Advertisement

Disposal and Degradation of Pesticide Waste

  • Allan S. Felsot
  • Kenneth D. Racke
  • Denis J. Hamilton
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 177)

Keywords

Hazardous Waste American Chemical Society Zerovalent Iron Chemical Abstract Service Sodium Perborate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acea MJ, Moore CR, Alexander M (1988) Survival and growth of bacteria introduced into soil. Soil Biol Biochem 20:509–515.Google Scholar
  2. Acher AJ, Saltzman S (1980) Dye-sensitized photooxidation of bromacil in water. J Environ Qual 9:190–194.Google Scholar
  3. Acher AJ, Hapeman CJ, Shelton DR, Muldoon MT, Lusby WR, Avni A, Waters R (1994) Comparison of formation and biodegradation of bromacil oxidation products in aqueous solutions. J Agric Food Chem 42:2040–2047.Google Scholar
  4. Adebona B, Shafagati A, Martin EJ, Chawla RC (1992) Laboratory evaluation of products of incomplete combustion formed from burning of agricultural product bags. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 63–77.Google Scholar
  5. Adriaens P, Fu Q, Grbic-Galic D (1995) Bioavailability and transformation of highly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in anaerobic soils and sediments. Environ Sci Technol 29:2252–2260.Google Scholar
  6. Agbanobi RO (1999) Using granulated wood charcoal as a filter medium. J Environ Qual 28:1038–1040.Google Scholar
  7. Agrawal A, Tratnyek PG (1996) Reduction of nitro aromatic compounds by zero-valent iron metal. Environ Sci Technol 30:153–160.Google Scholar
  8. Ahling B, Wiberger K (1979) Incineration of pesticides containing phosphorus. J Environ Qual 8:12–13.Google Scholar
  9. Akerblom M, Cox JR (1996) Appropriate technology for pesticide analysis in developing countries. In: World Directory of Pesticide Control Organisations, 3rd Ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp 19–40.Google Scholar
  10. Alexander M (1985) Biodegradation of organic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 18:106–111.Google Scholar
  11. Allison SW (1992) Container minimization and reuse. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 30–43.Google Scholar
  12. Ambrus AE, Hargitai G, Karoly A, Fulop Lantos J (1981) General method for determination of pesticide residues in samples of plant origin, soil, and water. II. Thin layer chromatographic determination. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 64:743–748.Google Scholar
  13. Anderson TA, Coats JR (eds) (1994) Bioremediation Through Rhizosphere Technology. ACS Symposium Series 563. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. Anderson TA, Coats JR (1995) Screening rhizosphere soil samples for the ability to mineralize elevated concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. J Environ Sci Health B 30:473–484.Google Scholar
  15. Anderson TA, Guthrie EA, Walton BT (1993) Bioremediation in the rhizosphere. Environ Sci Technol 27:2630–2636.Google Scholar
  16. Anderson TA, Kruger EL, Coats JR (1994) Enhanced degradation of a mixture of three herbicides in the rhizosphere of a herbicide-tolerant plant. Chemosphere 28:1551–1557.Google Scholar
  17. Andrews Environmental Engineering, Inc. (1994) Use of landfarming to remediate soil contaminated by pesticides. HWRIC TR-019 Final Report. Illinois Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  18. Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ) (1998) Management of Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals: A National Strategy. Commonwealth of Australia and Each of Its States and Territories, Canberra, ACT. (http://www.dpie.gov.au/dpie/armcanz)
  19. Arnold S, Hickey WJ, Harris RF (1995) Degradation of atrazine by Fenton’s reagent: condition optimization and product quantification. Environ Sci Technol 29:2083–2089.Google Scholar
  20. Arnold SM, Hickey WJ, Harris RF, Talaat RE (1996) Integrating chemical and biological remediation of atrazine and s-triazine-contaiing pesticide wastes. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1255–1262.Google Scholar
  21. Arthur EL, Coats JR (1998) Phytoremediation. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Arthur EL, Perkovich BS, Anderson TA, Coats JR (2000) Degradation of an atrazine and methoachlor herbicide mixture in pesticide-contamianted soils from two agrochemical dealerships in Iowa. Water Air Soil Pollut 119:75–90.Google Scholar
  23. Atkins PR (1972) The Pesticide Manufacturing Industry—Current Waste Treatment and Disposal Practices. Water Pollution Control Research Series. Project 12020 FYE 01/72, USEP A, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. Barik D, Munnecke DM (1982) Enzymatic hydrolysis of concentrated diazinon in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29:235–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barr DP, Aust SD (1994) Mechanisms white rot fungi use to degrade pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 28:78A–87A.Google Scholar
  26. Barriuso E, Houot S, Serra-Wittling C (1997) Influence of compost addition to soil on the behaviour of herbicides. Pestic Sci 49:65–75.Google Scholar
  27. Becker DL, Wilson SC (1978) The use of activated carbon for the treatment of pesticides and pesticidal wastes In: Cheremisinoff PN, Ellerbusch F (eds) Carbon Adsorption Handbook. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 167–213.Google Scholar
  28. Beltran FJ, Garcia-Araya JF, Acedo B (1994) Advanced oxidation of atrazine in water. II. Ozonation combined with ultraviolet radiation. Water Res 28:2165–2174.Google Scholar
  29. Benitez FJ, Acero JL, Real FJ (2002) Degradation of carbofuran by using ozone, UV radiation and advanced oxidation processes. J Hazard Mater B 89:51–65.Google Scholar
  30. Benoit-Guyod JL, Crosby DG, Bowers JB (1986) Degradation of MCPA by ozone and light. Water Res 20:67–72.Google Scholar
  31. Berry DF, Tomkinson RA, Hetzel GH, Mullins DE, Young RW (1993) Evaluation of solid-state fermentation techniques to dispose of atrazine and carbofuran. J Environ Qual 22:366–374.Google Scholar
  32. Bianco-Prevot A, Fabbri, D, Pramauro E, Morales-Rubio A, de la Guardia M (2001). Continuous monitoring of photocatalytic treatments by flow injection. Degradation of dicamba in aqueous TiO2 dispersions. Chemosphere 44:249–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bicki TJ, Felsot AS (1994) Remediation of pesticide contaminated soil at agrichemical facilities. In: Honeycutt RC, Schabacker DJ (eds) Mechanisms of Pesticide Movement into Ground Water. Lewis, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 81–99.Google Scholar
  34. Bollag JM (1992) Decontaminating soil with enzymes. Environ Sci Technol 26:1876–1881.Google Scholar
  35. Borazjani H, Ferguson BJ, McFarland LK, McGinnis GD, Pope DF, Strobel DA, Wagner JL (1990) Evaluation of wood-treating plant sites for land treatment of creosote-and pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils In: Tedder DW, Pohland FG (eds) Emerging Technologies in Hazardous Waste Managemen. ACS Symposium Series 422. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 252–266.Google Scholar
  36. Borio OB, Gawlik M, Bellobono IR, Muntau H (1998) Photooxidation of prometryn and prometon in aqueous solutoin by hydrogen peroxide on photocatalytic membranes immobilizing titanium dioxide. Chemosphere 37:975–989.Google Scholar
  37. Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN, (eds) (1992) Pesticide Waste Management, Technology, and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  38. Boyle JJ, Shann JR (1998) The influence of planting and soil characetristics on minerlization of 2,4,5-T in rhizosphere soil. J Environ Qual 27:704–709.Google Scholar
  39. Brahmaprakash GP, Reddy BR, Sethunathan N (1985) Persistence of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in soil planted with rice and in rice rhizosphere soil suspensions. Biol Fertil Soils 1:103–109.Google Scholar
  40. Bridges JS, Dempsey CR (1988) Pesticide Waste Disposal Technology. Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  41. Brown JF, Wagner E, Feng H, Bedard DL, Brennan MJ, Carnahan JC, May RJ (1987) Environmental dechlorination of PCBs. Environ Toxicol Chem 6:579–593.Google Scholar
  42. Brunelle DJ, Singleton DA (1985) Chemical reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls on soils with poly(ethylene glycol)/KOH. Chemosphere 14(2):173–181.Google Scholar
  43. Buescher CA, Dougherty JH, Skrinde RT (1964) Chemical oxidation of selected organic pesticides. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38:1005–1014.Google Scholar
  44. Bugbee GJ, Saraceno RA (1994) Phytotoxicity of compost treated with lawn herbicides containing 2,4-D, dicamba, and MCPP. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52:606–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Bumpus JA, Aust SD (1987) Biodegradation of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:2001–2008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Bumpus JA, Tien M, Wright D, Aust SD (1985) Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus. Science 228:1434–1436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Burken JG, Schnoor JL (1996) Phytoremediation: plant uptake of atrazine and role of root exudates. J Environ Eng 122:958–963.Google Scholar
  48. Burken JG, Schnoor JL (1997) Uptake and metabolism of atrazine by poplar trees. Environ Sci Technol 31:1399–1406.Google Scholar
  49. Burken JG, Schnoor JL (1998) Predictive relationships for uptake of organic contaminants by hybrid poplar trees. Environ Sci Technol 32:3379–3385.Google Scholar
  50. Buyuksonmez F, Rynk R, Hess TF, Bechinski E (2000) Occurrence, degradation and fate of pesticides during composting. Part II: Occurrence and fate of pesticides in compost and composting systems. Compost Sci Util 8:61–81.Google Scholar
  51. Castro TF, Yoshida T (1974) Effect of organic matter on the biodegradation of some organochlorine insecticides in submerged soils. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 20:363–370.Google Scholar
  52. Centner TJ (1998) Unwanted agricultural pesticides: state disposal programs. J Environ Qual 27:736–742.Google Scholar
  53. Chen T, Doong R, Lei W (1998) Photocatalytic degradation of parathion in aqueous TiO2 dispersion: The effect of hydrogen peroxide and light intensity. Water Sci Technol 37:187–194.Google Scholar
  54. Cheng S, Vidakovic-Cifrek A, Grosse W, Karrenbrock F (2002) Xenobiotics removal from polluted water by a multifunctional constructed wetland. Chemosphere 48:415–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Chiarenzelli JR, Scrudato RJ, Rafferty DE, Wunderlich ML, Roberts RN, Pagano JJ, Yates M (1995) Photocatalytic degradation of simulated pesticide rinsates in water and water + soil matrices. Chemosphere 30:173–185.Google Scholar
  56. Chu W (1999) Photodechlorination mechanism of DDT in a UV/surfactant system. Environ Sci Technol 33:421–425.Google Scholar
  57. Cole MA, Zhang L, Liu X (1995) Remediation of pesticide contaminated soil by planting and compost addition. Compost Sci Util 3:20–30.Google Scholar
  58. Comfort SD, Shea PJ, Machacek TA, Gaber H, Oh B-T (2001) Field-scale remediation of a metolachlor-contaminated spill site using zerovalent iron. J Environ Qual 30:1636–1643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Conger RM, Portier RJ (1997) Phytoremediation experimentation with the herbicide bentazon. Remediation 7:19–37.Google Scholar
  60. Cunningham SD, Anderson TA, Schwab AP, Hsu FC (1996) Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Adv Agron 56:55–64.Google Scholar
  61. Cui H, Hwang H-M, Zeng K, Glover H, Yu H, Liu Y (2002) Riboflavin-photosensitized degradation of atrazine in a freshwater environment. Chemosphere 47:991–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dannenberg A, Pehkonen SO (1998) Investigation of the heterogeneously catalyzed hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides. J Agric Food Chem 46:325–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Davidson JM, Rao PS, Ou LT, Wheeler WB, Rothwell DF (1980) Adsorption, Movement and Biological Degradation of Large Concentrations of Selected Pesticides in Soil. EPA-600/2-80-124. U.S. EPA Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  64. Davis MW, Glaser JA, Evans JW, Lamar R. T (1993) Field evaluation of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to treat creosote-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 27:2572–2576.Google Scholar
  65. DeMarini DM, Houk VS, Lewtas J, Williams RW, Nishioka MG, Srivastava RK, Ryan JV, McSorley JA, Hall RE, Linak WP (1991) Measurement of mutagenic emissions from the incineration of the pesticide dinoseb during application of combustion modifications. Environ Sci Technol 25:910–913.Google Scholar
  66. Dennis WH, Kobylinski EA (1983) Pesticide-laden wastewater treatment for small waste generators. J Environ Sci Health B 18:317–331.Google Scholar
  67. Desmarchelier JM (1987) Kinetics of alkaline and peroxide-catalyzed hydrolysis of fenitrothion. J Environ Sci Health B 22:403–411.Google Scholar
  68. Dombek T, Dolan E, Schultz J, Klarup D (2001) Rapid reductive dechlorination of atrazine by zero-valent iron under acidic conditions. Environ Pollut 111:21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Doong R, Chang W (1998) Photoassisted iron compound catalytic degradation of organophosphorous pesticides with hydrogen peroxide. Chemosphere 37:2563–2572.Google Scholar
  70. Dowling KC, Lemley AT (1995) Organophosphate insecticide degradation by nonamended and cupric ion-amended Fenton’s reagent in aqueous solution. J Environ Sci Health B 30:585–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dwinell SE (1992) Treatment of pesticide wastes: regulatory and operational requirements for successful treatment systems. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 113–126.Google Scholar
  72. Dyer R (1998) Managing pesticide waste and packaging. Pestic Outlook 9:46–47.Google Scholar
  73. Dzantor EK, Felsot AS (1991) Microbial responses to large concentrations of herbicides in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:649–655.Google Scholar
  74. Enlow PD (1990) A Literature Review of Nonbiological Remediation Technologies Which May Be Applicable to Fertilizer/Agrichemical Dealer Sites. TVA Bulletin Y-213. National Fertilizer & Environmental Reseach Center, Muscle Shoals, AL.Google Scholar
  75. Engwall MA, Pignatello JJ, Grasso D (1999) Degradation and detoxification of the wood preservatives creosote and pentachlorophenol in water by the photo-fenton reaction. Water Res 33:1151–1158.Google Scholar
  76. Eisenhauer HR (1964) Oxidation of phenolic wastes. J Water Pollut Control Fed 36: 1116–1128.Google Scholar
  77. Eykholt GR, Davenport DT (1998) Dechlorination of the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor by iron metal. Environ Sci Technol 32:1482–1487.Google Scholar
  78. Felsot AS (1996) Options for clean-up and disposal of pesticide waste generated on a small scale. J Environ Sci Health B 31:365–381.Google Scholar
  79. Felsot AS (1998a) User sites. In: Kearney PC, Roberts TR (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soil and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 1–19.Google Scholar
  80. Felsot AS (1998b) Landfarming pesticide-contaminated soils. In: Kearney PC, Roberts TR (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soil and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 129–160.Google Scholar
  81. Felsot AS, Dzantor EK (1990) Enhancing biodegradation for detoxification of herbicide waste in soil. In: Racke KD, Coats JR (eds) Enhanced Biodegradation of Pesticides in the Environment. ACS Symposium Series 426. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 248–268.Google Scholar
  82. Felsot AS, Dzantor EK (1997) Potential of biostimulation to enhance dissipation of aged herbicide residues in landfarmed waste. In: Krueger E, Anderson T, Coats J (eds) Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. ACS Symposium Series 664. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 77–91.Google Scholar
  83. Felsot AS, Mitchell JK, Dzantor EK (1994) Use of Landfarming to Remediate Soil Contaminated by Pesticide Waste. HWRIC RR-070. Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  84. Felsot AS, Mitchell JK, Dzantor EK (1995) Remediation of herbicide contaminated soil by combinations of landfarming and biostimulation. In: Bioremediation: Science and Applications. SSSA Special Publication 43. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 37–257.Google Scholar
  85. Ferguson TL, Wilkinson RR (1984) Incineration of pesticide wastes. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 181–191.Google Scholar
  86. Ferro AM, Sims RC, Bugbee B (1994) Hycrest crested wheat grass accelerates the degradation of pentachlorphenol in soil. J Environ Qual 23:272–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Fitz N, Jensen J (1998) Regulatory aspects of pesticide remediation. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 339–373.Google Scholar
  88. Flathman PE, Lanza GR (1998) Phytoremediation: current views on an emerging green technology. J Soil Contam 7:415–432.Google Scholar
  89. Fogarty AM, Tuovinen OH (1991) Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting. Microbiol Rev 55:225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (1996a) Guidelines on Disposal of Bulk Quantities of Pesticides in Developing Countries. FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  91. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1996b) Pesticide Storage and Stock Control Manual. FAO Pesticide Disposal Series 3. FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  92. Gan JY, Koskinen WC (1998) Pesticide fate and behavior in soil at elevated concentrations. In: Kearney PC, Roberts TR (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soil and Water. Wiley, Chichester, pp 59–84.Google Scholar
  93. Gan J, Koskinen WC, Becker RL, Buhler DD (1995) Effect of concentration on persistence of alachlor in soil. J Environ Qual 24:1162–1169.Google Scholar
  94. Gan J, Becker RL, Koskinen WC, Buhler DD (1996) Degradation of atrazine in two soils as a function of concentration. J Environ Qual 25:1064–1072.Google Scholar
  95. Gan J, Wang Q, Yates SR, Koskinen WC, Jury WA (2002) Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicies by thiosulfate salts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:5189–5194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gao J, Garrison AW, Hoehamer C, Mazur CS, Wolfe NL (2000a) Uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus pesticides by axenically cultivated aquatic plants. J Agric Food Chem 48:6114–6120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gao J, Garrison AW, Hoehamer C, Mazur CS, Wolfe NL (2000b) Uptake and phytotransformation of o,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDT by axenically cultivated aquatic plants. J Agric Food Chem 48:6121–6127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Garrison AW, Nzengung VA, Avants JK, Ellington IJ, Jones WI, Rennels D, Wolfle NL (2000) Phytodegradation of p,p’-DDT and the enantiomers of o,p’-DDT. Environ Sci Technol 34:1663–1670.Google Scholar
  99. Ghauch A (2001) Degradation of benomyl, picloram, and dicamba in a conical apparatus by zero-valent iron powder. Chemosphere 43:1109–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ghorishi SB, Altwicker ER (1995) Formation of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, benzenes, and phenols in the post-combustion region of a heterogeneous combustor: effect of bed material and post-combustion temperature. Environ Sci Technol 29:1156–1162.Google Scholar
  101. Ghosh PK, Philip L, Bandyopadhyay M (2001) Anaerobic treatment of atrazine bearing wastewater. J Environ Sci Health B 36:301–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. GIFAP (1991) Disposal of Unwanted Pesticide Stock. International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  103. Gleba D, Borisjuk NV, Borisjuk LG, Kneer R, Pouleve A, Skarzhinskaya M, Dushenkov S, Logendra S, Gleba YY, Raskin I (1999) Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5973–5977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Guenther D, Schimpf WA, Vaagt G (1998) Disposal of obsolete pesticides—joint solutions called for. Pestic Outlook 9:5–8.Google Scholar
  105. Habecker MA (1989) Environmental Contamination at Wisconsin Pesticide Mixing/Loading Facilities: Case Study, Investigation, and Remedial Action Evaluation. Wisconsin Dept. of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection, Agricultural Resource Management Division, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  106. Hall CV (1984) Pesticide waste disposal in agriculture. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 27–36.Google Scholar
  107. Hammel KE (1989) Organopollutant degradation by ligninolytic fungi. Enzyme Microb Technol 11:776–777.Google Scholar
  108. Hansen RJ, Palmer LP (1992) Pesticide container collection and recycling in Minnesota. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 44–62.Google Scholar
  109. Hapeman CJ, Torrents A (1998) Direct radical oxidation processes In: Kearney PC, Roberts TR (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soil and Water. Wiley, Chichester, pp 161–180.Google Scholar
  110. Hapeman CJ, Karns JS, Shelton DR (1995) Total mineralization of aqueous atrazine in the presence of ammonium nitrate using ozone and Klebsiella terragena (strain DRSI): mechanistic considerations for pilot scale disposal. J Agric Food Chem 43:1383–1391.Google Scholar
  111. Hapeman-Somich CJ (1992) Chemical degradation of pesticide wastes. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 157–165.Google Scholar
  112. Hapeman-Somich CJ, Gui-Ming Z, Lusby WR, Muldoon MT, Waters R (1992) Aqueous ozonation of atrazine. Product identification and description of the degradation pathway. J Agric Food Chem 40:2294–2298.Google Scholar
  113. Herrmann J-M, Disdier J, Pichat P, Malato S, Blanco J (1998) TiO2-based solar photocatalytic detoxification of water containing organic pollutants. Case studies of 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and of benzofuran. Appl Catal B Environ 17:15–23.Google Scholar
  114. Higarashi MM, Jardim WF (2000) Photocatalytic treatment of pesticide-contaminated soil using solar light and titanium dioxide. Am Environ Lab 32(11):25–26.Google Scholar
  115. Hogan JA, Toffoli GR, Miller FC, Hunter JV, Finstein MS (1988) Proceedings of the International Conference on Physicochemical and Biological Detoxification of Hazardous Waste, Atlantic City, NJ.Google Scholar
  116. Honeycutt R, Ballantine L, LeBaron H, Paulson D, Seim V, Ganz C, Milad G (1984) Degradation of high concentrations of a phosphorothioic ester by hydrolase. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 343–351.Google Scholar
  117. Hong MS, He L, Dale BE, Donnelly KC (1995) Genotoxicity profiles and reaction characteristics of potassium polyethylene glycol dehalogenation of wood preserving waste. Environ Sci Technol 29:702–708.Google Scholar
  118. Hourdakis A, Anagnostopoulos H, Doulia D (2000) Soil contamination from buried pesticides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 64:47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hsu T-S, Bartha R (1979) Accelerated mineralization of two organophosphate insecticides in the rhizosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Huston PL, Pignatello JJ (1999) Degradation of selected pesticide active ingredients and commercial formulations in water by the photo-assisted Fenton reaction. Water Res 33:1238–1246.Google Scholar
  121. Jensen JK (1992) Managing pesticide wastes: perspectives for developing countries In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 20–28.Google Scholar
  122. Jain V (1992) Disposing of pesticides in the third world. Environ Sci Technol 26:226–228.Google Scholar
  123. Johnson LM, Talbot HW Jr (1983) Detoxification of pesticides by microbial enzymes. Experientia (Basel) 39:1236–1246.Google Scholar
  124. Jones FW, Westmoreland DJ (1999) Removal of wool wax nonylphenol ethoxylates and pesticide residues from wool scour effluent. Water Res 33:1775–1780.Google Scholar
  125. Karamanev DG, Samson R (1998) High-rate biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by biofilm developed in the immobilized soil bioreactor. Environ Sci Technol 32:994–999.Google Scholar
  126. Kearney PC, Roberts TR (eds) (1998) Pesticide Remediation in Soil and Water. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Kearney PC, Zeng Q, Ruth JM (1984) A large scale UV-ozonation degradation unit. Field trials on soil pesticide waste disposal. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 195–209.Google Scholar
  128. Kearney PC, Ruth JM, Zeng Q, Mazzocchi P (1985) UV-ozonation of paraquat. J Agric Food Chem 33:953–957.Google Scholar
  129. Kearney PC, Karns JS, Muldoon MT, Ruth JM (1986) Coumaphos disposal by combined microbial and UV-ozonation reactions. J Agric Food Chem 34:702–706.Google Scholar
  130. Kearney PC, Muldoon MT, Somich CJ (1987) UV-ozonation of eleven major pesticides as a waste disposal pretreatment. Chemosphere 16:2321–2330.Google Scholar
  131. Kearney PC, Muldoon MT, Somich CJ, Ruth JM, Voaden DJ (1988) Biodegradation of ozonated atrazine as a wastewater disposal system. J Agric Food Chem 36:1301–1306.Google Scholar
  132. Keerthinarayana S, Vijayashankar YN, Shivalingaiah B, Visweswariah K (1990) Sorption mechanism of DDT from aqueous phase. J Environ Sci Health B 25:493–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kennedy MV, Stojanovic BJ, Shuman FL Jr (1969) Chemical and thermal methods for disposal of pesticides. Residue Rev 29:89–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kennedy DW, Aust SD, Bumpus JA (1990) Comparative biodegradation of alkyl halide insecticides by the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM-F-1767). Appl Environ Microbiol 56:2347–2353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Konstantinou IK, Sakellarides TM, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA (2001) Photocatalytic degradation of selected s-triazine herbicides and organophosphorus insecticides over aqueous TiO2 suspensions. Environ Sci Technol 35:398–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kornel A, Rogers CJ (1985) PCB destruction: a novel dehalogenation reagent. Hazard Mater 1:161–176.Google Scholar
  137. Koustas RN, Fischer D (1998) Review of separation technologies for treating pesticide-contaminated soil. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 48:434–440.Google Scholar
  138. Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) (1984) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  139. Krueger JP, Butz RG, Cork DJ (1991) Use of dicamba-degrading microorganisms to protect dicamba susceptible plant species. J Agric Food Chem 39:1000–1003.Google Scholar
  140. Kruger EL, Anderson TA, Coats JR (eds) (1997) Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. ACS Symmposium Series 664. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  141. Ku Y, Jung I-L (1998) Decomposition of monocrotophos in aqueous solution by UV irradiation in the presence of titanium dioxide. Chemosphere 37:2589–2597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kuo WS (2002) Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticide rinsate. J Environ Sci Health B 37(1):65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kuo WS, Regan RS (1999) Removal of pesticides from rinsate by adsorption using agricultural residuals as medium. J Environ Sci Health B 34:431–447.Google Scholar
  144. Lagadec AJM, Miller DJ, Lilke AV, Hawthorne SB (2000) Pilot-scale subcritical water remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-and pesticide-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 34:1542–1548.Google Scholar
  145. Laine MM, Jorgensen KS (1997) Effective and safe composting of chlorophenol-contaminated soil in pilot scale. Environ Sci Technol 31:371–378.Google Scholar
  146. Laine MM, Ahtiainen J, Wagman N, Oberg L, Jorgensen KS (1997) Fate and toxicity of chlorophenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans during composting of contaminated sawmill soil. Environ Sci Technol 31:3244–3250.Google Scholar
  147. Lamar RT, Evans JW, Glaser JA (1993) Solid-phase treatment of a pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil using lignin-degrading fungi. Environ Sci Technol 27:2566–2571.Google Scholar
  148. Larson RA, Schlauch MB, Marley KA (1991) Ferric ion promoted photodecomposition of triazines. J Agric Food Chem 39:2057–2062.Google Scholar
  149. Lee G, Kenley RA, Winterle JS (1984) Reaction of sodium perborate with organophosphorus esters. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 211–219.Google Scholar
  150. Leeson A, Hapeman CJ, Shelton DR (1993) Biomineralization of atrazine ozonation products. Application to the development of a pesticide waste disposal system. J Agric Food Chem 41:983–987.Google Scholar
  151. Leland JE, Mullins DE, Berry DF (2001) Evaluating enviornmental hazards of land applying composted diazinon using earthworm bioassays. J Environ Sci Health B 36: 821–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lemmon CR, Pylypiw HM (1992) Degradation of diazinon, chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and pendimethalin in grass and compost. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 48:409–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lisowski FT, Mikuni RY, Wegner MM (1994) Rinsibility of agricultural chemical containers. In: Eighth IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Washington, DC. Book of abstracts, vol 2, poster 630, p 705.Google Scholar
  154. Long T (1989) Groundwater contamination in the vicinity of agrichemical mixing and loading facilities. In: Proceedings, Illinois Agricultural Pesticides Conference, 1989. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, pp 139–149.Google Scholar
  155. Long JR, Hanson DJ (1983) Dioxin issue focuses on three major controversies in U.S. Chem Eng News 61:23–36.Google Scholar
  156. Lounsbury BB (1992) State pesticide disposal regulations and programs. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 8–19.Google Scholar
  157. Lu M-C, Chen J-N (1997) Pretreatment of pesticide wastewater by photocatalytic oxidation. Water Sci Technol 36:117–122.Google Scholar
  158. Lu M-C, Chen J-N, Tu M-F (1999a) Photocatalytic oxidation of propoxur in aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions. J Environ Sci Health B 34:859–872.Google Scholar
  159. Lu M-C, Chen J-N, Chang K-T (1999b) Effect of adsorbents coated with titanium dioxide on the photocatalytic degradation of propoxur. Chemosphere 38:617–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Luijk R, Akkerman DM, Slot P, Olie K, Kapteijn F (1994) Mechanism of formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the catalyzed combustion of carbon. Environ Sci Technol 28:312–321.Google Scholar
  161. MacCarthy P, Djebbar KE (1986) Removal of paraquat, diquat, and amitrole from aqueous solution by chemically modified peat. J Environ Qual 15:103–107.Google Scholar
  162. Macek T, Mackova M, Kas J (2000) Exploitation of plants for the removal of organics in environmental remedation. Biotechnol Adv 18:23–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Malato S, Blanco J, Richter C, Maldonado MI (2000) Optimization of pre-industrial solar photocatalytic mineralization of commercial pesticides. Application to a pesticide container recycling. Appl Catal B Environ 25:31–38.Google Scholar
  164. Malato S, Blanco J, Vidal A, Fernandez P, Caceres J, Trincado P, Oliveira JC, Vincent M (2002) New large solar photocatalytic plant: set-up and preliminary results. Chemosphere 47:235–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Marques PASS, Rosa MF, Mendes F, Pereira MC, Blanco J, Malato S (1996) Wastewater detoxification of organic and inorganic toxic compounds with solar collectors. Desalination 108:213–220.Google Scholar
  166. Masaphy S, Fahima T, Levanon D, Henis Y, Mingelgrin U (1996) Parathion degradation by Xanthomaonas sp. and its crude enzyme extract in clay suspensions. J Environ Qual 25:1248–1255.Google Scholar
  167. Massey JH, Lavy TL (1997) Degradation and disposal of Scepter herbicide by hydrogen peroxide-catalyzed ozonation. J Agric Food Chem 45:3315–3319.Google Scholar
  168. Masten S, Davies SHR (1994) The use of ozonation to degrade organic contaminants in wastewaters. Environ Sci Technol 28:180A–185A.Google Scholar
  169. Matheson LJ, Tratnyek PG (1994) Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated methanes by iron metal. Environ Sci Technol 28:2045–2053.Google Scholar
  170. McKinlay RG, Kasperer K (1999) Observations on decontamination of herbicide-polluted water by marsh plant systems. Water Res 33:505–511.Google Scholar
  171. McKinzi AM, Dichristina TJ (1999) Microbially driven Fenton reaction for transformation of pentachlorophenol. Environ Sci Technol 33:1886–1891.Google Scholar
  172. Michel FC Jr, Reddy A, Forney LJ (1995) Microbial degradation and humification of the lawn care pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid during the composting of yard trimmings. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:2566–2571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Michel FC Jr, Reddy CA, Forney LJ (1997) Fate of carbon-14 diazinon during the composting of yard trimmings. J Environ Qual 26:200–205.Google Scholar
  174. Mikesell MD, Boyd SA (1988) Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge. Environ Sci Technol 22:1411–1415.Google Scholar
  175. Milligan MS, Altwicker E (1993) The relationship between de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and low-temperature carbon gasification in fly ash. Environ Sci Technol 27:1595–1601.Google Scholar
  176. Mills G, Hoffman MR (1993) Photocatalytic degradation of pentachorophenol on TiO2 particles: identification of intermediates and mechanism of reaction. Environ Sci Technol 27:1681–1689.Google Scholar
  177. Minero C, Pelizzetti E, Malato S, Blanco J (1996) Large solar plant photocatalytic water decontamination: degradation of atrazine. Solar Energy 56:411–419.Google Scholar
  178. Mirsatari SG, McChesney MM, Craigmill AC, Winterlin WL, Seiber JN (1987) Anaerobic microbial dechlorination: an approach to on-site treatment of toxaphene-contaminated soil. J Environ Sci Health B 22:663–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mitra J, Raghu K (1986) Rice straw amendment and the degradation of DDT in soils. Toxicol Environ Chem 11:171–181.Google Scholar
  180. Mougin C, Laugero C, Asther M, Chaplain V (1997) Biotransformation of s-triazine herbicides and related degradation products in liquid cultures by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Pestic Sci 49:169–177.Google Scholar
  181. Mueller JG, Lantz SE, Blattmann BO, Chapman PJ (1991) Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenoand creosote-contaminated materials: slurry-phase bioremediation. Environ Sci Technol 25:1055–1061.Google Scholar
  182. Müller WP, Korte F (1974) Ecological chemical evaluation of waste treatment procedures. In: Environmental Quality and Safety, Vol 5. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 215–236.Google Scholar
  183. Müller WP, Korte F (1975) Microbial degradation of benzo-[a]-pyrene, monolinuron, and dieldrin in waste composting. Chemosphere 3:195–198.Google Scholar
  184. Mullins DE, Young RW, Palmer CP, Hamilton RL, Sheretz PC (1989) Disposal of concentrated solutions of diazinon using organic absorption and chemical and microbial degradation. Pestic Sci 25:241–254.Google Scholar
  185. Mullins DE, Young RW, Hetzel GH, Berry DF (1992) Pesticide wastewater cleanup using demulsification, sorption, and filtration followed by chemical and biological degradation. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 166–176.Google Scholar
  186. Muszkat L (1998) Photochemical processes. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 307–337.Google Scholar
  187. Munnecke DM (1976) Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides, a possible pesticide disposal method. Appl Environ Microbiol 32:7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Munnecke DM (1980) Enzymatic detoxification of waste organophosphate pesticides. J Agric Food Chem 28:105–111.Google Scholar
  189. Norwood VM (1990) A Literature Review of Waste Treatment Technologies Which May Be Applicable to Wastes Generated at Fertilizer/Agrichemical Dealer Sites. TVA Bulletin Y-214. National Fertilizer & Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL.Google Scholar
  190. Norwood VM, Randolph ME (1990) A Literature Review of Biological Treatment and Bioremediation Technologies Which May Be Applicable at Fertilizer/Agrichemical Dealer Sites. TVA Bulletin Y-215. National Fertilizer & Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL.Google Scholar
  191. Nye JC (1984) Treating pesticide-contaminated wastewater. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 153–160.Google Scholar
  192. Noyes RT (1992) Minimization and reuse of pesticide rinsates. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 96–111.Google Scholar
  193. Oberacker DA (1988) Incineration options for disposal of waste pesticides. In: Bridges JS, Dempsey CR (eds) Pesticide Waste Disposal Technology. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, pp 88–95.Google Scholar
  194. Oberacker DA (1989) Test burns for banned pesticides. J Hazard Mater 22:135–142.Google Scholar
  195. Oberacker DA, Lin PC, Shaul GM, Ferguson DT, Engleman VS, Jackson TW, Chapman JS, Evans JD, Martrano RJ, Evey LL (1992) Characterization of emissions formed from open burning of pesticide bags. In: Bourke JB, Felsot AS, Gilding TJ, Jensen JK, Seiber JN (eds) Pesticide Waste Management. Technology and Regulation. ACS Symposium Series 510. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 78–94.Google Scholar
  196. O’Reilly KT, Crawford RL (1989) Degradation of pentachlorophenol by polyurethane-immobilized Flavobacterium cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:2113–2118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Paulson D Jr (1998) Industrial aspects of remediation—environmental safety. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 21–33.Google Scholar
  198. Pecchi G, Reyes P, Sanhueza P, Villasenor J (2001) Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol on TiO2 sol-gel catalysts. Chemosphere 43:141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pelizzetti E, Maurino V, Minero C, Carlin V, Pramauro E, Zerbinati O, Tosato ML (1990) Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides. Environ Sci Technol 24:1559–1565.Google Scholar
  200. Penuela GA, Barcelo D (1996) Comparative degradation kinetics of alachlor in water by photocatalysis with FeCl3, TiO2 and photolysis, studied by solid phase disk extraction followed by gas chromatographic techniques. J Chromatogr A 754:187–195.Google Scholar
  201. Peris-Cardells E, Terol J, Mauri AR, de la Guardia M, Pramauro E (1993) Continuous flow photocatalytic degradation of carbaryl in aqueous media. J Environ Sci Health B 28:431–445.Google Scholar
  202. Petruska JA, Mullins DE, Young RW, Collins ER (1985) A benchtop system for evaluation of pesticide disposal by composting. Nuclear Chem Waste Manag 5:177–182.Google Scholar
  203. Pettygrove DR, Naylor DV (1985) Metribuzin degradation kinetics in organically amended soil. Weed Sci 33:267–270.Google Scholar
  204. Pfaender FK, Alexander M (1972) Extensive microbial degradation of DDT in vitro and DDT metabolism by natural communities. J Agric Food Chem 20:842–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Pfender WF (1996) Bioremediation bacteria to protect plants in pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 25:1256–1260.Google Scholar
  206. Pignatello JJ (1992) Dark and photoassisted Fe3+-catalyzed degradation of chlorophenoxy herbicides by hydrogen peroxide. Environ Sci Technol 26:944–951.Google Scholar
  207. Pignatello JJ, Huang LQ (1991) Sorptive reversibility of atrazine and metolachlor residues in field soil samples. J Environ Qual 20:222–228.Google Scholar
  208. Pignatello JJ, Sun Y (1995) Complete oxidation of metolachlor and methyl parathion in water by the photoassisted Fenton reaction. Water Res 29:1837–1844.Google Scholar
  209. Pignatello JJ, Ferrandino FJ, Haung LQ (1993) Elution of aged and freshly added herbicides from a soil. Environ Sci Technol 27:1563–1571.Google Scholar
  210. Pramauro E, Vincenti M, Augugliaro V, Palmisano L (1993) Photocatalytic degradation of monuron in aqueous TiO2 dispersions. Environ Sci Technol 27:1790–1795.Google Scholar
  211. Pramauro E, Prevot AB, Vincenti M, Brizzolesi G (1997) Photocatalytic degradation of carbaryl in aqueous solutions contining TiO2 suspensions. Environ Sci Technol 31: 3126–3131.Google Scholar
  212. Pratap K, Lemley AT (1994) Electrochemical peroxide treatment of aqueous herbicide solutions. J Agric Food Chem 42:209–215.Google Scholar
  213. Pratap K, Lemley AT (1998) Fenton electrochemical treatment of aqueous atrazine and metolachlor. J Agric Food Chem 46:3285–3291.Google Scholar
  214. Prevot AB, Pramauro E, de la Guardia M (1999) Photocatalytic degradation of carbaryl in aqueous TiO2 suspensions containing surfactants. Chemosphere 39:493–502.Google Scholar
  215. Qian C, Sanders PG, Seiber JN (1985) Accelerated degradation of organophosphorus pesticides with sodium perborate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 35:682–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Queensland Department of Environment (1998) Draft Guidelines for the Assessment & Management of Contaminated Land in Queensland. Department of the Environment, Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  217. Racke KD (1989) Fate of organic contaminants during sewage sludge composting. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 42:526–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Radosevich M, Traina SJ, Tuovinen OH (1997) Atrazine mineralization in laboratoryaged soil microcosms inoculated with s-triazine-degrading bacteria. J Environ Qual 26:206–214.Google Scholar
  219. Rajagopal VK, Burris DR (1999) Reduction of 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of zero-valent iron. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1779–1782.Google Scholar
  220. Rester D (1987) Waste water recycling. In: Proceedings National Workshop on Pesticide Waste Disposal. EPA/600/9-87/001. USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, pp 60–66.Google Scholar
  221. Rice PJ, Anderson TA, Coats JR (1997) Phytoremediation of herbicide-contaminated surface water with aquatic plants. In: Krueger E, Anderson T, Coats J (eds) Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. ACS Symposium Series 664. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 133–151.Google Scholar
  222. Roberts DJ, Kaake RH, Funk SB, Crawford DL, Crawford RL (1993) Anaerobic remediation of dinoseb from contaminated soil. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 39/40:781–789.Google Scholar
  223. Rock ML, Kearney PC, Helz GR (1998) Innovative remediation technology. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 285–306.Google Scholar
  224. Roe BA, Lemley AT (1997) Treatment of two insecticides in an electrochemical Fenton system. J Environ Sci Health B 32:261–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Roper JC, Dec J, Bollag J-M (1996) Using minced horseradish roots for the treatment of polluted waters. J Environ Qual 25:1242–1247.Google Scholar
  226. Rose WW, Mercer WA (1968) Fate of insecticides in composting agricultural wastes. Fate of Pesticides in Composted Agricultural Wastes. National Canners Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  227. Runes HB, Bottomley PJ, Lerch RN, Jenkins JJ (2001a) Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1059–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Runes HB, Jenkins JJ, Bottomley PJ (2001b) Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:427–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Runes HB, Jenkins JJ, Moore JA, Bottomley PJ, Wilson BD (2002) Treatment of atrazine in nursery irrigation runoff by a constructed wetland. Water Res (in press).Google Scholar
  230. Sabatini DA, Smith JW, Moore LW (1990) Treatment of chlordane-contaminated water by the activated rotating biological contactor. J Environ Qual 19:334–338.Google Scholar
  231. Saltmiras DA, Lemley AT (2000) Degradation of ethylene thiourea (ETU) with three Fenton treatment processes. J Agric Food Chem 48:6149–6157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sayles GD, You G, Want M, Kupferle MJ (1997) DDT, DDD, and DDE dechlorination by zero-valent iron. Environ Sci Technol 31:3448–3454.Google Scholar
  233. Schnoor JL, Licht LA, McCutcheon SC, Wolfe NL, Carreira LH (1995) Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 29:318A–323A.Google Scholar
  234. Schoen RR, Winterlin WL (1987) The effects of various soil factors and amendments on the degradation of pesticide mixtures. J Environ Sci Health B 22:347–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Seeman S (1996) Using non-activated cooking charcoal from developing countries to remove chemical contaminants from drinking water. M.S. thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.Google Scholar
  236. Selim MI, Wang J (1994) Fate of atrazine in biologically active granular activated carbon. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:3–8.Google Scholar
  237. Siciliano SD, Germida JJ (1998) Mechanisms of phytoremediation: biochemical and ecological interactions between plants and bacteria. Environ Rev 6:65–79.Google Scholar
  238. Sikora LJ, Kaufman DD, Ramirez MA, Wilson GB (1982) Degradation of pentachlorphenol and pentachloronitrobenzene in a laboratory composting system. In: Shultz DW (ed) Land Disposal of Hazardous Waste. EPA-600/9-82-002. USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, pp 372–381.Google Scholar
  239. Singh J, Shea PJ, Hundal LS, Comfort SD, Zhang TC, Hage DS (1998) Iron-enhanced remediation of water and soil containing atrazine. Weed Sci 46:388.Google Scholar
  240. Singleton IN, McClure C, Bentham R, Xie P, Kanatachote D, Megharaj M, Dandie C, Franco CMM, Oades JM, Naidu R (1998) Bioremediation of organochlorine-contaminated soil in South Australia: a collaborative venture. In: Kennedy IR, Skerritt JH, Johnson GI, Highley E (eds) Seeking Agricultural Produce Free of Pesticide Residues. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 334–337.Google Scholar
  241. Smolen JM, Stone AT (1997) Divalent metal ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphorothionate ester pesticides and their corresponding oxonates. Environ Sci Technol 31:1664–1673.Google Scholar
  242. Somich CJ, Kearney PC, Muldoon, MT, Elsasser S (1988) Enhanced soil degradation of alachlor by treatment with ultraviolet light and ozone. J Agric Food Chem 36: 1322–1326.Google Scholar
  243. Somich CJ, Muldoon MT, Kearney PC (1990) On-site treatment of pesticide waste and rinsate using ozone and biologically active soil. Environ Sci Technol 24:745–749.Google Scholar
  244. Steverson EM (1998) Incineration as a pesticide remediation method. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp 85–103.Google Scholar
  245. Stobiecki S, Pruszynski S, Silowiecki A (1998) Contamination of the environment by unwanted pesticide landfills in Poland. Poster 8D-010, book of Abstracts, vol 2, 9th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, London.Google Scholar
  246. Strom PF (2000) Pesticides in yard waste compost. Compost Sci Util 8:54–60.Google Scholar
  247. Sudhakar Y, Kikshit AK (2001) Methodology for management of endosulfan contaminated eluent. J Environ Sci Health B 36:355–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Sun Y, Pignatello JJ (1992) Chemical treatment of pesticide wastes. Evaluation of Fe(III) chelates for catalytic hydrogen peroxide oxidation of 2,4-D at circumneutral pH. J Agric Food Chem 40:322–327.Google Scholar
  249. Sun Y, Pignatello JJ (1993a) Photochemical reactions involved in the total mineralization of 2,4-D by Fe3+/H2O2/UV. Environ Sci Technol 27:304–310.Google Scholar
  250. Sun Y, Pignatello JJ (1993b) Activation of hydrogen peroxide by iron (III) chelates for abiotic degradation of herbicides and insecticides in water. J Agric Food Chem 41: 308–312.Google Scholar
  251. Tanaka K, Abe K, Sheng CY, Hisanaga T (1992) Photocatalytic wastewater treatment combined with ozone pretreatment. Environ Sci Technol 26:2534–2536.Google Scholar
  252. Taylor AG, Hanson D, Anderson D (1988) Recycling pesticide rinsewater. In: Bridges JS, Dempsey CR (eds) Pesticide Waste Disposal Technology. Pollution Technology Review, no. 148. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, pp 243–249.Google Scholar
  253. Taylor ML, Wentz JA, Dosani MA, Gallagher W, Greber JS (1990) Treating Chlorinated Wastes with the KPEG Process. Project Summary, EPA/600/S2-90/026. USEPA, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  254. Tiernan TO, Wagel DJ, Garrett JH, VanNess GF, Solch JG, Harden LA (1989) Laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the efficacy of KPEG reagent for detoxification of hazardous wastes containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) and soils contaminated with such chemical wastes. Chemosphere 18: 835–841.Google Scholar
  255. Torrents A, Anderson BG, Hapeman CJ (1998) Kinetics of bromacil ozonolysis. J Agric Food Chem 46:1630–1636.Google Scholar
  256. Torstensson L, Olsson G, Norup S, Stenberg B (1994) Biobeds minimize environmental risks when filling agricultural spraying equipment. In: 35th Swedish Crop Protection Conference, Uppala, Sweden, pp 223–233.Google Scholar
  257. Troxler W (1998) Thermal desorption. In: Kearney P, Roberts T (eds) Pesticide Remediation in Soils and Water. Wiley, New York, pp. 105–127.Google Scholar
  258. Tuomela M, Lyytikainen M, Oivanen P, Hatakka A (1999) Mineralization and conversion of pentachlorophenol (PC) in soil inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Soil Biol Biochem 31:65–74.Google Scholar
  259. USEPA (1996) A citizen’s guide to chemical dehalogenation. Technology Fact Sheet. EPA 542-F-96-004. National Center for Enviromental Publications and Information, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  260. Valo R, Salkinoja-Salonen M (1986) Bioreclamation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil by composting. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 25:68–75.Google Scholar
  261. Van Eekert MHA, Van Ras NJP, Mentink GH, Rijnaarts HHM, Stams AJM, Field JA, Schraa G (1998) Anaerobic transformation of β-hexachlorocyclohexane by methanogenic granular sludge and soil microflora. Environ Sci Technol 32:3299–3304.Google Scholar
  262. Vandervoort C, Zabik MJ, Zlickfeldt B, Branham DW (1997) Fate of selected pesticides applied to turfgrass: effect of composting on residues. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 58:38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Van Zwieten LV, Ayres M, Curran P (1998) Remediation of contaminated soil and fluid at cattle dip sites in Australia. In: Kennedy IR, Skerritt JH, Johnson GI, Highley E (eds) Seeking Agricultural Produce Free of Pesticide Residues. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 349–357.Google Scholar
  264. Wang Q, Lemley AT (2001) Kinetic model and optimization of 2,4-D degradation by anodic Fenton treatment. J Agric Food Chem 35:4509–4514.Google Scholar
  265. Wang Q, Lemley AT (2002) Oxidation of carbaryl in aqueous solution by membrane anodic Fenton treatment. J Agric Food Chem 50:2331–2337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Watts RJ, Adams VD, Middlebrooks E.J (1988) Dissolved oxygen requirements for the indirect photolysis treatment of two refractory herbicides. J Environ Qual 17:723–729.Google Scholar
  267. Weber EJ (1996) Iron-mediated reductive transformations: investigation of reaction mechanism. Environ Sci Technol 30:716–719.Google Scholar
  268. Willems HPL, Berry DF, Mullins DE (1996) Carbofuran degradation and metabolite incorporation during solid state fermentation. J Environ Qual 25:162–168.Google Scholar
  269. Wilson PC, Whitwell T, Klaine SJ (1999) Phytotoxicity, uptake, and distribution of [14C] simazine in Canna hybrida ‘Yellow King Humbert’. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:1462–1468.Google Scholar
  270. Winterlin WL, Schoen SR, Mourer CR (1984) Disposal of pesticide wastes in lined evaporation beds. In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. ACS Symposium Series 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 97–116.Google Scholar
  271. Winterlin W, Seiber JN, Craigmill A, Baier T, Woodrow J, Walker G (1989) Degradation of pesticide waste taken from a highly contaminated soil evaporation pit in California. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 18:734–747.Google Scholar
  272. Woodrow JE, Wong JM, Seiber JN (1989) Pesticide residues in spray aircraft tank rinses and aircraft exterior washes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 42:22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Zwiernik MJ, Quensen JF III, Boyd SA (1998) FeSO4 amendments stimulate extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Environ Sci Technol 32:3360–3365.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan S. Felsot
    • 1
  • Kenneth D. Racke
    • 2
  • Denis J. Hamilton
    • 3
  1. 1.Washington State UniversityRichlandUSA
  2. 2.Dow AgrosciencesIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Primary IndustriesBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations