Fruit and Vegetable Diseases pp 95-142

Part of the Disease Management of Fruits and Vegetables book series (DMFV, volume 1) | Cite as

Role of Vertebrates in Inflicting Diseases in Fruit Orchards and their Management

  • A. K. Chakravarthy

Abstract

Documented information on the inter-relationships of the fruit tree, the disease causing agent and the vertebrate is exceedingly fragmentary. Animals cause wounds for the pathogenic organisms to gain entry and cause disease. They also disperse disease causing agents, actively or passively. The phanerogamic plant parasites, viz., species of Loranthus and Dendrophthae on mango trees is of common occurrence in India, dispersed by birds particularly Thickbilled flowerpeckers (Dicaeum agile Tickell).

About fifty species of vertebrates are implicated in causing damage to horticultural crops in India. Only a few, however, incur economic losses or serve as effective agents of pathogenic organisms. The same species of vertebrate, notably Roseringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri Bechstein, Wildboar, Sus scrofa W, squirrels of species of Funambulus, rats of species of Rattus; bandicoots, Bandicoota bengalensis B and Bandicota indica B damage several fruit orchards. Even these animals have ecological roles to play in orchards. For instance, wild upturns sub-surface soil to surface; Funambulus species squirrels forage on weed seeds and crop pests. These animals also regulate micro vegetation. Orchards in or around wild areas are prone to bison (Bibos gaurus H) and elephant (Elephas maximus Linn) raids. Most crop raids, however, are incidental resulting from man-animal conflicts. Therefore, a ‘Balance sheet’ of activities of the vertebrates in different orchards is basically important. Crop protection without vertebrate mortality is desirable in most situations.

Timely harvests and clean cultivation, wrapping or covering of fruits, mulching the base of fruit trees, seasonal pruning, shade regulation, animal-proof trenches, polyculture, baiting and provisioning the orchards with alternative foods for the vertebrates are useful management tools. A harmonious blend of these crop protection tools with solar powered fence, repellent pastes of local materials, scaring and public awareness of the role of vertebrates in orchards will promote conservation of natural resources and sustain good quality fruit yields.

Human population pressure and increasing Human-Animal conflicts is making vertebrate-pathogen-fruit orchard interactions develop into an important science.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Menoufi, O.A., Othman, M.A.S., and El-Safwani, N.A. 1987. Studies on the Orobanche spp. 10. Chemical identity of germination stimulant of Orobanche seed. In “Parasitic Flowering Plants” (eds. Weber, H. Chr. and Forstreuter, W.), Marburg F.R.G. pp. 29–36.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, S. and Abdul Ali, H., 1938. The birds of Bombay and Salsette. Part IV, Journal. Bombay Natural History Society. 40: 148–173.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. 1983. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Vol.3. Oxford University Press. New Delhi. pp.163–190.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, S.A. and Prakash, I. 1975. Rodents of Economic Importance in India. Arnold-Heinmann Publishers, New Delhi, 175.p.Google Scholar
  5. Bhandari, N.N. and Mukerji, K.G. 1993. The Haustorium. Research Strudies Press Ltd. England and John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 308p.Google Scholar
  6. Bhat, S.K., Advani, B.R., Sukumaran, A.S. and Vidyasagar, P.S.P.V. 1995. Ecology, Biology. Economic importance and control of Economically Important Rodents in Plantation Crops. In: “Annual Report 1994–95. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod”, pp.168–178.Google Scholar
  7. Bhat, S.K., Vidyasagar, P.S.P.V. and Sujatha, A. 1990. Record of Rattus rattus Wroughtoni Hinton as a pest of Oil palm seedlings. Tropical Pest Management, 36: 75–76.Google Scholar
  8. Bhatnagar, R.K. 1976. Bird pests of Agriculture and Their Control. Proceedings National Academy Sciences India, 46B: 245–256.Google Scholar
  9. Bhatnagar, R.K., Srivasta, K.P. and Palta, R.K. 1993. Plastic bagging for controlling Bird damage in Sunflower heads. 237. In: “Bird conservation” (eds. Verghese, A., Sridhar S. and Chakravarthy, A.K), Bangalore, 274p.Google Scholar
  10. Bhargava, S.N., Ghosh, A.K., Srinvastav, M.P., Singh, R.H. and Tandon, R.N., 1965. Proceedings National Academy Science, India 35: 393–398.Google Scholar
  11. Bindra, O.S. and Toor, H.S. 1972. Harmful Birds and Their Control. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 18p.Google Scholar
  12. Bose, T.K. and Mitra, S.K. 1990. Fruits: Tropical and Subtropical, Naya Prokash, Calcutta, 938p.Google Scholar
  13. Chahal, H.S., Simwat, G.S. and Brar, H.S. 1973. Bird pests of crops and Their Control Pesticides, 50: 715–719.Google Scholar
  14. Chakravarthy, A.K. 1993. Vertebrate Pest Management. Final Report of ICAR ad-hoc project, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, 98p.Google Scholar
  15. Chakravarthy, A.K 2000. Vertebrate Pests of Crops and their effective Management pp 189–218. In IPM Systems in Agriculture. (eds. Upadhyay R. K., Mukerji, K.G. and Dubey, O.P). Aditya Books Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.Google Scholar
  16. Chakravarthy, A.K and Tejaswi, K.P.P 1993. Birds of hill region of Karnataka, Navbharath Enterprises, Bangalore 148p.Google Scholar
  17. Chakravarthy, A.K and Srihari. K 2001. Vertebrate Pest Management in Horticulture Crops 236–262. In “Integrated Pest Management in Horticultural Eco-Systems”. (eds. Parvatha Reddy, P., Verghese, A. and Krishnakumar, N.K.) Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  18. Chandiwala, K. M. 1996, Spreading of Diseases in Plants. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 308 p.Google Scholar
  19. Chopra, S.K., Mahajan, J.R. and Viv, I.B.S. 1972. Birds are a serious menace to horticultural crops. Indian Farming, 21: 24–27.Google Scholar
  20. Chowdhari, A.K. and Seam, J.C. 1996. Hill Birds-growing menace to temperate fruits in Simla hills. Himalayan Horticulture. 7: 13–16.Google Scholar
  21. Cox, P.A, Elmquist E.D, Pearson E.D and Rainy W.E. 1991 Flying Foxes as Strong Interactors in South Pacific Island Eco-systems. Conservation Biology 5: 448–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daniels, R.J.R 1998. Conservation of Birds in the Indian Agricultural context. pp166–171. In, “Birds in Agricultural Ecosystem”. (eds: Dhindsaw, M.S., Rao, P.S. and Parasharya, B.M.) APAU, Hyderabad, 196p.Google Scholar
  23. Davries, K. 1926. Damage by wild Animals, in India. Indian Forester, 11p.Google Scholar
  24. Findley, J.S 1993. Bats: A Community prospective, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Fineran, B.A. 1987. A structural approach towards investigating transport systems between host and parasite, as exemplified by some mistletoes and root parasites. In “Parasitic Flowering Plants” (eds. Weber, W. Chr. and Forestreuter, W.) Marburg, F.R.G., 230p.Google Scholar
  26. Fitzwater, W.D. and Prakash Ishwar. 1973. Handbook of Vertebrate Pest Control, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 127p.Google Scholar
  27. Fryer, J.C.F. 1939. The destruction of buds of trees and shrubs by birds. British Birds. 33: 90–94.Google Scholar
  28. Fujita, M.S. and Turtle, M.D. 1991. Flying boxes, threatened animals of Key economic importance. Conservation Biology 5: 455–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gee, E.P. 1952. What is the best means of control and destruction of flying foxes Pterops giganteus Brum. Journal. Bombay Natural. History Society. 50: 17–20.Google Scholar
  30. Ghosh, S.P. 1990. Citrus pp. 63–131. In: “Fruits: Tropical and sub-tropical”. (eds. Bose, T.K. and Mitra, S.K.), Naya Prokash, Calcutta, 838.p.Google Scholar
  31. Gooding, C.D. 1961. One shot baiting-a Recent Development in Rabbit Poisoning Technique Proceedings Rabbit Control and Symposium. Perth, Australia, 12: 1–9.Google Scholar
  32. Greig-Smith, P.W., Wilson, M.F., Blunden, C.A. and Wilson, G.M. 1983. Bud-eating by bull finches, Pyrrhula pyrrhula in relation to the chemical constituents of two pear cultivars. Annals of Applied Biology, 103: 335–343.Google Scholar
  33. Hayward, G.F. and Philllipson, J., 1979. Community structure and functional role of small mammals in ecosystems. 135–200. In: “Ecology of Small mammals”. (ed, Stoddart, D.M.) Chapman and Hall, London. 386.p.Google Scholar
  34. Hone, J. 1994. Analysis of Vertebrate Pest Control. Cambridge University Press, 258.p.Google Scholar
  35. Hussain, M.A. and Bhalla, H.R. 1937. Some birds of Lyallpur and their food. Journal Bombay Natural History Society 39: 831–842.Google Scholar
  36. Ingold, C.T. 1971. Fungal spores. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 302 p.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobson, N.H.G. and Duplissis, E. 1976. Observations on the ecology and biology of the cape fruit bat in the eastern Transvaal. South African Journal of Science. 72: 272–273.Google Scholar
  38. Jindal, P.C. 1990. Grape. 186–250. In “Fruits: Tropical and sub-tropical”. (eds. Bose, T.K. and Mitra, S.K. Naya Prokash,. Calcutta. 186–250 p.Google Scholar
  39. Kakar, K.L., Nath, A. and Dogra, G.S. 1986. Studies on the Feeding Behaviour of Birds and Their Control under mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. In: “Advances in Research on Temperate Fruits”. (eds. Chadha, T.R. Bhutani, V.P. and Kaul, J.L.) ICAR, New Delhi. 289–395 p.Google Scholar
  40. Keshava Bhat, S., Advani, Rajan, R., Sukumaran, A.S. and Vidyasagar, P.S.P.V. 1995. Ecology, Biology, Economic Importance and control of economically Important Rodents in Plantation Crops. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod, Annual Reports, 1994–95.Google Scholar
  41. Lal, K.B. 1959. Non-insect animal pests. Coconut Bulletin. October, 263–266pp.Google Scholar
  42. Leach, J.G., 1940. Insect transmission of plant diseases. New York. 280p.Google Scholar
  43. Loyttyniemi, K. and Mikkola, L. 1990. Elephant as a pest of pines in Zambia. Tropical Pest Management, 26: 167–169.Google Scholar
  44. Mann, G.S. 1986. House sparrows (Passer domesticus Linn.) causing severe damage to peach buds in residential areas at Ludhiana, Punjab. Tropical Pest Management, 32: 43.Google Scholar
  45. Mason, C.W. and Leflroy, H.M. 1912. The food of birds in India. Memoirs Department of Agriculture India. 3: 372.Google Scholar
  46. Mehrotra, K.N. and Bhatnagar, R.K. 1979. Status of Economic Ornithology in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp.1–79.Google Scholar
  47. Mohan Rao, A.M.K. 1992. Integrated Rodent Management. In: “Rodents in Indian Agriculture”, (eds. Prakash, I. and Ghosh, P.K.) Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur 1:651–667.Google Scholar
  48. Mollur, S., Nameer, P.O. and Sally Walker. 1998. CAMP report on Mammals of India. Zoo Outreach, Coimbatore. 178p.Google Scholar
  49. Mickleburgh, S.P., Hutson, A.M. and Racy, P.A., 1992. Old fruit bats. An action plan for their conservation. Gland, Swizerland, IUCN. 360p.Google Scholar
  50. Mitra, M. 1930. Transactions British Mycological Society, 14: 249–254.Google Scholar
  51. Myllymaki, A., 1979. Importance of small mammals as pests in agriculture and stored productcts 293–334. In: “Ecology of small mammas in eco-systems”. (ed. Stoddart, D.M.) Chapman and Hall, London, 293–334.Google Scholar
  52. Narang, M.L. and chandel, J.S. 1995. Preliminary studies on bird damage to apple orchards in Himalchal Pradesh. Abstracts, Environment and Birds, Secretariat, Box 45, Srinagar Garhawal, U.P. 54–55 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Nagarajan, R. Neelanarayanan, P. and Kanakasabai, R. 1994. Rodent damage in Pineapple gardens in Coleroon river Bank in Tamil Nadu, Rodent Newsletter, 18: 4.Google Scholar
  54. Nirula, K.K., Antony, J. and Menon, K.P.V. 1954. The Flying Fox, Pteropus edwardsii-a pest of coconut palm in India. The Indian Coconut Journal, 12: 71–76.Google Scholar
  55. Pathak, V.N., 1980. Diseases of fruit crops. Oxford and IBH publishing company. New Delhi-309p.Google Scholar
  56. Patel, N. 1993. Vertebrates pest damage to pomegranate in and horticulture. Rodent Newsletter, 17: 6.Google Scholar
  57. Prakash, I. 1959. Food of some Indian desert mammals. Journal Biology Science, 2: 100–109.Google Scholar
  58. Prakash, I. 1962. Rodent Pest Management, principles and practices-A Monograph No.4, CAZRI, 28.p.Google Scholar
  59. Prakash, I. 1968. Some vertebrate Pests in the Rajasthan Desert. Indian Forester. 90: 107–112.Google Scholar
  60. Prakash, I. and Ghosh, P.K. 1985. Rodents in Indian Agriculture. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.Google Scholar
  61. Prakash, I., Gupta, R.K., Jain, R.P., Rana, B.D. and Datta, B.K. 1971. Ecological evaluation of rodent populations in the desert biome of Rajasthan. Mammalia. 35: 384–423.Google Scholar
  62. Prakash, I. and Jain, A.P. 1970. Eco-toxicology and control of the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurianae, Jerdon, Journal Bombay Natural History Society 66: 274–278.Google Scholar
  63. Prasad, V.G. and Verghese, A. 1985. Birds as pests of horticultural crops. Bul. of Entomology 26: 94–96.Google Scholar
  64. Prater, S.H. 1948. The book of Indian animals Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay. 210.p.Google Scholar
  65. Puttarudraiah, M. 1967. A review on advances made in the study of non-insect pests of agriculture. In, “Agricultural Entomology”, ICAR, New Delhi pp.322–331.Google Scholar
  66. Rai, P.S. 1984. Handbook of Cashew Pests. Researchco Publications, New Delhi, 124.p.Google Scholar
  67. Rajagopalan, B and Wilson, K.I. 1972. Plant Disease Reporter. 56: 323–324.Google Scholar
  68. Ramzan, M. and toor, H.S. 1972. Studies on damage to guava fruit due to rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri (scopoli) in the Punjab. Journal Bombay Natural History Society 70: 201–204.Google Scholar
  69. Roonwal, M.L., 1996. Recent advances in rodentology. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Calcutta. Miscellaneous. Publication 38.p.Google Scholar
  70. Saini, H.K., Dhindsa, M.S., and Toor, H.S., 1994. Food of the rose ringed parakeet: A quantitative study. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. 91: 96–103.Google Scholar
  71. Sandhu, P.S. Chakravarthy, S. 1982. Roseringed Parakeet damage to almonds at Ludhiana in Punjab. Indian Journal Agriculture Society 523: 14–21.Google Scholar
  72. Sandhu, P.S. and Dhindsa, M.S. 1995. Orchard birds-a review. In: “Environment and Birds Abstracts”, Srinagar, Garhwal, 57.p.Google Scholar
  73. Sharma, B.D., 1994. High Attitude wildlife in India. Oxford & IBH Publishing House, New Delhi. 290.p.Google Scholar
  74. Shivanarayan, N., 1982. The Roseringed Parakeet, the problem bird in Agriculture and its Management. In: “Management of problem birds in Aviation and Agriculture”. (eds. Agarwal, R.A. and Bhatnagar, R.K.) IARI, New Delhi. pp.151–158.Google Scholar
  75. Srinivasulu, B. and Srinivasulu, C. 2001. Magnitude of depredation on grapes by short nosed fruit bats Cynopterus sphinx in Seconderabad, India, Current Science 80: 14–15.Google Scholar
  76. Shuyler, H.R. 1972. Rodents in the tropics. Their effects and control. PANS. 18: 445–451.Google Scholar
  77. Simwat, G.S. and Sidhu, A.S. 1973. Note on the feeding habits of Roseringed Parakeet. Psiitacula krameri. Indian. Journal of Agricultural Science 43: 607–609.Google Scholar
  78. Sinclair, W.L. 1894. The destructiveness of Bandicoot rats. Journal Bombay Natural History Society. 9: 97–98.Google Scholar
  79. Singh, A.K. and Kumar, P. 1982. Damage to maize and guava crops by the Parakeets. In “Management of problem birds in Aviation and Agriculture”. (eds. Agarwal, R.A. and Bhatnagar, R.K.) IARI, New Delhi, pp.164–167.Google Scholar
  80. Singh. R.S., 1998. Plant Diseases. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 686.p.Google Scholar
  81. Singh, S., Krisnamurthy, S. and Katyal, S.L. 1963. Fruit culture in India. ICAR, New Delhi. 451.p.Google Scholar
  82. Srihari, K. and Chakravarthy, A.K. 1998. Ecological approaches for the management of vertebrate pests in Western Ghats region of Karnataka. Indian Journal Ecology. 25: 55–61.Google Scholar
  83. Strendale, R.A. 1894. Natural history of the Mammals of India and Ceylon. Thaker, Spint & Co. Calcutta.Google Scholar
  84. Taber, R.D., Sheri, A.N. and Ahmad, M.S. 1967. Mammals of the Lyallpur region. Journal Mammalogy, 48: 392–407.Google Scholar
  85. Taylor, K.D. 1972. Rodent problems in Tropical Agriculture. PANS. 18: 81–88.Google Scholar
  86. Thyagaraj, N.E., Chakravarthy, A.K. and Srihari, K. 1996. Vertebrate Pests of Cocoa and their Management Practices in Hill Region of Karnataka IPM & Sustainable Agriculture. 6: 214–218.Google Scholar
  87. Toor, H.S. 1982. Problem birds and their management in Punjab. In: “Management of problem birds in Aviation and Agriculture”. (eds. Agarwal, R.A. and Bhatnagar, R.K.) IARI, New Delhi, pp.132–142.Google Scholar
  88. Toor, H.S. and Ramzan, M. 1974. A study on bird pests of grapes. Punjab Horticulture Journal. 14: 46–48.Google Scholar
  89. Toor, H S. and Sandhu, P.S. 1981. An estimation of bird damage to Peach Prunus persica Batsch. Indian Journal Ecology. 8: 308–310.Google Scholar
  90. Tripathi, R.S., Jain, A.P., Kashyap, N., Rana, B.D. and Ishwar Prakash, 1999. Rodents in North Western Desert. In: “Rodents in Indian Agriculture”. (eds. Prakash, I and Ghosh, P.K.) Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. 357–395p.Google Scholar
  91. Verghese, A.and Prasad V.G. 1985. Feeding activities of the Roseringed Parakeet, Psittacula krameri (Scopoli) on guava. In: Non invertebrate pests and predataors. All India Scientific Writers Society, New Delhi, 140–144 p.Google Scholar
  92. Verghese, A., 1993. Report submitted to Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  93. Verghese, A., 1998. Non destructive control of the bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in grapes (Vitis vinifera Linn) in India. International Journal Pest Management, 44: 81–85.Google Scholar
  94. Verghese, A. and Tandon, P.L. 1993. Enhanced number of grape bunches per vine offsets damage due to bird pests. Newsletter for Bird Watchers. 34: 70–71.Google Scholar
  95. Wagle, P.V. 1927. Injurious rats of lower Sind and their control. Department Agricultural Bulletin. No. 138, Yervada Press, Bombay.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Chakravarthy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations