Nutrient Deficiency Disorders in Vegetables and their Management

  • C. Chatterjee
  • B. K. Dube
Part of the Disease Management of Fruits and Vegetables book series (DMFV, volume 1)

Abstract

Among the horticultural crops vegetables have an important position and is a high protective food of dietary complex of human beings. For balanced diet suplementation of vegetables along with cereals and pulses is a necessary step towards complete food. In recent past the production of vegetables have gone up due to adaptation of modern technology and fertilization formulation but still do not show any parallelism with consumption. For sustainable production, the vegetable crops exert tremendous pressure on the soil for nutrients due to their productivity ability. This results in depletion of essential nutrients from the soil. To evaluate fertility status of soils several techniques are in vogue. In addition to visual symptoms of each essential nutrient for various crops their critical concentrations have also been worked out for most of the vegetables. Soil analysis further substantiate these findings for actual nutrient status. In certain cases when visible symptoms due to any deficiency is not perceptible, or the plant shows latent deficiency help of biochemical parameters are also useful.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. Aldrich, S.R. 1967. Plant analysis: Problems and opportunities. In, “Soil Testing and Plant Analysis” Part II Pant Analysis, pp. 1–10. American Society of Agronomy, Madison WI.Google Scholar
  2. Agarwala, S.C., Sharma, C.P., Farooq, S. and Chatterjee, C. 1978. Effect of molybdenum deficiency on the growth and metabolism of corn plants raised in sand culture. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56: 1905–1908.Google Scholar
  3. Agarwala, S.C., Sharma, P.N., Chatterjee, C. and Sharma, C.P. 1981. Development and enzyme changes during pollen development in boron deficient maize plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 3: 329–336.Google Scholar
  4. Arnon, D.I. and Stout, P.R. 1939. The essentiality of certain elements in minute quantity for plants with special reference to copper. Plant Physiology, 14: 371–375.Google Scholar
  5. Bar-Akiva, A. 1961. Biochemical indications as a means of distinguishing between iron and manganese deficiency symptoms in citrus plants. Nature, 190: 647–648.Google Scholar
  6. Bar-Akiva, A. and Lavon, R. 1969. Carbonic anhydrase activity as an indicator of zinc deficiency in citrus leaves. Journal of Horticulture Science, 44: 359–362.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, K.C. and Truog, E. 1944. In: “Soil Chemical Analysis” (ed. Jackson, M.L.). Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc. Tokyo, pp. 386.Google Scholar
  8. Bergmann, W. 1992. Colour Atlas, Nutritional Disorders of Plants Development, Visual and Analytical Diagnosis. Fischer Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  9. Bergmann, W. and Neubert, P. 1976. Plant Diagnosis and Plant Analysis. Veb Sustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  10. Bernard, O., (ed.) 1979. Hawk’s Physiological Chemistry. Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  11. Bonilla, I., Cadahia, C., Carpena, O. and Hernado, V. 1980. Effect of boron on nitrogen metabolism and sugar levels of sugarbeet. Plant and Soil, 57: 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bose, T.K. and Som, M.G. (eds.) 1986. Vegetable Crops in India. Naya Prakash, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  13. Branden, R. 1978. Ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase from green plants are two different enzymes. Biochemistry Biophysics Research Communication, 81: 539–546.Google Scholar
  14. Brandry, N.C. 1980. The nature and properties of soil. Mac Millan Publishing, Inc. USA.Google Scholar
  15. Brill, A.S., Martin, R.B. and Williams, R.J.P. 1964. Copper in biological systems. In, “Electronic Aspects of Biochemistry” (ed. Pullman, B.) Academic Press. New York and London, pp. 520–557.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, J.C. and Hendricks, S.B. 1952. Enzyme activities as indications of copper and iron deficiencies in plants. Plant Pathology, 27: 657–660.Google Scholar
  17. Burstrom, H. 1968. Calcium and plant growth. Biological Review, 43: 287–316.Google Scholar
  18. Buzover, F.Y. 1951. Effect of boron on accumulation of carbohydrates and enzymatic activity of potato. Doklady Akadmii Nank, U.S.S.R. 78: 1239–1242.Google Scholar
  19. Carpena, P., Hernando, V., Cadahia, C. and Bonillo, I. 1978. Effect of boron on the activity of nitrate reductase in sugarbeet. International Series, New Zealand Department of Science and Industrial Research, 134: 83–90.Google Scholar
  20. Chapman, H.D. (ed.) 1966. Diagnostic Criteria for Plant and Soils. University of Calofornia, Berkeley, pp. 793.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, H.D., Joseph, H. and Rayner, D.S. 1966. Some effects of calcium deficiency on citrus. Proceeding of American Society of Horticulture Science, 86: 183–193.Google Scholar
  22. Chatterjee, C., Nautiyal, N. and Agarwala, S.C. 1985. Metabolic changes in mustard plants associated with molybdenum deficiency. New Phytology, 100: 511–518.Google Scholar
  23. Chatterjee, C., Sinha, P. and Agarwala, S.C. 1990. Boron nutrition of cowpea. Proceeding of Indian Academy of Sciences. (Plant Science), 100: 311–318.Google Scholar
  24. Cheniae, G.M. 1970. Photosystem II and O2 evolution. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 21: 467–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheniae, G.M. and Martin, I.F. 1966. Energy conversion by the photosynthetic apparatus. Brookhaven Symposium on Biology, 19: 406–417.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, R.L. and Miller, C.E. 1953. Plant Nutrient Deficiencies. Spec. Bull. No. 353. Michigan Agricultural Experimental Station, Michigan State University, East Lansing, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  27. Davidson, F.M. and Long, C. 1958. The structure of the naturally occurring phosphoglycerides. 4. Action of cabbage leaf phospholipase. Biochemical Journal, 69: 458–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dodds, J.J.A. and Ellis, R.J. 1966. Cation-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in plant cell walls. Biochemical Journal, 101: 131.Google Scholar
  29. Dugger, W.M. 1983. Boron in plant metabolism. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series 15 B: (eds. Lauchli, A. and Bieleski, R.L.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, pp. 626–650.Google Scholar
  30. Dutta, T.R. and Mcllarth, W.J. 1964. Effect of boron on growth and lignification in sunflower tissue and organ cultures. Botanical Gazette, 125: 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dwivedi, R.S. and Randhawa, N.S. 1974. Evaluation of a rapid test for the hidden hunger of zinc in plants. Plant and Soil, 40: 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dyar, J.J. and Webb, K.L. 1961. A relationship between boron auxin in C-translocation in bean plants. Plant Physiology, 36: 672–676.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, G.E. and Mohamed, A.K. 1973. Reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity in zinc deficient leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Crop Science, 13: 351–354.Google Scholar
  34. Epstein, E. 1972. Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Ernst, W.H.O. 1993. Ecological aspects of sulphur in higher plants: the impact of SO2 and the evolution of the biosynthesis of organic sulphur compounds on populations and ecosystems. In, “Sulphur Nutrition and Asimilation in Higher Plants” (eds. Dekok, J.L., Stulen, I., Rennenberg, H., Brunold, C. and Rauser, W.E.) SPB Academic publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 295–313.Google Scholar
  36. Esteban, R.M., Collado, J.G., Lopez, A.F.J. and Fernandez, H.M. 1985. Effect of boron on soluble protein and sugar contents of tomato roots. Plant and Soil, 89: 149–151.Google Scholar
  37. Fischer, R.A. and Hsiao, T.C. 1968. Stomatal opening in isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba II. Responses to KCl concentration and the role and the role potassium absorption. Plant Physiology, 43: 1953–1958.Google Scholar
  38. Fox, L.R., Purves, W.K. and Nakada, H.I. 1965. The role of horse-radish peroxidase in indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. Biochemistry, 4: 2754–2763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fujino, M. 1967. Adinosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphatase in stomatal movement. Science Bulletin, Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University 18: 1–47.Google Scholar
  40. Gauch, H.G. 1972. Inorganic plant nutrition. Stroudburg, Pa, Powden, Hutchinson and Ross.Google Scholar
  41. Gauch, H.G. and Dugger, W.M. Jr. 1954. The physiological role of boron in higher plants: a review and interpretation, University of Mryland Agricultural Experimental Station. Technical Bulletin, A. 80.Google Scholar
  42. Ghosh, S.P., Ramanujam, T., Jos, J.S., Moorthy, S.N. and Nair, R.G. 1988. Tuber Crops. Oxford and IBH, India.Google Scholar
  43. Griffiths, D.A. and Miller, A.J. 1973. Hyperbolic regression-a model based on two-phase piecewise linear regression with a smooth transition between regimes. Communication Statistics, 2: 561–569.Google Scholar
  44. Grigg, J.L. 1953. Determination of available molybdenum in soils. Newzealand Journal of Science and Technology, 34A: 405.Google Scholar
  45. Grinkevich, N.I., Borovkova, L.I. and Gribovskaya, I.F. 1970. The effect of trace elements on the alkaloid content of Atropa belladonna L. Farmatsiya: 41–45.Google Scholar
  46. Haas, A.R.C. and Klotz, L.J. 1931. Further evidence for the necessity of boron for health in citrus. Botanical Gazette, 92: 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hall, J.D., Barr, R., Al-Abbas, A.H. and Crane, F.L. 1972. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts in mineral-deficient maize leaves. Plant Physiology, 50: 404–409.Google Scholar
  48. Hatch, M.D. and Slack, C.R. 1970. Photosynthetic CO2-fixation pathways. Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 21: 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hewitt, E.J. 1957. Some aspects of micronutrient element metabolism in plants. Nature, London, 180: 1020–1022.Google Scholar
  50. Hewitt, E.J. 1963. The essential nutrient elements: Requirements and interactions in plants. In, “Plant Physiology Vol. III” (ed. Steward, F.C.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 137–360.Google Scholar
  51. Hewitt, E.J. 1966. Sand and Water Culture Methods Used in the Study of Plant Nutrition Technical Communication 22. Commonwealth Bureaux. Horticulture. Plantarum. Crops, England.Google Scholar
  52. Hewitt, E.J. 1983. Diagnosis of mineral disorders in plants. In, “Principles” Vol. 1 (eds. Bould, C., Hewitt, E.J. and Needham, P.) Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  53. Hewitt, E.J. and Smith, T.A. 1974. Plant Mineral Nutrition, English University Press, London.Google Scholar
  54. Hinman, R.L. and Long, J. 1965. Peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid. Biochemistry, 4: 144–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hirsch, A.M. and Torrey, J.G. 1980. Ultrastructural changes in sunflower root cells in relation to boron deficiency and added auxin. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58: 856–866.Google Scholar
  56. Humble, G.D. and Raschke, K. 1971. Stomatal opening quantitatively related to potassium transport. Plant Physiology, 48: 447–453.Google Scholar
  57. Indira, P. and Peter, K.V. 1993. Under exploited Tropical Vegetables, Publication Unit, Directorate of Extension, Kerala Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  58. Jackson, M.L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  59. Jacobson, L. 1945. Iron in the leaves and chloroplasts of some plants in relation to their chlorophyll contents. Plant Physiology, 20: 233–245.Google Scholar
  60. Ji, Z.H., Korcak, R.F., Wergin, W.P., Fan, F. and Faust, M. 1984. Cellular ultrastructure and net photosynthesis of apple seedlings under iron stress, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 7: 911–928.Google Scholar
  61. Johansen, C. 1978. Effect of plant age on element concentrations in parts of Demodium intortum cv. Greenleaf. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 9: 279–297.Google Scholar
  62. Jones, J.B. Jr. 1988. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Procedure and Use Tech. Bull. 109: Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre. Taipei City. Taiwan, pp. 14.Google Scholar
  63. Kaleya, P.M., Manolov, P., Ignatov, G. and Lilova, I. 1989. Changes in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in peach leaves under iron deficiency. Doklady Bolg. Akademii, Nauka, 42: 105–108.Google Scholar
  64. Kessler, B. 1957. Effect of certain nucleic acid components upon the status of iron, deoxyribonucleic acid and lime induced chlorosis in fruit trees. Nature, 179: 1015–1016.Google Scholar
  65. Kok, B. and Cheniae, G.M. 1966. Kinetics and intermediates of the oxygen evolution step in photosynthesis. Current Topics on Bioenergy, 1: 1–47.Google Scholar
  66. Korokov, P.F. and Kiram, V. 1988. Vegetable growing in Hail effected gardens of tropical and sub-tropical Areas. Mir Publications, Moscow.Google Scholar
  67. Krupnikove, T.A. and Smirnov, Yu.S. 1981. Content of phenolic compounds in plants in relation to boron availability. Botanigal Zhurnal Leningrad, 66: 536–542.Google Scholar
  68. Lindsay, W.L. and Norvell, W.A. 1978. Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 42: 421–428.Google Scholar
  69. Loneragan, J.F. 1968. Nutrient requirement of plants. Nature, 220: 1307–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Longeragan, J.F., Snowball, K. and Robson, A.D. 1976. Remobilization of nutrients and its significance in plant nutrition. In, “Transport and Transfer Processes in Plants” (eds. Wordlow, I.F. and Passioura, J.B.), Academic Press, New York. pp. 463–469.Google Scholar
  71. Malkin, R. and Malmstrom, B.G. 1970. The state and function of copper in biological systems. Advances in Enzymology, 33: 177–244.Google Scholar
  72. Marinos, N.G. 1963. Studies on submicroscopic aspects of mineral deficiencies. II. Nitrogen, potassium, sulphur, phosphorus and magnesium deficiencies in the shoot apex of barley. American Journal of Botany, 50: 998–1005.Google Scholar
  73. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Mazliak, P. 1973. Lipid metabolism in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 24: 287–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E.A. 1987. Principles of plant Nutrition International Potash Institute Bern. Switzerland.Google Scholar
  76. Milosavljevic, M. and Popovic, R. 1970. The effect of boron and manganese on the intensity of photosynthesis in grape vines. Archiv Poljopr Nauka, 23: 15–34.Google Scholar
  77. Nath, P. 1976. Vegetables for the Tropical Region, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  78. Neales, T.F. 1959. Effect of boron on sugar soluble in 80% ethanol in flax seedling. Nature, London, 183: 4830.Google Scholar
  79. Nicholas, D.J.O. 1957. An appraisal of the use of chemical tests for determining the mineral status of crop plants. In: Plant Analysis and Fertilizer Problems (ed. Prevot, P.) I.H.R.O. Paris, 119–139.Google Scholar
  80. Nishio, J.N., Taylor, S.E. and Terry, N. 1985. Changes in thylakoid galactolipids and proteins during iron nutrition mediated chloroplast development. Plant Physiology, 77: 705–711.Google Scholar
  81. Ohki, K. 1976. Effect of zinc nutrition on photosynthesis and carbonic anhydrase activity in cotton. Plant Physiology, 38: 300–304.Google Scholar
  82. Olsen, K.L. 1958. Mineral Deficiency Symptoms in Rice. Bulletin 605, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkans.Google Scholar
  83. Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanake, F.S. and Dean, C.A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Circular 939, pp. 19.Google Scholar
  84. Paulsen, G.M. and Harper, J.E. 1968. Evidence for a role of calcium in nitrate assimilation in wheat seedlings. Plant Physiology, 43: 775–780.Google Scholar
  85. Peisach, J.L., Aisen, P. and Blumberg, W.E. (eds.) 1966. the Biochemistry of copper. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Peter, K.V. and Devadas, V.S. 1989. Leaf vegetables, Indian Horticulture, 33 and 34: 8–11.Google Scholar
  87. Pirson, A. 1937. Ernahrungs and Stoffwechselphysiolo-gische untersuchangen an Foutinalis und Chlorella. Zhurnal, Botanichiskii., 31: 193–267.Google Scholar
  88. Pirson, A. 1958. Manganese: its role in photosynthesis. In, “Trace Elements” (eds. Lamp, C.A., Bentley, O.G. and Beatie, J.M.) Academic Press. pp. 81–98.Google Scholar
  89. Plesnicar, M. and Bendall, D.S. 1971. The plastocyanin content of chloroplast from higher plants estimated by a sensitive enzyme assay. Biochemical Biophysics Acta, 216: 192–199.Google Scholar
  90. Pridham, J.B. (ed.) 1963. Enzyme chemistry of phenolic compounds. Pergamon P.Google Scholar
  91. Rains, D.W. 1972. Salt transport by plants in relation to salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 23: 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rains, D.W. 1976. Mineral metabolism. In, “Plant Biochemistry” (eds. Bonner, J. and Varner, J.E.). Academic Press. pp. 561–597.Google Scholar
  93. Randall, P.J. and Bouma, D. 1973. Zinc deficiency, carbonic anhydrase and photosynthesis in leaves of spinach. Plant Physiology, 52: 229–232.Google Scholar
  94. Sabbe, W.E. and Marx, D.B. 1987. Soil testing: Spatial and temporal variability. In, “Soil Testing Sampling, Correlation, Calibration, and Interpretation” (ed. Brown, J.R.) Spec. Pub. No. 21, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 1–14.Google Scholar
  95. Scaife, A. 1988. Derivation of critical nutrient concentrations for growth rate from data from field experiments. Plant and Soil, 109: 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmidt, A. 1986. Regulation of sulphur metabolism in plants. Progressive Botany, 48: 133–150.Google Scholar
  97. Schneider, E.A. and Wightman, F. 1974. Metabolism of auxin in higher plants. A Review of Plant Physiology, 25: 487–513.Google Scholar
  98. Schung, E. 1993. Physiological functions and environmental relevance of sulphur containing secondary metabolities. In, “Sulphur Nutrition and Assimilation in Higher plants” (eds. Dekok, L.J., Stulen, I., Rennenberg, H., Brunold, C. and Rauser, W.E.) Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 179–190.Google Scholar
  99. Scripture, P.N. and McHargue, J.S. 1943. Effect of boron deficiency on the soluble nitrogen and carbohydrate content of alfalfa. Journal of American Society of Agronomy, 35: 988–992.Google Scholar
  100. Scripture, P.N. and McHargue, J.S. 1945. Boron supply in relation to carbohydrate metabolism and distribution in radish. Journal of American Society of Agronomy 37: 360–364.Google Scholar
  101. Shanmjavelu, K.G. 1993. Production technology of Vegetable Crops. Oxford and IBH.Google Scholar
  102. Shorrocks, V.M. 1964. Mineral deficiencies in Hevea and associated cover plants. Rubber Research Institute, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, F.W. 1986. Interpretation of plant analysis: concepts and principles. In, “Plant Analysis, An Interpretation Manual”. (eds. Reuter, D.J. and Robinson, J.B.) pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, F.W. and Dolby, G.R. 1977. Derivation of diagnostic indices for assessing the sulphur status of Panicum maximum var trichoglume. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 8: 221–240.Google Scholar
  105. Spiller, S.C. 1980. The influence of iron stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of Beta vulgaris. Dissertation Abstracts International B, 41: 1–17.Google Scholar
  106. Sprague, H.B. 1964. Hunger signs in Crops. A Symposium. David McKay Company. New York, pp. 461Google Scholar
  107. Steinberg, R.A. 1955. Effect of boron deficiency on nicotine formation in tobacco. Plant Physiology, 30: 84–86.Google Scholar
  108. Stiles, W. 1961. Trace Elements in Plant. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  109. Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.L. 1956. A rapid procedure for the determination of available nitrogen in soil. Current Science, 25: 259–260.Google Scholar
  110. Syworotkin, G.S. 1958. The boron contents of plants with a latex system. Spurenelements in der Landwirsts Chaff. Academic Verlag, Berlin, 283–288.Google Scholar
  111. Tanaka, A. and Yoshida, S. 1970. Nutritional Disorders of Rice Plant in Asia. Technical Bulletins No. 10. International Rice Research Institute, Las Banos, Phillipines.Google Scholar
  112. Terry, N. and Low, G. 1982. Leaf chlorophyll content and its relation to the intracellular localization of iron. Journal of plant Nutrition, 5: 301–310.Google Scholar
  113. Thiele, E.H. and Huff, J.W. 1960. Quantitative measurement of lipide peroxidase formation by normal liver mitochondria under various conditions. Archieves in Biochemistry, Biophysics, 88: 203–207.Google Scholar
  114. Thompson, H.C. and Kalley, W.C. 1959. Vegetable Crops. Tata McGraw Hill, India.Google Scholar
  115. Thomson, W.W. and Weier, T.E. 1962. The fine structure of chloroplasts from mineral deficient leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. American Journal of Botany, 49: 1047–1055.Google Scholar
  116. Ulrich, A. 1952. Physiological bases for assessing the nutritional requirements of plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 3: 207–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vesk, M., Possingham, J.V. and Mercer, F.V. 1966. The effect of mineral nutrient deficiencies on the structure of the leaf cells of tomato, spinach and maize. Australian Journal of Botany, 14: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Viets, F.G., Boawn, L.C. and Crawford, C.L. 1954. Zinc contents and deficiency symptoms of 26 crops grown on a zinc deficient soil. Soil Science, 78: 305–316.Google Scholar
  119. Walkley, A. and Black, C.A. 1934. An examination of Degt jareff methods for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37: 29–38.Google Scholar
  120. Wallace, T. 1961. The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plant by Visual Methods. A colour altas and guide. H.M.S.O., London.Google Scholar
  121. Whatley, J.M. 1971. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of Phaseolus vulgaris during development under conditions of nutrient deficiency. New Phytology, 70: 725–742.Google Scholar
  122. Williams, S. and Steinberg, R.A. 1959. Soil sulphur fractions as chemical indices of available sulphur in some Australian soils. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research., 10: 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wolf, B. 1974. Improvement in the azomethine-H method for the determination of boron. Communication Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 5: 31–44.Google Scholar
  124. Wood, J.G. and Silby, P.M. 1952. Carbonic anhydrase activity in plants in relation to zinc content. Australian Journal of Science Research Series B, 5: 244–255.Google Scholar
  125. Yamazaki, I. And Piette, L.H. 1963. The mechanism of aerobic oxidase reaction catalyzed by peroxidase. Biochemistry Biophysics Acta, 77: 47–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Chatterjee
  • B. K. Dube

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations