Advertisement

Tissue Engineering Skeletal Muscle

  • Paul E. Kosnik
  • Robert G. Dennis
  • Herman H. Vandenburgh

Conclusion

In vitro tissue engineering of skeletal muscle involves culturing myogenic cells in an environment that emulates the in vivo environment so that the cells proliferate, fuse, organize in three dimensions, and differentiate into functional skeletal muscle. The tissue engineer uses a multitude of in vitro environmental cues to direct the proliferation process. The end result will be a skeletal muscle construct that resembles skeletal muscle in both form and function. The construct will be organized like a skeletal muscle, with long multinucleated cells oriented parallel to its long axis, and the construct will be capable of generating useful directed force and power. Such constructs have been developed from avian, rodent, and human primary muscle cells as well as immortalized myogenic cells. Measurements and characterization of the construct’s biochemical and contractile functions have begun. Use of these early generation constructs for basic science research, as implantable therapeutic protein delivery devices, and as drug screening constructs are moving forward. Skeletal muscle constructs will likely be implanted into humans as sources of secreted proteins in the near future, and will no doubt one day replace muscle contractile function in patients with functional deficits in force and power generation.

Keywords

Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering Satellite Cell Skeletal Muscle Cell Skeletal Muscle Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acartuk TO, Peel MM, Petrosko, P, LaFromboise W, Johnson PC, DeMilla PA. 1999. Control of attachment, morphology, and proliferation of skeletal myoblasts on silanized glass. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 44:355–370.Google Scholar
  2. Adams JC, Watt FM. 1993. Regulation of development and differentiation by the extracellular matrix. Development 117:1183–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen RE, Luiten LS, Dodson MV. 1985. Effect of insulin and linoleic acid on satellite cell differentiation. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1571–1579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandman E, Strohman RC. 1982. Increased K+ inhibits spontaneous contractions reduces myosin accumulation in cultured chick myotubes. J. Cell. Biol. 93:698–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banes AJ, Horesovsky G, Larson C, Tsuzaki M, Judex S, Archambault J, Zernicke R, Herzog W, Kelley S, Miller L. 1999. Mechanical load stimulates expression of novel genes in vivo and in vitro in avian flexor tendon cells. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 7:141–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell E, Ivarsson B, Merrill C. 1979. Production of a tissue-like structure by contraction of collagen lattices by human fibroblasts of different proliferative potential in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:1274–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bischoff R. 1986. A satellite cell mitogen from crushed adult muscle. Dev. Biol. 115:140–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brevet A, Pinto E, Peacock J, Stockdale FE. 1976. Myosin synthesis increased by electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle cell cultures. Science 193: 1152–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlson BM, Faulkner JA. 1983. The regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers following injury: a review. Med. Sci Sports Exerc. 15:187–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson JA, Booth FW. 1998. Effect of serum and mechanical stretch on skeletal alpha-actin gene regulation in cultured primary muscle cells. Am. J. Physiol. 275:C1438–C1448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerny LC, Bandman E. 1986. Contractile activity is required for the expression of neonatal myosin heavy chain in embryonic chick pectoral muscle cultures. J. Cell. Biol. 103:2153–2161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Charlton CA, Mohler WA, Radice GL, Hynes RO, Blau HM. 1997. Fusion competence of myoblasts rendered genetically null for N-cadherin in culture. J. Cell Biol. 138:331–336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiquet M, Puri EC, Turner DC. 1979. Fibronectin mediates attachment of chicken myoblasts to a gelatincoated substratum. J. Biol. Chem. 254:5475–5482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chromiak JA, Vandenburgh HH. 1992. Glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in vitro is attenuated by mechanical stimulation. Am. J. Physiol. 262:C1471–C1477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chromiak JA, Vandenburgh HH. 1994. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells mitigates glucocorticoid-induced decreases in prostaglandin production and prostaglandin synthase activity. J. Cell Physiol. 159:407–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chromiak JA, Shansky J, Perrone, C, Vandenburgh HH. 1998. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 34:694–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark P, Coles D, Peckham M. 1997. Preferential adhesion to and survival on patterned laminin organizes myogenesis in vitro. Exp. Cell Res. 230:275–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark P, Connolly P, Curtis AS, Dow JA, Wilkinson CD. 1990. Topographical control of cell behaviour: II. Multiple grooved substrata. Development 108:635–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Close R. 1964. Dynamic properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of the rat during development. J. Physiol. 173:74–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Creswick BC, Shansky J, Lee PHU, Wang WY, Vandenburgh HH. 2000. Preliminary studies in support of a space shuttle flight experiment evaluating the ability of rhIGF-1 to attenuate space flight-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin. 14:53 (abstract)Google Scholar
  21. De laHaba G, Kamali HM, Tiede DM. 1975. Myogenesis of avian striated muscle in vitro: role of collagen in myofiber formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:2729–2732.Google Scholar
  22. Decary S, Mouly V, Hamida CB, Sautet A, Barbet JP, Butler-Browne GS. 1997. Replicative potential and telomere length in human skeletal muscle: implications for satellite cell-mediated gene therapy. Hum. Gene Ther. 8:1429–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dennis RG, Kosnik PE. 2000. Excitability and isometric contractile properties of mammalian skeletal muscle constructs engineered in vitro [In Process Citation]. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 36: 327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dennis RG, Kosnik PE, Gilbert ME, Faulkner JA. 2000. Excitability and contractility of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. 280:C288–C295.Google Scholar
  25. Dollenmeier P, Turner DC, Eppenberger HM. 1981. Proliferation and differentiation of chick skeletal muscle cells cultured in a chemically defined medium. Exp. Cell Res. 135:47–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dusterhoft S, Pette D. 1993. Satellite cells from slow rat muscle express slow myosin under appropriate culture conditions. Differentiation 53:25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eagle H. 1959. Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures. Science 130:432–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Edgerton VR, Roy RR. 1996. Neuromuscular adaptations to actual and simulated weightlessness. In Handbook of Physiology. S. Churchill, ed. Environmental Physiology, Bethesd, MD: Am. Physiol. Soc. Sect. 4, Vol. III, Chap. 32 p 721–763.Google Scholar
  29. Eng H, Herrenknecht K, Semb H, Starzinski-Powitz A, Ringertz N, Gullberg D. 1997. Effects of divalent cations on M-cadherin expression and distribution during primary rat myogenesis in vitro. Differentiation 61:169–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans DJR, Britland S, Wigmore PM. 1999. Differential responses of fetal and neonatal myoblasts to topographical guidance cues in vitro. Dev. Genes Evol. 209:438–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Florini JR, Ewton DZ, Magri KA. 1991. Hormones, growth factors, and myogenic differentiation. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 53:201–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goichberg P, Geiger B. 1998. Direct involvement of N-cadherin-mediated signaling in muscle differentiation. Mol. Biol Cell. 9:3119–3131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gordon AM, Huxley AF, Julian FJ. 1966a. Tension development in highly stretched vertebrate muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 184:143–169.Google Scholar
  34. Gordon AM, Huxley AF, Julian FJ. 1966b. The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 184:170–192.Google Scholar
  35. Grinnell AD. 1995. Dynamics of nerve-muscle interaction in developing and mature neuromuscular junctions. Physiol. Rev. 75:789–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Haines RW. 1932. The laws of muscle and tendon growth. J. Anat. 66:578–585.Google Scholar
  37. Ham RG, St. Clair JA, Meyer SD. 1990. Improved media for rapid clonal growth of normal human skeletal muscle satellite cells. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 280:193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hayflick L, Moorhead PS. 1961. The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp. Cell Res. 25:585–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Higton DIR, James DW. 1964. The force of contraction of full-thickness wounds of rabbit skin. Br. J. Surg. 51:462–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hinkle L, McCaig CD, Robinson KR. 1981. The direction of growth of differentiating neurones and myoblasts from frog embryos in an applied electric field. J. Physiol, (Lond.) 314:121–135.Google Scholar
  41. Irintchev A, Rosenblatt JD, Cullen MJ, Zweyer M, Wernig A. 1998. Ectopic skeletal muscles derived from myoblasts implanted under the skin. J. Cell Sci. 111 (Pt 22):3287–3297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. James DW, Taylor JF. 1969. The stress developed by sheets of chick fibroblasts in vitro. Exp. Cell Res. 54:107–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kolodney MS, Wysolmerski RB. 1992. Isometric contraction by fibroblasts and endothelial cells in tissue culture: a quantitative study. J. Cell Biol. 117:73–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Konigsberg IR. 1963. Clonal analysis of myogenesis. Science 140:1273–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lagord C, Soulet L, Bonavaud S, Bassaglia Y, Rey C, Barlovatz-Meimon G, Gautron J, Martelly I. 1998. Differential myogenicity of satellite cells isolated from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus rat muscles revealed in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 291: 455–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lewis WH, Lewis MR. 1917. Behavior of cross striated muscle in tissue cultures. Am J. Anat. 22:169–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lu Y, Shansky J, Smiley B, Vandenburgh HH. 2001. Recombinant Vascular endothelial growth factor secreted from tissue engineered bioartificial muscles promotes localized angiogenesis. Circulation 104: 594–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Mantegazza R, Gebbia M, Mora M, Barresi R, Bernasconi P, Baggi F, Cornelio F. 1996. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on muscle cells is regulated by differentiation: implications for the immunopathogenesis of muscle autoimmune diseases. J. Neuroimmunol. 68:53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Martin P. 1997. Wound healing-aiming for perfect skin regeneration. Science 276:75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mauro A. 1961. Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 9:493–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Molnar G, Schroedl NA, Gonda SR, Hartzell CR. 1997. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 33:386–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mooney DJ, Rowley JA. 1997. Tissue engineering: Integrating cells and materials to create functional tissue replacements. In: Controlled Drug Delivery: Challenges and Strategies. K. Park, ed. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 333–346.Google Scholar
  53. Mulder MM, Hitchcock RW, Tresco PA. 1998. Skeletal myogenesis on elastomeric substrates: implications for tissue engineering. J Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 9:731–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mulder MM, McElwain JF, Tresco PA. 1995. Three dimensional culture system for myocyte growth and differentiation. J. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 41:90 (abstract)Google Scholar
  55. Naumann K, Pette D. 1994. Effects of chronic stimulation with different impulse patterns on the expression of myosin isoforms in rat myotube cultures. Differentiation 55:203–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Okano T, Matsuda T. 1997. Hybrid muscular tissues: preparation of skeletal muscle cell-incorporated collagen gels. Cell Transplant. 6:109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Okano T, Matsuda T. 1998a. Muscular tissue engineering: capillary-incorporated hybrid muscular tissues in vivo tissue culture. Cell Transplant. 7:435–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Okano T, Matsuda T. 1998b. Tissue engineered skeletal muscle: preparation of highly dense, highly oriented hybrid muscular tissues. Cell Transplant. 7:71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Okano T, Satoh S, Oka T, Matsuda T. 1997. Tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. Highly dense, highly oriented hybrid muscular tissues biomimicking native tissues. ASAIO J. 43:M749–M753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Partridge TA. 1991. Invited review: myoblast transfer: a possible therapy for inherited myopathies? Muscle Nerve 14:197–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Perrone CE, Fenwick-Smith D, Vandenburgh HH. 1995. Collagen and stretch modulate autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulinlike growth factor binding proteins from differentiated skeletal muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 2099–2106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Powell C, Shansky J, Del Tatto M, Forman DE, Hennessey J, Sullivan K, Zielinski BA, Vandenburgh HH. 1999. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy. Hum. Gene Ther. 10:565–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Putnam AJ, Mooneyy DJ. 1996. Tissue engineering using synthetic extracellular matrices. Nat. Med. 2:824–826.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Redfield A, Nieman MT, Knudsen KA. 1997. Cadherins promote skeletal muscle differentiation in three-dimensional cultures. J. Cell Biol. 138: 1323–1331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rowley JA, Madlambayan G, Mooney DJ. 1999. Alginate hydrogels as synthetic extracellular matrix materials. Biomaterials 20:45–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sanderson RD, Fitch JM, Linsenmayer TR, Mayne R. 1986. Fibroblasts promote the formation of a continuous basal lamina during myogenesis in vitro. J. Cell Biol. 102:740–747.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sastry SK, Lakonishok M, Wu S, Truong TQ, Huttenlocher A, Turner CE, Horwitz AF. 1999. Quantitative changes in integrin and focal adhesion signaling regulate myoblast cell cycle withdrawal. J. Cell Biol. 144:1295–1309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schwartz MA. 1992. Transmembrane signaling by integrins. Trends Cell Biol. 2:304–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Schwartz MA, Ingber DE. 1994. Integrating with integrins. Mol. Biol Cell. 5:389–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Shainberg A, Yagil G, Yaffe D. 1969. Control of myogenesis in vitro by Ca2+ concentration in nutritional medium. Exp. Cell Res. 58:163–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Shansky J, Del Tatto M, Chromiak J, Vandenburgh H. 1997. A simplified method for tissue engineering skeletal muscle organoids in vitro [letter]. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 33:659–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sheehan SM, Tatsumi R, Temm-Grove CJ, Allen RE. 2000. HGF is an autocrine growth factor for skeletal muscle satellite cells in vitro. Muscle Nerve 23:239–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Snow MH. 1977a. Myogenic cell formation in regenerating rat skeletal muscle injured by mincing. I. A fine structural study. Anat. Rec. 188:181–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Snow MH. 1977b. Myogenic cell formation in regenerating rat skeletal muscle injured by mincing. II. An autoradiographic study. Anat. Rec. 188:201–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stein TP, Leskiw MJ, Schluter MD, Donaldson MR, Larina I. 1999. Protein kinetics during and after long-duration spaceflight on MIR. Am. J. Physiol. 276:E1014–E1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stockdale FE, Holtzer H. 1961. DNA synthesis and myogenesis. Exp. Cell Res. 24:508–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Stoker M, O’Neill C, Berryman S, Waxman V. 1968. Anchorage and growth regulation in normal and virus-transformed cells. Int. J. Cancer 3:683–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Strohman RC, Bayne E, Spector D, Obinata T, Micou-Eastwood J, Maniotis A. 1990. Myogenesis and histogenesis of skeletal muscle on flexible membranes in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 26:201–208.Google Scholar
  79. Swasdison S, Mayne R. 1992. Formation of highly organized skeletal muscle fibers in vitro. Comparison with muscle development in vivo. J. Cell Sci. 102 (Pt 3):643–652.Google Scholar
  80. Tanaka SM. 1999. A new mechanical stimulator for cultured bone cells using piezoelectric actuator. J. Biomech. 32:427–430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Turner DC. 1986. Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in the morphogenesis of skeletal muscle. Dev. Biol. 3:205–224.Google Scholar
  82. Turner DC, Lawton J, Dollenmeier P, Ehrismann R, Chiquet M. 1983. Guidance of myogenic cell migration by oriented deposits of fibronectin. Dev. Biol. 95:497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. van Wachem PB, van Luyn MJ, da Costa ML. 1996. Myoblast seeding in a collagen matrix evaluated in vitro. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 30:353–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Vandenburgh HH. 1982. Dynamic mechanical orientation of skeletal myofibers in vitro. Dev. Biol. 93:438–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Vandenburgh HH. 1983. Cell shape and growth regulation in skeletal muscle: exogenous versus endogenous factors. J. Cell Physiol. 116:363–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Vandenburgh HH, Karlisch P. 1989. Longitudinal growth of skeletal myotubes in vitro in a new horizontal mechanical cell stimulator. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 25:607–616.Google Scholar
  87. Vandenburgh H, Kaufman S. 1979. In vitro model for stretch-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Science 203:265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Vandenburgh HH, Kaufman S. 1981. Stretch-induced growth of skeletal myotubes correlates with activation of the sodium pump. J. Cell Physiol. 109:205–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Vandenburgh HH, Karlisch P, Farr L. 1988. Maintenance of highly contractile tissue-cultured avian skeletal myotubes in collagen gel. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 24:166–174.Google Scholar
  90. Vandenburgh HH, Hatfaludy S, Karlisch P, Shansky J. 1989. Skeletal muscle growth is stimulated by intermittent stretch-relaxation in tissue culture. Am. J. Physiol. 256:C674–C682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Vandenburgh HH, Swasdison S, Karlisch P. 1991. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro. FASEB J. 5:2860–2867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Vandenburgh H, Del Tatto M, Shansky J, LeMaire J, Chang A, Payumo F, Lee P, Goodyear A, Raven L. 1996. Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids for reversible gene therapy. Hum. Gene Ther. 7:2195–2200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vandenburgh H, Del Tatto M, Shansky J, Goldstein L, Russell K, Genes N, Chromiak J, Yamada S. 1998a. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle. Hum. Gene Ther. 9:2555–2564.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Vandenburgh HH, Shansky J, Del Tatto M, Chromiak J. 1998b. Organogenesis of skeletal muscle in tissue culture. In: Methods in Molecular Medicine: Tissue Engineering. J Morgan, M Yarmush, eds. Humana Press, Tottowa, NJ.Google Scholar
  95. Vandenburgh H, Chromiak J, Shansky J, Del Tatto M, LeMaire J. 1999. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy. FASEB J. 13:1031–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Waldeyer W. 1865. Uber die Veränderungen der quergestreiften Muskeln bei der Entzündung und dem Typhusprozess, sowie über die Regeneration derselben nach Substanzdefecten. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Clin. Med. 34:473–514.Google Scholar
  97. Wang N, Butler JP, Ingber DE. 1993. Mechanotransduction across the cell surface and through the cytoskeleton [see comments]. Science 260:1124–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wehrle U, Dusterhoft S, Pette D. 1994. Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on myosin heavy chain expression in satellite cell cultures derived from rat muscles of different fiber-type composition. Differentiation 58:37–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Weiss P. 1932. Functional adaptation and the role of ground substances in development. Am. Naturalist 67:322–340.Google Scholar
  100. Wernig A, Irintchev A, Lange G. 1995. Functional effects of myoblast implantation into histoincompatible mice with or without immunosuppression. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 484 (Pt 2):493–504.Google Scholar
  101. Woo SL, Hildebrand K, Watanabe N, Fenwick JA, Papageorgiou CD, Wang JH. 1999. Tissue engineering of ligament and tendon healing. Clin. Orthop. S312-S323.Google Scholar
  102. Yaffe D. 1968. Retention of differentiation potentialities during prolonged cultivation of myogenic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 61:477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Yaffe D. 1971. Developmental changes preceding cell fusion during muscle differentiation in vitro. Exp. Cell Res. 66:33–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul E. Kosnik
  • Robert G. Dennis
  • Herman H. Vandenburgh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations