134. Stajich, G.V., Lopez, G.P., Harry, S.W., Sexson, W.R. Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants. J. Pediatr., 136, 678–81, 2000.Google Scholar
  135. Stern, A.H., Gochfeld, M., Weisel, C., Burger, J. Mercury and methylmercury exposure in the New Jersey pregnant population. Arch. Environ. Health, 56, 4–10, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stern, A.H., Smith, A.E. An assessment of the cord blood-maternal blood methylmercury ratio: implications for risk assessment. Environ. Health. Perspect., 111, 1465–70, 1970.Google Scholar
  137. Storelli, M.M., Marcotrigiano, G.O. Fish for human consumption: risk of contamination by mercury. Food Addit. Contam., 17, 1007–11, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Storelli, M.M., Stuffler, R.G., Marcotrigiano, G.O. Total and methylmercury residues in tuna-fish from the Mediterranean sea. Food. Addit. Contam., 19, 715–20, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Suzuki, T., Miyama, T., Toyama, C. The chemical form and bodily distribution of mercury in marine fish. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 10, 347–55, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Swift, J.A. Morphology and histochemistry of human hair. EXS, 78, 149–75, 1997.Google Scholar
  141. Tsugane, S., Kondo, H. The mercury content of hair of Japanese immigrants in various locations in South America. Sci Tot. Env., 63, 69–76, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Urieta, I., Jalon, M., Eguilero, I. Food surveillance in the Basque Country (Spain). II. Estimation of the dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals, arsenic, aflatoxin M1, Iron, and zinc through the Total Diet Study 1990/91. Food Addit. Contam., 13, 29–52, 1996.Google Scholar
  143. US EPA. Task Force on Ritualistic Use of Mercury Report Mercury is used to attract luck, love, or money. It is also used to protect against evil. 2002.Google Scholar
  144. US EPA. Fact Sheet:Proposed Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants. Scholar
  145. US EPA. Background Report: AP-42 Section 5.5: Chlor-Alkali Industry. An emission factor relates the quantity of pollutants emitted to a unit of activity. URL: 1992.Google Scholar
  146. US EPA. Mercury Study Report to Congress. Volume IV. An Assessment of Exposure to Mercury in the United States. URL: 1997.Google Scholar
  147. US FDA. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Mercury in Drug and Biologic Products Retrieved May 2004 from: Scholar
  148. US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Job Health Hazards Series. Mercury. OSHA Report 2234. 1975.Google Scholar
  149. Van Oostdam, J., Gilman, A., Dewailly, E., Usher, P., Wheatley, B., Kuhnlein, H., Neve, S., Walker, J., Trace, B., Feeley, M., Jerome, V., Kwavnick, B. Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review. Sci. Tot. Env., 230, 1–82, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Veiga, M.M. Protocols for environmental and health assessment of mercury released by Artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASM). Global Mercury Project. UNIDO Project EG/GLO/0l/G#$: Removal of Barriers to Introduction of Cleaner Artisanal Gold Mining and Extraction Technologies. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization. 2004.Google Scholar
  151. Veiga, M.M. UNIDO/UBC/CETEM. Introducing new technologies for abatement of global mercury pollution in Latin America. Ed. UNIDO/UBC/CETEM. Rio de Janeiro. 94 p. ISBN: 85-7227-100-7, 1997.Google Scholar
  152. Wagemann, R., Innes, S., Richard, P.R. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic. Sci. Tot. Env., 186, 41–66, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wagemann, R., Trebacz, E., Boila, G., Lockhart, W.L. Methylmercury and total mercury in tissues of arctic marine mammals. Sci. Tot. Env., 218, 19–31, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wangberg, I., Edner, H., Ferrara, R., Lanzillotta, E., Munthe, J., Sommar, J., Sjoholm, M., Svanberg, S., Weibring, P. Atmospheric mercury near a chlor-alkali plant in Sweden. Sci. Tot. Env., 304, 29–41, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Weiner, J.A., Nylander, M. The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and different predictor variables. Sci. Tot. Env., 138, 101–15, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weldon, M.M., Smolinski, M.S., Maroufi, A., Hasty, B.W., Gilliss, D.L., Boulanger, L.L., Ballus, L.S., Dutton, R.J. Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream. WestJ. Med., 173, 15–18, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wharton, M., “Thimerosal and Vaccines: CDC Perspectives”. Mercury: Medical and Public Health Issues. Tampa, Florida. April 25–28, 2004.Google Scholar
  158. WHO — World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria 101. Methylmercury. Geneva. World Health Organization. 1990.Google Scholar
  159. WHO — World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria 118. Inorganic Mercury. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1991.Google Scholar
  160. Ysart, G., Miller, P., Crosdale, M., Crews, H., Robb, P., Baxter, M., de L’Argy, C., Harrison, N. 1997 UK Total Diet Study — Dietary exposures to aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel selenium, tin, and zinc. Food Addit. Contam., 17, 775–786, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zaidi, M., Angulo, M., Sifuentes-Osornio, J. Disinfection and sterilization practices in Mexico. J Hosp. Infect., 31, 25–32, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zayas, L.H., Ozuah, O. Mercury use in Espiritismo: a survey of botanicas. Am. J. Public Health, 86, 111–112, 1996.Google Scholar
  163. Zeitz, P., Orr, M.F., Kaye, W.E. Public health consequences of mercury spills: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System, 1993-1998. Environ. Health Perspect. 110, 129–32, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn R. Mahaffey
    • 1
  1. 1.Office of Science Coordination and PolicyUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyUSA

Personalised recommendations