Social Sounds: Vocal Learning and Development of Mammal and Bird Calls

  • Janette Wenrick Boughman
  • Cynthia F. Moss
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 16)


Killer Whale Bottlenose Dolphin Call Type Humpback Whale Contact Call 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrew RJ (1962) Evolution of intelligence and vocal mimicking. Science 137:585–589.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey ED, Baker JA (1982) Recognition characteristics in covey dialects of bobwhite quail. Condor 84:317–320.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey K (1978) The structure and variation in the separation call of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Anim Behav 26:296–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bain DE (1988) An evaluation of evolutionary processes: Studies of natural selection, and cultural evolution in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Baker CS, Medrano-Gonzalez L, Calambokidis J, Perry A, Pichler F, Rosenbaum H, Straley JM, Urban-Ramirez J, Yamaguchi M, von Ziegesar O (1998) Population structure of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation among humpback whales in the North Pacific. Mol Ecol 7:695–707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker CS, Palumbi SR, Lambertsen RH, Weinrich MT, Calambokidis J, O’Brien SJ (1990) Influence of seasonal migration on geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in humpback whales. Nature 344:238–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker CS, Perry A, Bannister JL, Weinrich MT, Abernethy RB, Calambokidis J, Lien J, Lambertsen RH, Urban Ramirez J, Vasquez O, Clapham PJ, Alling A, O’Brien SJ, Palumbi SR ((1993) Abundant mitochondrial DNA variation and worldwide population structure in humpback whales. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8239–8243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker JA, Bailey ED (1987) Sources of phenotypic variation in the separation call of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Can J Zool 65:1010–1015.Google Scholar
  9. Baker MC, Cunningham MA (1985) The biology of bird-song dialects. Behav Brain Sci 8:85–133.Google Scholar
  10. Baptista LF, Schuchmann K-L (1990) Song learning in the Anna hummingbird (Calypte anna). Ethology 84:l5–26.Google Scholar
  11. Barclay RMR, Fullard JH, Jacobs DS (1999) Variation in the echolocation calls of the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus): Influence of body size, habitat structure, and geographic location. Can J Zool 77:530–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartlett P, Slater PJB (1999) The effect of new recruits on the flock specific call of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Ethol Ecol Evol 11:139–147.Google Scholar
  13. Bigg MA, Ellis GM, Ford JKB, Balcomb KC (1987) Killer Whales. A Study of their Identification, Genealogy, and Natural History in British Columbia and Washington State. Nanaimo, BC, Canada: Phantom Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bigg MA, Olesiuk PF, Ellis GM, Ford JKB, Balcomb KC (1990) Social organization and genealogy of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Individual recognition of cetaceans. Rep Int Whaling Commis 12:383–406.Google Scholar
  15. Bleiweiss R (1998) Tempo and mode of hummingbird evolution. Biol J Linn Soc 65:63–76.Google Scholar
  16. Boinski S, Mitchell CL (1997) Chuck vocalizations of wild female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) contain information on caller identity and foraging activity. Int J Primatol 18:975–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boughman JW (1997) Greater spear-nosed bats give group distinctive calls. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 40:61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boughman JW (1998) Vocal learning by greater spear-nosed bats. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265:227–233.Google Scholar
  19. Boughman JW, Wilkinson GS (1998) Greater spear-nosed bats discriminate group mates by vocalizations. Anim Behav 55:1717–1732.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brittan-Powell EF, Dooling RJ, Farabaugh SM (1997) Vocal development in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): Contact calls. J Comp Psychol 111:226–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brockelman WY, Schilling D (1984) Inheritance of stereotyped gibbon calls. Nature 312:634–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brockelman WY, Srikosamatara S (1980) Maintenance and evolution of social structure in gibbons. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N (eds) The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 298–323.Google Scholar
  23. Brockway BF (1964) Ethological studies of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): Reproductive behavior. Behaviour 23:294–324.Google Scholar
  24. Brown ED, Farabaugh SM (1991) Song sharing in a group-living songbird, the Australian magpie, Gynmorhina tibicen. III. Sex specificity and individual speciticity of vocal parts in communal chorus and duet songs. Behaviour 118:244–274.Google Scholar
  25. Brown PE, Brown TW, Grinnell AD (1983) Echolocation, development, and vocal communication in the lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio leporinus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 13:287–298.Google Scholar
  26. Brown SD, Dooling RJ, O’Grady K (1988) Perceptual organization of acoustic stimuli by budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) III. Contact calls. J Comp Psychol 102:236–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Buck JR, Tyack PL (1993) A quantitative measure of similarity for Tursiops truncatus signature whistles. J Acoust Soc Am 94:2497–2506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Calambokidis J, Steiger GH, Evenson JR, Flynn KR, Balcomb KC, Claridge DE, Bloedel P, Straley JM, Baker CS, von Ziegesar O, Dahlheim ME, Waite JM, Darling JD, Ellis GM, Green GA (1996) Interchange and isolation of humpback whales off California and other North Pacific feeding grounds. Mar Mamm Sci 12:215–226.Google Scholar
  29. Caldwell MC, Caldwell DK (1965) Individualized whistle contours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Nature 207:434–435.Google Scholar
  30. Caldwell MC, Caldwell DK (1979) The whistle of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Ontogeny. In: Winn HE, Olla BL (eds) Behavior of Marine Animals: Current Perspectives in Research, vol 3: Cetaceans. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 369–401.Google Scholar
  31. Caldwell MC, Caldwell DK, Tyack PL (1990) A review of the signature whistle hypothesis for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. In: Leatherwood S, Reeves R (eds) The Bottlenose Dolphin: Recent Progress in Research. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 199–234.Google Scholar
  32. Catchpole CK, Slater PJB (1995) Birdsong: Biological Themes and Variations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Cato DH (1991) Songs of the humpback whales: The Australian perspective. Mem Queensl Mus 30:277–290.Google Scholar
  34. Cheney DL (1987) Interactions and relationships between groups. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT (eds) Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 267–281.Google Scholar
  35. Cheverud JM, Jacobs SC, Moore AJ (1993) Genetic differences among subspecies of the saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis): Evidence from hybrids. Am J Primatol 31:23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chivers DJ, Raemaekers JJ (1980) Long term changes in behaviour. In: Chivers DJ (ed) Malayan Forest Primates: Ten Years’ Study in Tropical Rain Forest. New York: Plenum, pp. 209–260.Google Scholar
  37. Christal J, Whitehead H, Lettevall E (1998) Sperm whale social units: Variation and change. Can J Zool 76:1431–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clapham PJ, Palsboll PJ (1997) Molecular analysis of paternity shows promiscuous mating in female humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Borowski). Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264:95–98.Google Scholar
  39. Clark A, Wrangham RW (1993) Acoustic analysis of wild chimpanzee pant hoots: Do Kibale Forest chimpanzees have an acoustically distinct food arrival pant hoot? Am J Primatol 31:99–109.Google Scholar
  40. Cleator HJ, Stirling I, Smith TG (1989) Underwater vocalizations of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus). Can J Zool 67:1900–1910.Google Scholar
  41. Clemmons J, Howitz JL (1990) Development of early vocalizations and the chicka-dee call in the black-capped chickadee, Parus atricapillus. Ethology 86:203–223.Google Scholar
  42. Conner DA (1985) Dialects versus geographic variation in mammalian vocalizations. Behav Brain Sci 8:297–298.Google Scholar
  43. Connor RC, Smolker RA (1995) Seasonal changes in the stability of male-male bonds in Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.). Aquat Mamm 21:213–216.Google Scholar
  44. Connor RC, Smolker RA (1996) Patterns of female attractiveness in Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins. Behaviour 133:37–69.Google Scholar
  45. Connor RC, Smolker RA, Richards AF (1992a) Aggressive herding of females by coalitions of male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.). In: Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and other Animals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 415–443.Google Scholar
  46. Connor RC, Smolker RA, Richards AF (1992b) Two levels of alliance formation among male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:987–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Craig AS, Herman LM (1997) Sex differences in site fidelity and migration of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to the Hawaiian Islands. Can J Zool 75:1923–1933.Google Scholar
  48. Davidson S (1999) The vocal repertoire of male greater white-lined bats: Context, variation, and relationship to females. M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
  49. Deecke VB (1998) Stability and change of killer whale (Orcinus orca) dialects. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Deputte BL (1982) Duetting in male and female songs of the white-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates concolor leucogenys). In: Snowdon CT, Brown CH, Petersen MR (eds) Primate Communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 67–93.Google Scholar
  51. Ding W, Wursig B, Evans WE (1995) Whistles of bottlenose dolphins: Comparisons among populations. Aquat Mamm 21:65–77.Google Scholar
  52. Dooling RJ, Gephart BF, Price PH, McHale C, Brauth SE (1987) Effects of deafening on the contact call of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus. Anim Behav 35:1264–1266.Google Scholar
  53. Ehret G (1980) Development of sound communication in mammals. Adv Study Behav 11:179–225.Google Scholar
  54. Elowson AM, Snowdon CT (1994) Pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea, modify vocal structure in response to changed social environment. Anim Behav 47:1267–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Elowson AM, Snowdon CT, Sweet CJ (1992) Ontogeny of trill and J-call vocalizations in the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Anim Behav 43:703–715.Google Scholar
  56. Elowson AM, Snowdon CT, Lazaro-Perea C (1998a) ‘Babbling’ and social context in infant monkeys: Parallels to human infants. Trends Cogn Sci 2:2:31–37Google Scholar
  57. Elowson AM, Snowdon CT, Lazaro-Perea C (1998b) Infant ‘babbling’ in a nonhuman primate: Complex vocal sequences with repeated call types. Behaviour 135:643–664Google Scholar
  58. Esser K-H (1994) Audio-vocal learning in a non-human mammal: The lesser spearnosed bat Phyllostomus discolor. Neuroreport 5:1718–1720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Esser K-H, Daucher A (1996) Hearing in the FM-bat Phyllostomus discolor. A behavioral audiogram. J Comp Physiol A 178:779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Esser K-H, Kiefer R (1996) Detection of frequency modulation in the FM-bat Phyllostomus discolor. J Comp Physiol A 178:787–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Esser K-H, Lud B (1997) Discrimination of sinusoidally frequency-modulated sound signals mimicking species-specific communication calls in the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor. J Comp Physiol A 180:513–522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Esser K-H, Schmidt U (1989) Mother-infant communication in the lesser spearnosed bat Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae)—evidence for acoustic learning. Ethology 82:156–168.Google Scholar
  63. Esser K-H, Schmidt U (1990) Behavioral auditory thresholds in neonate lesser spear-nosed bats, Phyllostomus discolor. Naturwissenschaften 77:292–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Esser K-H, Schubert J (1998) Vocal dialects in the lesser spear-nosed bat Phyllostomus discolor. Naturwissenschaften 85:347–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Esser K-H, Condon CJ, Suga N, Kanwal JS (1997) Syntax processing by auditory cortical neurons in the FM-FM area of the mustached bat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14019–14024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Evans WE, Dreher JJ (1962) Observations on scouting behavior and associated sound production by the Pacific bottlenosed porpoise, (Tursiops gilli Dall). Bull Calif Acad Sci 61:217–226.Google Scholar
  67. Farabaugh SM, Dooling RJ (1996) Acoustic communication in parrots: Laboratory and field studies of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In: Kroodsma DE, Miller EH (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishers, pp. 97–117.Google Scholar
  68. Farabaugh SM, Brown ED, Veltman CJ (1988) Song sharing in a group-living songbird, the Australian magpie. II. Vocal sharing between territorial neighbors, within and between geographic regions, and between sexes. Behaviour 104:105–125.Google Scholar
  69. Farabaugh SM, Brown ED, Dooling RJ (1992a) Analysis of warble song of the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus. Bioacoustics 4:111–130.Google Scholar
  70. Farabaugh SM, Brown ED, Hughes JM (1992b) Cooperative territorial defense in the Australian magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen (Passeriformes, Cracticidae), a groupliving songbird. Ethology 92:283–292.Google Scholar
  71. Farabaugh SM, Linzenbold A, Dooling RJ (1994) Vocal plasticity in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): Evidence for social factors in the learning of contact calls. J Comp Psychol 108:81–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Feekes F (1977) Colony-specific song in Cacicus cela (Icteridae, Aves): The password hypothesis. Ardea 3:197–202.Google Scholar
  73. Feekes F (1982) Sound mimesis within colonies of Cacicus c. cela. A colonial password? Z Tierpsychol 58:119–152.Google Scholar
  74. Feldman MW, Laland KN (1996) Gene-culture coevolutionary theory. Trends Ecol Evol 11:453–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ficken MS, Popp JW (1995) Long-term persistence of a culturally transmitted vocalization of the black-capped chickadee. Anim Behav 50:683–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ficken MS, Weise CM (1984) A complex call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). I. Microgeographic variation. Auk 101:349–360.Google Scholar
  77. Ficken MS, Ficken RW, Witkin SR (1978) Vocal repertoire of the black-capped chickadee. Auk 95:34–48.Google Scholar
  78. Ficken MS, Witkin SR, Weise CM (1981) Associations among members of a Black-capped Chickadee flock. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ficken MS, Ficken RW, Apel KM (1985) Dialects in a call associated with pair interaction in the black-capped chickadee. Auk 102:145–151.Google Scholar
  80. Ford JKB (1989) Acoustic behaviour of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can J Zool 67:727–745.Google Scholar
  81. Ford JKB (1991) Vocal traditions among resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal water of British Columbia. Can J Zool 69:1454–1483.Google Scholar
  82. Ford JKB, Fisher HD (1982) Killer whale (Orcinus orca) dialects as an indicator of stocks in British Columbia. Rep Int Whaling Comm 32:671–679.Google Scholar
  83. Ford JKB, Fisher HD (1983) Group-specific dialects of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. In: Payne RS (ed) Communication and Behavior of Whales. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 129–161.Google Scholar
  84. Garber PA (1988) Diet, foraging patterns, and resource defense in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour 105:18–34.Google Scholar
  85. Garber PA (1993) Feeding ecology and behavior of the genus Saguinus. In: Rylands AB (ed) Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 273–295.Google Scholar
  86. Garber PA, Pruetz JD, Isaacson J (1993) Patterns of range use, range defense, and intergroup spacing in moustached tamarin monkeys (Saguinus mystax). Primates 34:11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gaunt SLL, Baptista LF, Sanchez JE, Hernandez D (1994) Song learning as evidenced from song sharing in two hummingbird species (Colibri coruscans and C. thalassinus). Auk 111:87–103.Google Scholar
  88. Gibbs HL (1990) Cultural evolution of male song types in Darwin’s medium ground finches, Geospiza fortis. Anim Behav 39:253–263.Google Scholar
  89. Goldstein RB (1978) Geographic variation in the ‘hoy’ call of the bobwhite. Auk 95:85–94Google Scholar
  90. Gould E (1975) Experimental studies of the ontogeny of ultrasonic vocalizations in bats. Psychobiology 8:333–346.Google Scholar
  91. Gould E (1983) Mechanisms of mammalian auditory communication. In: Eisenberg JF (eds) Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior. Stillwater, American Society of Mammalogists, pp. 265–342.Google Scholar
  92. Gouzoules H, Gouzoules S (1989a) Design features and developmental modification of pigtail macaque, Macaca nemestrina, agonistic screams. Anim Behav 37:383–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gouzoules H, Gouzoules S (1989b) Sex differences in the acquisition of communicative competence by pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Am J Primatol 19:163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gouzoules H, Gouzoules S (1990a) Body size effects on the acoustic structure of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) screams. Ethology 85:324–334.Google Scholar
  95. Gouzoules H, Gouzoules S (1990b) Matrilineal signatures in the recruitment screams of pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina, Behaviour 115:327–347.Google Scholar
  96. Gouzoules H, Gouzoules S (1995) Recruitment screams of pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina): Ontogenetic perspectives. Anim Behav 132:431–450.Google Scholar
  97. Grafen A (1990) Do animals really recognize kin? Anim Behav 39:42–54.Google Scholar
  98. Grant BR, Grant PR (1996) Cultural inheritance of song and its role in the evolution of Darwin’s finches. Evolution 50:2471–2487.Google Scholar
  99. Graycar P (1976) Whistle dialects of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
  100. Green K, Burton HR (1988) Annual and diurnal variations in the underwater vocalizations of Weddell seals. Polar Biol 8:161–164.Google Scholar
  101. Green SM (1975) Dialects in Japanese monkeys: Vocal learning and cultural transmission of locale-specific vocal behavior? Z Tierpsychol 38:304–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Griffin DR (1958) Listening in the Dark. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Griffin DR (1986) Listening in the Dark. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Guinee LN, Chu K, Dorsey EM (1983) Changes over time in the songs of known individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In: Payne RS (ed) Communication and Behavior of Whales. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 59–80.Google Scholar
  105. Habersetzer J, Marrmuthu G (1986) Ontogeny of sounds in the echolocating bat Hipposideros speoris. J Comp Psychol 158:247–257.Google Scholar
  106. Hafen T, Neveu H, Rumpler Y, Wilden I, Zimmermann E (1998) Acoustically dimorphic advertisement calls separate morphologically and genetically homogeneous populations of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol 69:342–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hailman JP, Griswold CK (1996) Syntax of black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) gargles sorts many types into few groups: Implications for geographic variation, dialect drift, and vocal learning. Bird Behav 11:39–57.Google Scholar
  108. Handford P (1988) Trill rate dialects in the rufous-collared sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis, in northwestern Argentina. Can J Zool 66:2658–2670.Google Scholar
  109. Hansen EW (1976) Selective responding by recently separated juvenile rhesus monkeys to the calls of their mothers. Dev Psychobiol 9:83–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hansen P (1979) Vocal learning: Its role in adapting sound structures to long-distance propagation and a hypothesis on its evolution. Anim Behav 27:1270–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hauser MD (1993) The evolution of nonhuman primate vocalizations: Effects of phylogeny, body weight, and social context. Am Nat 142:528–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hauser MD (1996) Vocal communication in macaques: Causes of variation. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 551–577.Google Scholar
  113. Hayes SL, Snowdon CT (1990) Responses to predators in cotton-top tamarins. Am J Primatol 20:283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Heaton JT, Brauth SE (1999) Effects of deafening on the development of nestling and juvenile vocalizations in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). J Comp Psychol 113:314–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Heaton JT, Dooling RJ, Farabaugh SM (1999) Effects of deafening on the calls and warble song of adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). J Acoust Soc Am 105:2010–2019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Helweg DA, Herman LM, Yamamoto S, Forestell PH (1990) Comparison of songs of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, recorded in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico during the winter of 1989. Sci Rep Cetacean Res 1:1–20.Google Scholar
  117. Helweg DA, Cato DH, Jenkins PF, Garrigue C, McCauley RD (1998) Geographic variation in South Pacific humpback whale songs. Behaviour 135:1–27.Google Scholar
  118. Hile AG, Plummer TK, Striedter GF (2000) Male vocal imitation produces call convergence during pair bonding in budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. Anim Behav 59:1209–1218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hodun A, Snowdon CT, Soini P (1981) Subspecific variation in the long calls of the tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis. Z Tierpsychol 57:97–110.Google Scholar
  120. Hoelzel AR (1993) Foraging behaviour and social group dynamics in Puget Sound killer whales. Anim Behav 45:581–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hoelzel AR, Dahlheim ME, Stern SJ (1998) Low genetic variation among killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the eastern north Pacific and genetic differentiation between foraging specialists. J Hered 89:121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hoese HD (1971) Dolphin feeding out of water in a salt marsh. J Mammal 52:222–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hughes M, Nowicki S, Lohr B (1998) Call learning in black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus): The role of experience in the development of “chick-a-dee” calls. Ethology 104:232–249.Google Scholar
  124. Janik VM (1999) Origins and implications of vocal learning in bottlenose dolphins. In: Box HO, Gibson K (eds) Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 308–326.Google Scholar
  125. Janik VM, Slater PJB (1997) Vocal learning in mammals. Adv Study Behav 26:59–99.Google Scholar
  126. Janik VM, Slater PJB (1998) Context-specific use suggests that bottlenose dolphin signature whistles are cohesion calls. Anim Behav 56:829–838.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Janik VM, Slater PJB (2000) The different roles of social learning in vocal communication. Anim Behav 60:1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Jones G, Hughes PM, Rayner JMV (1991) The development of vocalizations in Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) during post-natal growth and the maintenance of individual vocal signatures. J Zool 225:71–84.Google Scholar
  129. Jones G, Ransome R (1993) Echolocation calls of bats are influenced by maternal effects and change over a lifetime. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 252:125–128.Google Scholar
  130. Juniper T, Parr M (1998) Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Kalko EKV (1995) Insect pursuit, prey capture and echolocation in pipistrelle bats (Microchiroptera). Anim Behav 50:861–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kalko EKV, Schnitzler H-U (1993) Plasticity in echolocation signals of European pipistrelle bats in search flight: Implications for habitat use and prey detection. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 33:415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Katona SK, Beard JA (1990) Population size, migrations and feeding aggregations of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Rep Int Whaling Comm 12:295–305.Google Scholar
  134. Kinzey WG (1997a) Cebuella. In: Kinzey WG (ed) New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 240–247.Google Scholar
  135. Kinzey WG (1997b) New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  136. Kinzey WG (1997c) Saguinus. In: Kinzey WG (ed) New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 289–296.Google Scholar
  137. Konishi M (1965) The role of auditory feedback in the control of vocalization in the white-crowned sparrow. Z Tierpsychol 22:770–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Konstantinov AI (1973) Development of echolocation in bats in postnatal ontogenesis. Period Biol 75:13–19.Google Scholar
  139. Krebs JR, Kroodsma DE (1980) Repertoires and geographical variation in bird song. Adv Study Behav 11:143–177.Google Scholar
  140. Kroodsma DE, Byers BE (1991) The function(s) of bird song. Am Zool 31:318–328.Google Scholar
  141. Kroodsma DE, Miller EH (1996) Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing.Google Scholar
  142. Larsen AH, Sigurjonsson J, Oien N, Vikingsson G, Palsboll PJ (1996) Population genetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial loci in skin biopsies collected from central northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): Population identity and migratory destinations. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 263:1611–1618.Google Scholar
  143. Le Boeuf BJ, Peterson RD (1969) Dialects in elephant seals. Science 166:1654–1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Le Boeuf BJ, Petrinovich LF (1974) Dialects in northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris: Origin and reliability. Anim Behav 22:656–663.Google Scholar
  145. Lyrholm T, Gyllensten U (1998) Global matrilineal population structure in sperm whales as indicated by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265:1679–1684.Google Scholar
  146. Maeda T, Masataka N (1987) Locale-specific vocal behaviour of the tamarin (Saguinus l. labiatus). Ethology 75:25–30.Google Scholar
  147. Mammen DL, Nowicki S (1981) Individual differences and within flock convergence in chickadee calls. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Marler P (1976) Sensory templates in species-specific behavior. In: Fentress JC (ed) Simpler Networks and Behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, pp. 315–329.Google Scholar
  149. Marler P, Hobbett L (1975) Individuality in a long-range vocalization of wild chimpanzees. Z Tierpsychol 38:97–109.Google Scholar
  150. Marshall AJ, Wrangham RW, Arcadi AC (1999) Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees? Anim Behav 58:825–830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Marshall JT Jr, Marshall ER (1976) Gibbons and their territorial songs. Science 193:235–237.Google Scholar
  152. Masataka N (1985) Development of vocal recognition of mothers in infant Japanese macaques. Dev Psychobiol 18:107–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Masataka N (1988) The response of red-chested moustached tamarins to long calls from their natal and alien populations. Anim Behav 36:55–61.Google Scholar
  154. Masataka N, Fujita K (1989) Vocal learning of Japanese and rhesus macaques. Behaviour 109:191–199.Google Scholar
  155. Masters WM, Raver KAS, Kazial KA (1995) Sonar signals of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, contain information about individual identity, age and family affiliation. Anim Behav 50:1243–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mattila DK, Clapham PJ, Katona SK, Stone GS (1989) Population composition of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, on Silver Bank, 1984. Can J Zool 67:281–285.Google Scholar
  157. Mattila DK, Clapham PJ, Vasquez O, Bowman RS (1994) Occurrence, population composition, and habitat use of humpback whales in Samana Bay, Dominican Republic. Can J Zool 72:1898–1907.Google Scholar
  158. McBride AF, Kritzler H (1951) Observations on the pregnancy, parturition, and postnatal behavior in the bottlenose dolphin. J Mammal 32:251–266.Google Scholar
  159. McCowan B, Reiss D (1995a) Quantitative comparison of whistle repertoires from captive adult bottlenose dolphins (Delphinidae, Tursiops truncatus): A re-evaluation of the signature whistle hypothesis. Ethology 100:194–209.Google Scholar
  160. McCowan B, Reiss D (1995b) Whistle contour development in captive-born infant bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Role of learning. J Comp Psychol 109:242–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. McCowan B, Reiss D (2001) The fallacy of “signature whistles” is bottlenose dolphins: A comparative perspective of “signature information” in animal vocalizations. Anim Behav 62:1151–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. McCowan B, Reiss D, Gubbins C (1998) Social familiarity influences whistle acoustic structure in adult female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Aquat Mamm 24:27–40.Google Scholar
  163. McCracken GF (1987) Genetic structure of bat social groups. In: Fenton MB, Racey P, Rayner JMV (eds) Recent Advances in the Study of Bats. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 281–298.Google Scholar
  164. McCracken GF, Bradbury JW (1977) Paternity and genetic heterogeneity in the polygynous bat, Phyllostomus hastatus. Science 198:303–306.Google Scholar
  165. McCracken GF, Bradbury JW (1981) Social organization and kinship in the polygynous bat Phyllostomus hastatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Medrano-Gonzalez L, Aguayo-Lobo A, Urban-Ramirez J, Baker CS (1995) Diversity and distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages among humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Mexican Pacific Ocean. Can J Zool 73:1735–1743.Google Scholar
  167. Medvin MB, Stoddard PK, Beecher MD (1992) Signals for parent-offspring recognition—strong sib-sib call similarity in cliff swallows but not barn swallows. Ethology 90:17–28.Google Scholar
  168. Mirsky EN (1976) Song divergence in hummingbird and junco populations on Guadalupe Island. Condor 78:230–235.Google Scholar
  169. Mitani JC, Brandt KL (1994) Social factors influence the acoustic variability in the long-distance calls of male chimpanzees. Ethology 96:233–252.Google Scholar
  170. Mitani JC, Gros-Louis J (1995) Species and sex differences in the screams of chimpanzees and bonobos. Int J Primatol 16:393–411.Google Scholar
  171. Mitani JC, Nishida T (1993) Contexts and social correlates of long-distance calling by male chimpanzees. Anim Behav 45:735–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mitani JC, Hasegawa T, Gros-Louis J, Marler P, Byrne R (1992) Dialects in wild chimpanzees? Am J Primatol 27:233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Morrice MG, Burton HR, Green K (1994) Microgeographic variation and songs in the underwater vocalisation repertoire of the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Polar Biol 14:441–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Morton ES (1975) Ecological sources of selection on avian sounds. Am Nat 108:17–34.Google Scholar
  175. Morton ES (1982) Grading, discreteness, redundancy, and motivation-structural rules. In: Kroodsma DE, Miller EH, Ouellet H (eds) Acoustic Communication in Birds. New York: Academic Press, pp. 183–213.Google Scholar
  176. Moss CF (1988) Ontogeny of vocal signals in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. In: Nachtigall PE, Moore PWB (eds) Animal Sonar. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp., pp. 115–120.Google Scholar
  177. Moss CF, Redish D, Gounden C, Kunz TH (1997) Ontogeny of vocal signals in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. Anim Behav 54:131–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Nelson DA, Marler P (1994) Selection-based learning in bird song development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:10498–10501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nelson DA, Marler P, Morton ML (1996) Overproduction in song development:An evolutionary correlate with migration. Anim Behav 51:1127–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Nowicki S (1983) Flock-specific recognition of chickadee calls. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 12:317–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Nowicki S (1989) Vocal plasticity in captive black-capped chickadees: The acoustic basis and rate of call convergence. Anim Behav 37:64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ohlemiller KK, Kanwal JS, Suga N (1996) Facilitative responses to species-specific calls in cortical FM-FM neurons of the mustached bat. Neuroethology 7:1749–1755.Google Scholar
  183. Olesiuk PK, Bigg MA, Ellis GM (1990) Life history and population dynamics of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Rep Int Whaling Comm 12:209–244.Google Scholar
  184. Olivier TJ, Ober C, Buettner-Janusch J, Sade DS (1981) Genetic differentiation among matrilines in social groups of rhesus monkeys. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Owren MJ, Dieter JA, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1992) “Food” calls produced by adult female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Japanese (M. fuscata) macaques, their normally-raised offspring, and offspring cross-fostered between species. Behaviour 120:218–231.Google Scholar
  186. Owren MJ, Dieter JA, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1993) Vocalizations of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Japanese (M. fuscata) macaques cross-fostered between species show evidence of only limited modification. Dev Psychobiol 26:389–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Palsboll PJ, Clapham PJ, Mattila DK, Larsen F, Sears R, Siegismund HR, Sigurjonsson J, Vasquez O, Arctander P (1995) Distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in North Atlantic humpback whales: The influence of behaviour on population structure. Mar Ecol 116:1–10.Google Scholar
  188. Palumbi SR, Baker CS (1994) Contrasting population structure from nuclear intron sequences and mtDNA of humpback whales. Mol Biol Evol 11:426–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Payne K, Payne RS (1985) Large scale changes over 19 years in songs of humpback whales in Bermuda. Z Tierpsychol 68:89–114.Google Scholar
  190. Payne RB (1981) Population structure and social behavior: Models for testing the ecological significance of song dialects in birds. In: Alexander RD, Tinkle DW (eds) Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory. New York: Chiron Press, pp. 108–120.Google Scholar
  191. Payne RB, Payne LL (1997) Field observations, experimental design, and the time and place of learning bird songs. In: Snowdon CT, Hausberger M (eds) Social Influences on Vocal Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57–84.Google Scholar
  192. Payne RB, Westneat DF (1988) A genetic and behavioral analysis of mate choice and song neighborhoods in indigo buntings. Evolution 42:935–947.Google Scholar
  193. Payne RB, Payne LL, Doehlert SM (1988) Biological and cultural success of song memes in indigo buntings. Ecology 69:104–117.Google Scholar
  194. Payne RS, Guinee LN (1983) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) songs as an indicator of “stocks”. In: Payne RS (ed) Communication and Behavior of Whales. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 333–358.Google Scholar
  195. Payne RS, McVay S (1971) Songs of humpback whales. Science 173:585–597.Google Scholar
  196. Pearl DL, Fenton MB (1996) Can echolocation calls provide information about group identity in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)? Can J Zool 74:2184–2192.Google Scholar
  197. Peres CA, Patton JL, daSilva MNF (1996) Riverine barriers and gene flow in Amazonian saddle-back tamarins. Folia Primatol 67:113–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Perry A, Baker CS, Herman LM (1990) Population characteristics of individually identified humpback whales in the Central and Eastern North Pacific: A summary and critique. Rep Int Whaling Comm 12:307–317.Google Scholar
  199. Piper WH, Parker PG, Rabenold KN (1995) Facultative dispersal by juvenile males in the cooperative stripe-backed wren. Behav Ecol 6:337–342.Google Scholar
  200. Pola YV, Snowdon CT (1975) The vocalizations of the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea). Anim Behav 23:826–842.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Porter TA, Wilkinson GS (in press) Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats Phyllostomus hastatus. J Zool 253:383–390.Google Scholar
  202. Price EC (1992) The benefits of helpers: Effects of group and litter size on infant care in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Am J Primatol 26:179–190.Google Scholar
  203. Price JJ (1998a) Acoustic communication in a cooperative songbird: Transmission, recognition and use of shared call repertoires. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.Google Scholar
  204. Price JJ (1998b) Family-and sex-specific vocal traditions in a cooperatively breeding songbird. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265:497–502.Google Scholar
  205. Price JJ (1999) Recognition of family-specific calls in stripe-backed wrens. Anim Behav 57:483–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Pruetz JD, Garber PA (1991) Patterns of resource utilization, home range overlap, and intergroup encounters in moustached tamarin monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 12:146.Google Scholar
  207. Rabenold KN (1984) Cooperative enhancement of reproductive success in tropical wren societies. Ecology 65:871–885.Google Scholar
  208. Raemaekers JJ, Raemaekers PM, Haimoff EH (1984) Loud calls of the gibbon (Hylobates lar): Repertoire, organization and context. Behaviour 91:146–189.Google Scholar
  209. Randall JA (1989a) Individual footdrumming signatures in banner-tailed kangaroo rats Dipodomys spectabilis. Anim Behav 38:620–630.Google Scholar
  210. Randall JA (1989b) Neighbor recognition in a solitary desert rodent (Dipodomys merriami) Ethology 81:123–133.Google Scholar
  211. Randall JA (1994) Discrimination of footdrumming signatures by kangaroo rats, Dipodomys spectabilis. Anim Behav 47:45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Randall JA (1995) Modification of footdrumming signatures by kangaroo rats: Changing territories and gaming new neighbors. Anim Behav 49:1227–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Reiss D, McCowan B (1993) Spontaneous vocal mimicry and production by bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus: Evidence for vocal learning. J Comp Psychol 107:301–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rendall D, Rodman PS, Emond RE (1996) Vocal recognition of individuals and kin in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Anim Behav 51:1007–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Richard KR, Dillon MC, Whitehead H, Wright JM (1996) Patterns of kinship in groups of free-living sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) revealed by multiple molecular genetic analyses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8792–8795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Richards DG, Wolz JP, Herman LM (1984) Vocal mimicry of computer-generated sounds and vocal labeling of objects by a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. J Comp Psychol 98:10–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Rothe H, Koenig A, Darms K (1993) Infant survival and number of helpers in captive groups of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Am J Primatol 30:131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rothstein SI, Fleischer RC (1987) Vocal dialects and their possible relation to honest status signalling in the brown-headed cowbird. Condor 89:1–23.Google Scholar
  219. Rübsamen R (1987) Ontogenesis of the echolocation system in the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxii: Audition and vocalization in early postnatal development. J Comp Physiol A 161:899–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rübsamen R, Gerhardt HC, Neuweiler G, Marimutha G (1989) Ontogenesis of tonotopy in inferior colliculus of a hipposiderid bat reveals postnatal shift in frequency-place code. J Comp Physiol A 165:755–769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rydell J (1993) Variation in the sonar of an aerial-hawking bat Eptesicus nilssonii. Ethology 93:275–284.Google Scholar
  222. Savage A, Giraldo LH, Soto LH, Snowdon CT (1996) Demography, group composition, and dispersal in wild cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) groups. Am J Primatol 38:85–100.Google Scholar
  223. Sayigh LS, Tyack PL, Wells RS, Scott MD (1990) Signature whistles of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus: Stability and mother-offspring comparisons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 26:247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Sayigh LS, Tyack PL, Wells RS, Scott MD, Irvine AB (1995) Sex differences in signature whistle production of free-ranging bottlensoe dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 36:171–177.Google Scholar
  225. Scherrer JA, Wilkinson GS (1993) Evening bat isolation calls provide evidence for heritable signatures. Anim Behav 46:847–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schnitzler H-U (1967) Compensation of Doppler effects in horseshoe bats. Naturwissenschaften 54:523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schnitzler H-U, Henson OW Jr (1980) Performance of airborne animal sonar systems: I. Microchiroptra. In: Busnel RG, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 109–181.Google Scholar
  228. Schubert J, Esser K-H (1997) Responses of juvenile lesser spear-nosed bats to playback of natural and digitally modified maternal directive calls: Ontogeny of individual recognition. In: Elsner N, Wassle H (eds) Gottingen Neurobiology Report. New York: Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, p. 375.Google Scholar
  229. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1980) The ontogeny of vervet monkey alarm-calling behavior: A preliminary report. Z Tierpsychol 54:37–56.Google Scholar
  230. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1986) Vocal development in vervet monkeys. Anim Behav 34:1640–1658.Google Scholar
  231. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1997) Some general features of vocal development in nonhuman primates. In: Snowdon CT, Hausberger M (eds) Social Influences on Vocal Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 249–273.Google Scholar
  232. Shipley C, Hines M, Buchwald JS (1981) Individual differences in threat calls of northern elephant seals. Anim Behav 29:12–19.Google Scholar
  233. Shipley C, Hines M, Buchwald JS (1986) Vocalizations of northern elephant seal bulls: Development of adult call characteristics during puberty. J Mammal 67:526–536.Google Scholar
  234. Skutch AF (1972) Studies of Tropical American Birds. Cambridge, MA: Nuttall Ornithological Club.Google Scholar
  235. Slater PJB (1989) Bird song learning: Causes and consequences. Ethol Ecol Evol 1:19–46.Google Scholar
  236. Slobidchikoff CN, Coast R (1980) Dialects in the alarm calls of prairie dogs. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 7:49–53.Google Scholar
  237. Smolker RA (1993) Acoustic communication in bottlenose dolphins. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  238. Smolker RA, Pepper JW (1999) Whistle convergence among allied male bottlenose dolphins (Delphinidae, Tursiops spp.). Ethology 105:595–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Smolker RA, Richards AF, Connor RC, Pepper JW (1992) Sex differences in patterns of association among Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins. Behaviour 123:38–69.Google Scholar
  240. Smolker RA, Mann J, Smuts BB (1993) Use of signature whistles during separation and reunions by wild bottlenose dolphin mothers and infants. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 33:393–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Snow DW (1968) The singing assemblies of little hermits. Living Bird 7:47–55.Google Scholar
  242. Snowdon CT (1993) A vocal taxonomy of the callitrichids. In: Rylands AB (ed) Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 78–94.Google Scholar
  243. Snowdon CT (1997) Is speech special? Lessons from new world primates. In: Kinzey WG (ed) Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: de Gruyter, pp. 75–93.Google Scholar
  244. Snowdon CT, Cleveland J (1980) Individual recognition of contact calls by pygmy marmosets. Anim Behav 28:717–727.Google Scholar
  245. Snowdon CT, Elowson AM (1999) Pygmy marmosets modify call structure when paired. Ethology 105:893–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Snowdon CT, Hausberger M (1997) Social Influences on Vocal Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  247. Snowdon CT, Hodun A (1981) Acoustic adaptations in pygmy marmoset contact calls: Locational cues vary with distances between conspecifics. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Snowdon CT, Hodun A (1985) Troop-specific responses to long calls of isolated tamarins (Saguinus mystax). Am J Primatol 8:205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Snowdon CT, Coe CL, Hodun A (1985) Population recognition of infant isolation peeps in the squirrel monkey. Anim Behav 33:1145–1151.Google Scholar
  250. Soini P (1993) The ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea: Some comparisons with two sympatric tamarins. In: Rylands AB (ed) Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 257–261.Google Scholar
  251. Somers P (1973) Dialects in southern rocky mountain pikas, Ochotona princeps (Lagomorpha). Anim Behav 21:124–137.Google Scholar
  252. Steiner WW (1981) Species-specific differences in pure tonal whistle vocalizations of five western north Atlantic dolphin species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Stone GS, Florez-Gonzalez L, Katona SK (1990) Whale migration record. Nature 346:705.Google Scholar
  254. Strager H (1995) Pod-specific call repertoires and compound calls of killer whales, Orcinus orca Linneaus, 1758, in the waters of northern Norway. Can J Zool 73:1037–1047.Google Scholar
  255. Sussman RW, Garber PA (1987) A new interpretation of the social organization and mating system of the Callitrichidae. Int J Primatol 8:73–92.Google Scholar
  256. Sussman RW, Kinzey WG (1984) The ecological role of the Callitrichidae. Am J Phys Anthropol 64:419–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Symmes D, Newman JD, Talmage-Riggs G, Lieblich AK (1979) Individuality and stability of isolation peeps in squirrel monkeys. Anim Behav 27:1142–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Thomas JA, Stirling I (1983) Geographic variation in Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) vocalizations between Palmer Peninsula and McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Can J Zool 61:2203–2210.Google Scholar
  259. Thomas JA, Puddicombe RA, George M, Lewis D (1988) Variations in the underwater vocalizations of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) at the Vestfold Hills as a measure of breeding population discreteness. Hydrobiologia 165:279–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Trainer JM (1987) Behavioral association of song types during aggressive interactions among male yellow-rumped caciques. Condor 89:731–738.Google Scholar
  261. Trainer JM (1988) Singing organization during aggressive interactions among male yellow-rumped caciques. Condor 90:681–688.Google Scholar
  262. Trainer JM (1989) Cultural evolution of song dialects of yellow-rumped caciques in Panama. Ethology 80:190–204.Google Scholar
  263. Tyack PL (1981) Interactions between singing Hawaiian humpback whales and conspecifics nearby. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Tyack PL (1983) Differential response of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, to playback of song or social sounds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 13:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tyack PL (1986) Whistle repertoires of two bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: Mimicry of signature whistles? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 18:251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Tyack PL (1997) Development and social functions of signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Bioacoustics 8:21–46.Google Scholar
  267. Tyack PL, Sayigh LS (1997) Vocal learning in cetaceans. In: Snowdon CT, Hausberger M (eds) Social Influences on Vocal Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 208–233.Google Scholar
  268. Tyack PL, Whitehead H (1983) Male competition in large groups of wintering humpback whales. Behaviour 83:132–154.Google Scholar
  269. Valsecchi E, Palsboll PJ, Hale PT, Glockner-Ferrari D, Ferrari M, Clapham PJ, Larsen F, Mattila DK, Sears R, Sigurjonsson J, Brown MR, Corkeron PJ, Amos B (1997) Microsatellite genetic distances between oceanic populations of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Mol Biol Evol 14:355–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Wanker R, Apcin J, Jennerjahn B, Waibel B (1998) Discrimination of different social companions in spectacled parrotlets (Forpus conspicillatus): Evidence for individual vocal recognition. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 43:197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Waser PM, Waser MS (1977) Experimental studies of primate vocalizations: Specializations for long distance propagation. Z Tierpsychol 43:239–263.Google Scholar
  272. Weary DM, Krebs JR (1992) Great tits classify songs by individual voice characteristics. Anim Behav 43:283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Weilgart L, Whitehead H (1993) Coda communication by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off the Galapagos Islands. Can J Zool 71:744–752.Google Scholar
  274. Weilgart L, Whitehead H (1997) Group-specific dialects and geographical variation in coda repertoire in South Pacific sperm whales. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 40:277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Weinrich MT (1991) Stable social associations among humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the southern Gulf of Maine. Can J Zool 69:3012–3019.Google Scholar
  276. Weise CM, Meyer JM (1979) Juvenile dispersal and development of site-fidelity in the black-capped chickadee. Auk 96:40–55.Google Scholar
  277. Wells RS (1991) The role of long-term study in understanding the social structure of a bottlenose dolphin community. In: Pryor K, Norris KS (eds) Dolphin Societies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 199–235.Google Scholar
  278. Wells RS, Scott MD, Irvine AB (1987) The social structure of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. In: Genoways HH (ed) Current Mammalogy. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 247–305.Google Scholar
  279. West MJ, King AP (1988) Female visual displays affect the development of male song in the cowbird. Nature 334:244–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Whitehead H, Waters S, Lyrholm T (1991) Social organization of female sperm whales and their offspring: Constant companions and casual acquaintances. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 29:385–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wiens JA (1982) Song pattern variation in the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli): Dialects or epiphenomena. Auk 99:208–229.Google Scholar
  282. Wiley RH (1971) Song groups in a singing assembly of little hermits. Condor 73:28–35.Google Scholar
  283. Wiley RH, Richards DG (1982) Adaptations for acoustic communication in birds: Sound transmission and signal detection. In: Kroodsma DE, Miller EH, Ouellet H (eds) Acoustic Communication in Birds. New York: Academic Press, pp. 132–182.Google Scholar
  284. Wilkinson GS, Boughman JW (1998) Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats. Anim Behav 55:337–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Wilkinson GS, Boughman JW (1999) Social influences on foraging in bats. In: Box HO, Gibson K (eds) Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 188–204.Google Scholar
  286. Winn HE, Thompson TJ, Cummings WC, Hain J, Hudnall J, Hays H, Steiner WW (1981) Song of the humpback whale-population comparisons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Winter P, Handley P, Ploog D, Schott D (1973) Ontogeny of squirrel monkey calls under normal conditions and under acoustic isolation. Behaviour 47:231–239.Google Scholar
  288. Wright TF (1996) Regional dialects in the contact call of a parrot. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 263:867–872.Google Scholar
  289. Wright TF (1997) Vocal communication in the yellow-naped amazon (Amazona auropalliata). Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  290. Wright TF, Dorin M (2001) Pair duets in the yellow-naped Amazon (Psittaciformes: Amazona auropalliata): Responses to playbacks of different dialects. Ethology 107:111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Wright TF, Wilkinson GS (2001) Population genetic structure and vocal dialects in an amazon parrot. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 268:609–616.Google Scholar
  292. Wyndham E (1980a) Diurnal cycle, behavior and social organization in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Emu 80:25–33.Google Scholar
  293. Wyndham E (1980b) Environment and food of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Aust J Ecol 5:47–61.Google Scholar
  294. Zann R (1984) Structural variation in the zebra finch distance call. Z Tierpsychol 66:328–345.Google Scholar
  295. Zann R (1985) Ontogeny of the zebra finch distance call: I. Effects of cross fostering to Bengalese finches. Z Tierpsychol 68:1–23.Google Scholar
  296. Zann R (1990) Song and call learning in wild zebra finches in south-east Australia. Anim Behav 40:811–828.Google Scholar
  297. Zimmermann E (1995) Loud calls in nocturnal prosimians: Structure, evolution and ontogeny. In: Zimmermann E, Newman JD, Jurgens U (eds) Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication. New York, Plenum Press. pp. 47–72.Google Scholar
  298. Zimmermann E, Lerch C (1993) The complex acoustic design of an advertisement call in male mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Prosimii, Primates) and sources of its variation. Ethology 93:211–224.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janette Wenrick Boughman
  • Cynthia F. Moss

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations