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Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Colon and Rectal Cancer

Its Impact on Staging, Limitations, and Pitfalls
  • Sukamal Saha
  • Adrian G. Dan
  • Carsten T. Viehl
  • Markus Zuber
  • David Wiese
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 127)

Abstract

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has been widely applied in the staging of solid neoplasms including colon and rectal cancer. Since the first reported feasibility study in 1997, there have been numerous publications validating SLN mapping as a highly accurate and powerful upstaging technique for colon and rectal cancer. In addition to refining the technical aspects of this procedure, these studies have investigated the use of other tracers and operative techniques, while determining the indications, limitations, and pitfalls of SLN mapping in patients with colorectal cancers. This chapter reviews the rationale for performing SLN mapping for the accurate staging of colon and rectal cancers, and provides a brief review of the historical background of the development of the procedure. Landmark publications, which have contributed to the current status of the technique, are discussed. We will focus on the technical details of the procedure, and on the pathological evaluation of the specimen and the SLNs. The various tracers and techniques of SLN mapping in colon and rectal cancer will be discussed. We have performed SLN mapping in more than 240 consecutive patients over the past 7 years. The success rates for identifying at least one SLN for colon and rectal cancer were 100% and 90.6%, respectively. The accuracy rates were 95.8% and 100%, respectively. In terms of upstaging, 32.3% of colon cancer patients with nodal metastases and 16.7% of rectal patients with nodal metastases were upstaged by the detection of micrometastases found in the SLNs only. Finally, we will also discuss the current role as well as the future research directions for SLN mapping in colon and rectal cancer.

Keywords

Rectal Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Lymphatic Mapping Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping AJCC Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukamal Saha
    • 1
  • Adrian G. Dan
    • 1
  • Carsten T. Viehl
    • 2
  • Markus Zuber
    • 3
  • David Wiese
    • 1
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityFlint
  2. 2.University of BaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Kantonsspital OltenOltenSwitzerland

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