Severe Invasive Group a Streptococcal Infections

  • Anna Norrby-Teglund
  • Allison McGeer
  • Malak Kotb
  • Donald E. Low
Part of the Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century book series (EIDC, volume 2)


Kawasaki Disease Necrotizing Fasciitis Streptococcal Infection IVIG Therapy Invasive Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andersson, J., Skansen-Saphir, U., Sparrelid, E., & Andersson, U. (1996). Intravenous immune globulin affects cytokine production in T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol, 104(Suppl 1), 10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, U., Bjork, L., Skansen-Saphir, U., & Andersson, J. (1994). Pooled human IgG modulates cytokine production in lymphocytes and monocytes. Immunol Rev, 139, 21–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arad, G., Levy, R., Hillman, D., & Kaempfer, R. (2000). Superantigen antagonist protects against lethal shock and defines a new domain for T-cell activation. Nat Med, 6, 414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arend, W. P., Smith, M. F., Jr., Janson, R. W., & Joslin, F. G. (1991). IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-1 beta production in human monocytes are regulated differently. J Immunol, 147, 1530–1536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Asano, T., & Ogawa, S. (2000). Expression of IL-8 in Kawasaki disease. Clin Exp Immunol, 122, 514–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashbaugh, C. D., Warren, H. B., Carey, V. J., & Wessels, M. R. (1998). Molecular analysis of the role of the group A streptococcal cysteine protease, hyaluronic acid capsule, and M protein in a murine model of human invasive soft-tissue infection. J Clin Invest, 102, 550–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baird, R. W., Bronze, M. S., Kraus, W., Hill, H. R., Veasey, L. G., & Dale, J. B. (1991). Epitopes of group A streptococcal M protein shared with antigens of articular cartilage and synovium. J Immunol, 146, 3132–3137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballow, M. (1997). Mechanisms of action of intravenous immune serum globulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 100, 151–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnham, M., & Anderson, A. W. (1997). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A predisposing factor for streptococcal bacteremia. In Horaud (Ed.), Streptococci and the host. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  10. Barry, W., Hudgins, L., Donta, S. T., & Pesanti, E. L. (1992). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for toxic shock syndrome. JAMA, 267, 3315–3316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Basiliere, J. L., Bistrong, H. W., & Spence, W. F. (1968). Streptococcal pneumonia. Recent outbreaks in military recruit populations. Am J Med, 44, 580–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basma, H. (1998). Opsonic antibodies to the surface M protein of group A streptococci in pooled normal immunoglobulins (IVIG): Potential impact on the clinical efficacy of IVIG therapy for severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. Infect Immun, 66, 2279–2283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Basma, H., Norrby-Teglund, A., Guedez, Y., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., El-Ahmedy, O., Schwartz, B., & Kotb, M. (1999). Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: Role of protective humoral immunity. Infect Immun, 67, 1871–1877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bates, J. H., Campbell, G. D., Barron, A. L., McCracken, G. A., Morgan, P. N., Moses, E. B., & Davis, C. M. (1992). Microbial etiology of acute pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Chest, 101, 1005–1012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beachey, E. H., Bronze, M., Dale, J. B., Kraus, W., Poirier, T., & Sargent, S. (1988). Protective and autoimmune epitopes of streptococcal M proteins. Vaccine, 6, 192–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berge, A., & Bjorck, L. (1995). Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases biologically active fragments of streptococcal surface proteins. J Biol Chem, 270, 9862–9867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bessen, D. E., & Fischetti, V A. (1990). Differentiation between two biologically distinct classes of group A streptococci by limited substitutions of amino acids within the shared region of M protein-like molecules. J Exp Med, 172, 1757–1764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhakdi, S., Klonisch, T., Nuber, P., & Fischer, W. (1991). Stimulation of monokine production by lipoteichoic acids. Infect Immun, 59, 4614–4620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bisno, A. L., & Stevens, D. L. (1996). Streptococcal infections of skin and soft tissues. N Eng J Med, 334, 240–245.Google Scholar
  20. Bjorck, L., Akesson, P., Bohus, M., Trojnar, J., Abrahamson, M., Olafsson, I., & Grubb, A. (1989). Bacterial growth blocked by a synthetic peptide based on the structure of a human proteinase inhibitor. Nature, 337, 385–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyle, M. D. (1995). Variation of multifunctional surface binding proteins—a virulence strategy for group A streptococci? J Theor Biol, 173, 415–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brandt, E. R., Sriprakash, K. S., Hobb, R. I., Hayman, W. A., Zeng, W., Batzloff, M. R., Jackson, D. C., & Good, M. F. (2000). New multi-determinant strategy for a group A Streptococcal vaccine designed for the Australian Aboriginal population. Nat Med, 6, 455–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brogan, T. V., Nizet, V., Waldhausen, J. H., Rubens, C. E., & Clarke, W. R. (1995). Group A Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis complicating primary varicella: A series of fourteen patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 14, 588–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bronze, M. S., & Dale, J. B. (1993). Epitopes of Streptococcal M proteins that evoke antibodies that cross-react with human brain. J Immunol, 151, 2820–2828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, D. R., Davis, N. L., Lepawsky, M., Cunningham, J., & Kortbeek, J. (1994). A multicenter review of the treatment of major truncal necrotizing infections with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Am J Surg, 167, 485–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burns, E. H., Jr., Marciel, A. M., & Musser, J. M. (1996). Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease. Infect Immun, 64, 4744–4750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Card, G. L., Jasuja, R. R., & Gustafson, G. L. (1994). Activation of arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse macrophages by bacterial amphiphiles. J Leukoc Biol, 56, 723–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cawley, M. J., Briggs, M., Haith, L. R., Jr., Reilly, K. J., Guilday, R. E., Braxton, G. R., & Patton, M. L. (1999). Intravenous immunoglobulin as adjunctive treatment for Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis: Case report and review. Pharmacotherapy, 19, 1094–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chatellier, S., & Kotb, M. (2000). Preferential stimulation of human lymphocytes by oligodeoxynu-cleotides that copy DNA CpG motifs present in virulent genes of group A streptococci. Eur J Immunol, 30, 993–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chelsom, J., Halstensen, A., Haga, T., & Hoiby, E. A. (1994). Necrotising fasciitis due to group A streptococci in western Norway: Incidence and clinical features. Lancet, 344, 1111–1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chiu, C. H., Ou, J. T., Chang, K. S., & Lin, T. Y. (1997). Successful treatment of severe Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone and antibiotics. Infection, 25, 47–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cockerill, F. R. I., MacDonald, K. L., Thompson, R. L., Roberson, F., Kohner, P. C., Besser-Wiek, J., Manahan, J. M., Musser, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Talbot, J., Frankfort, B., Steckelberg, J. M., Wilson, W. R., Osterholrn, M. T., & The Investigation Team. (1997). An outbreak of invasive group A Streptococcal disease associated with high carriage rates of the invasive clone among school-aged children. JAMA, 277, 38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Colman, G., Tanna, A., Efstratiou, A., & Gaworzewska, E. (1993). The serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes present in Britain during 1980–1990 and their association with disease. J Med Microbiol, 39, 165–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cone, L. A., Woodward, D. R., Schlievert, P. M., & Tomory, G. S. (1987). Clinical and bacteriologic observations of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes. N Engl J Med, 317, 146–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Couper, R. (1997). Invasive group A Streptococcal infections. N Engl J Med, 336, 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Courtney, H. S., Dale, J. B., & Hasty, D. L. (1996). Differential effects of the streptococcal fibronectin-binding protein, FBP54, on adhesion of group A streptococci to human buccal cells and HEp-2 tissue culture cells. Infect Immun, 64, 2415–2419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Courtney, H. S., Hasty, D. L., Li, Y., Chiang, H. C., Thacker, J. L., & Dale, J. B. (1999). Serum opacity factor is a major fibronectin-binding protein and a virulence determinant of M type 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol, 32, 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Courtney, H. S., Li, Y., Dale, J. B., & Hasty, D. L. (1994). Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding protein from group A streptococci. Infect Immun, 62, 3937–3946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cunningham, M. W. (2000). Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin Microbiol Rev, 13, 470–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cywes, C., Stamenkovic, I., & Wessels, M. R. (2000). CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. J Clin Invest, 106, 995–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dale, J. B. (1999a). Group A streptococcal vaccines. Infect Dis Clin North Am, 13, 227–243, viii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dale, J. B. (1999b). Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine designed to optimize the immunogenicity of six tandem M protein fragments. Vaccine, 17, 193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dale, J. B., & Beachey, E. H. (1985). Epitopes of streptococcal M proteins shared with cardiac myosin. J Exp Med, 162, 583–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dale, J. B., Chiang, E. Y, Liu, S., Courtney, H. S., & Hasty, D. L. (1999). New protective antigen of group A streptococci. J Clin Invest, 103, 1261–1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dale, J. B., Washburn, R. G., Marques, M. B., & Wessels, M. R. (1996). Hyaluronate capsule and surface M protein in resistance to opsonization of group A streptococci. Infect Immun, 64, 1495–1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Darville, T., Milligan, L. B., & Laffoon, K. K. (1997). Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits staphylococcal toxin-induced human mononuclear phagocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Infect Immun, 65, 366–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Davies, H. D, Matlow, A., Carroll, K., & Curley, F. J. (1994). Apparent lower rates of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and lower mortality in children with invasive group A streptococcal infections compared with adults. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 13, 49–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Davies, H. D., McGeer, A., Schwartz, B., Green, K., Cann, D., Simor, A. E., Low, D. E., & The Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. (1996). Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. N Eng J Med, 335, 547–554.Google Scholar
  49. De Kimpe, S. J., Hunter, M. L., Bryant, C. E., Thiemermann, C., & Vane, J. R. (1995a). Delayed circulatory failure due to the induction of nitric oxide synthase by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus in anaesthetized rats. Br J Pharmacol, 114, 1317–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Kimpe, S. J., Kengatharan, M., Thiemermann, C., & Vane, J. R. (1995b). The cell wall components peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus act in synergy to cause shock and multiple organ failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 92, 10359–10363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Demers, B., Simor, A. E., Vellend, H., Schlievert, P. M., Byrne, S., Jamieson, F. B., Walmsley, S., & Low, D. E. (1993). Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987–1991. Clin Inf Dis, 16, 792–800.Google Scholar
  52. Descamps, V, Aitken, J., & Lee, M. G. (1994). Hippocrates on necrotising fasciitis. Lancet, 344, 556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. DiPersio, J. R., File, T. M., Jr., Stevens, D. L., Gardner, W. G., Petropoulos, G., & Dinsa, K. (1996). Spread of serious disease-producing M3 clones of group A streptococcus among family members and health care workers. Clin Inf Dis, 22, 490–95.Google Scholar
  54. Doctor, A., Harper, M. B., & Fleisher, G. R. (1995). Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia: Historical overview, changing incidence, and recent association with varicella. Pediatrics, 96, 428–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Duma, R. J., Weinberg, A. N., Medrek, T. F., & Kunz, L. J. (1969). Streptococcal infections: A bacteriologic and clinical study of streptococcal bacteremia. Medicine, 48, 87–127.Google Scholar
  56. Eriksson, B. K., Andersson, J., Holm, S. E., & Norgren, M. (1999). Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 180, 410–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fang, G. D., Fine, M., Orloff, J., Arisumi, D., Yu, V L., Kapoor, W., Grayston, J. T., Wang, S. P., Kohler, R., & Muder, R. R. (1990). New and emerging etiologies for community-acquired pneumonia with implications for therapy. A prospective multicenter study of 359 cases. Medicine (Baltimore), 69, 307–316.Google Scholar
  58. Fischetti, V. A. (1989). Streptococcal M protein: Design and biological behavior. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2, 285–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gaworzewska, E., & Colman, G. (1988). Changes in the pattern of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Epidem Inf, 100, 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gemmell, C. G., Peterson, P. K., Schmeling, D., Kim, Y., Mathews, J., Wannamaker, L., & Quie, P. G. (1981). Potentiation of opsonization and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes following growth in the presence of clindamycin. J Clin Invest, 67, 1249–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Goepel, J. R., Richards, D. G., Harris, D. M., & Henry, L. (1980). Fulminant Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Brit Med J, 281, 1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guzman, C. A., Talay, S. R., Molinari, G., Medina, E., & Chhatwal, G. S. (1999). Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. J Infect Dis, 179, 901–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hable, K. A., Horstmeirer, C., Wold, A. D., & Washington, J. A. (1973). Group A β-hemolytic streptococcemia: Bacteriologic and clinical study of 44 cases. Mayo Clin Proc, 48, 336–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hackett, S. P., & Stevens, D. L. (1992). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: Synthesis of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 by monocytes stimulated with pyrogenic exotoxin A and streptolysin O. J Infect Dis, 165, 879–885.Google Scholar
  65. Hasty, D. L., Ofek, I., Courtney, H. S., & Doyle, R. J. (1992). Multiple adhesins of streptococci. Infect Immun, 60, 2147–2152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Haywood, C. T., McGeer, A., & Low, D. E. (1998). Clinical experience with 20 cases of group A streptococcus necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis: 1995–1997. Abstract of Canadian Society for Plastic Surgeons Annual Meeting. Ref Type: Abstract.Google Scholar
  67. Heeg, K., Sparwasser, T., Lipford, G. B., Hacker, H., Zimmermann, S., & Wagner, H. (1998). Bacterial DNA as an evolutionary conserved ligand signalling danger of infection to immune cells. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 17, 464–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hemmi, H., Takeuchi, O., Kawai, T., Kaisho, T., Sato, S., Sanjo, H., Matsumoto, M., Hoshino, K., Wagner, H., Takeda, K., & Akira, S. (2000). A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature, 408, 740–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Herwald, H., Collin, M., Muller-Esterl, W., & Bjorck, L. (1996). Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases kinins: A novel virulence mechanism. J Exp Med, 184, 665–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heumann, D., Barras, C., Severin, A., Glauser, M. P., & Tomasz, A. (1994). Gram-positive cell walls stimulate synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 by human monocytes. Infect Immun, 62, 2715–2721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hiemstra, P. S., Brands-Tajouiti, J., & van Furth, R. (1994). Comparison of antibody activity against various microorganisms in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations determined by ELISA and opsonic assay. J Lab Clin Med, 123, 241–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hoe, N. P., Nakashima, K., Lukomski, S., Grigsby, D., Liu, M., Kordari, P., Dou, S. J., Pan, X., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Salmelinna, S., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., Schwartz, B., Schuchat, A., Naidich, S., De Lorenzo, D., Fu, Y. X., & Musser, J. M. (1999). Rapid selection of complement-inhibiting protein variants in group A Streptococcus epidemic waves. Nat Med, 5, 924–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoge, C. W., Schwartz, B., Talkington, D. F., Breiman, R. F., MacNeill, E. M., & Englender, S. J. (1993a). The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. JAMA, 269, 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoge, C. W., Schwartz, B., Talkington, D. F., Breiman, R. F., MacNeill, E. M., & Englender, S. J. (1993b). The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. A retrospective population-based study [published erratum appears in JAMA, 1993, Apr 7, 269(13), 1638] [see comments]. JAMA, 269, 384–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Holm, S. E., Norrby, A., Bergholm, A. M., & Norgren, M. (1992). Aspects of pathogenesis of serious group A streptococcal infections in Sweden. J Infect Dis, 166, 31–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hook, E. W., Horton, C. A., & Schaberg, D. R. (1983). Failure of intensive care unit support to influence mortality from pneumococcal bacteremia. JAMA, 249, 1055–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Husmann, L. K., Yung, D.-L., Hollingshead, S. K., & Scott, J. R. (1997). Role of putative virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes in mouse models of long-term throat colonization and pneumonia. Infect Immun, 65, 1422–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hytonen, J., Haataja, S., Gerlach, D., Podbielski, A., & Finne, J. (2001). The SpeB virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes, a multifunctional secreted and cell surface molecule with strepadhesin, laminin-binding and cysteine protease activity. Mol Microbiol, 39, 512–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jaffe, J., Natanson-Yaron, S., Caparon, M. G., & Hanski, E. (1996). Protein F2, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus pyogenes, possesses two binding domains. Mol Microbiol, 21, 373–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ji, Y, Carlson, B., Kondagunta, A., & Cleary, P. P. (1997). Intranasal immunization with C5a peptidase prevents nasopharyngeal colonization of mice by the group A Streptococcus. Infect Immun, 65, 2080–2087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kamezawa, Y., Nakahara, T., Nakano, S., Abe, Y., Nozaki-Renard, J., & Isono, T. (1997). Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z, a novel acidic superantigenic toxin produced by a T1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun, 65, 3828–3833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kansal, R. G., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., Norrby-Teglund, A., & Kotb, M. (2000). Inverse relation between disease severity and expression of the streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB, among clonal M1T1 isolates recovered from invasive group A streptococcal infection cases. Infect Immun, 68, 6362–6369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaplan, E. (1993). Global assessment of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease at the close of the century. The influences and dynamics of population and pathogens: A failure to realize prevention? (The T. Duckettt Jones Memorial Lecture.) Circulation, 88, 1964–1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kaplan, E. L. (1996). Recent epidemiology of group A streptococcal infections in North America and abroad: An overview. Paediatrics, 97, 945–948.Google Scholar
  85. Kapur, V., Maffei, J. T., Greer, R. S., Li, L. L., Adams, G. J., & Musser, J. M. (1994). Vaccination with streptococcal extracellular cysteine protease (interleuki-1β convertase) protects mice against challenge with heterologous group A streptococci. Microb Pathog, 16, 443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kapur, V., Majesky, M. W., Li, L. L., Black, R. A., & Musser, J. M. (1993a). Cleavage of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) precursor to produce active IL-1 beta by a conserved extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90, 7676–7680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kapur, V., Topouzis, S., Majesky, M. W., Li, L. L., Hamrick, M. R., Hamill, R. J., Patti, J. M., & Musser, J. M. (1993b). A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog, 15, 327–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Katz, A. R., & Morens, D. M. (1992). Severe streptococcal infections in historical perspective. Clin Infect Dis, 14, 298–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kaul, R., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., Green, K., Schwartz, B., Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study, & Simor, A. E. (1997). Population-based surveillance for group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis: Clinical features, prognostic indicators and microbiologic analysis of 77 cases. Am J Med, 103, 18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kaul, R., McGeer, A., Norrby-Teglund, A., Kotb, M., Schwartz, B., O’Rourke, K., Talbot, J., The Canadian Streptococcal Study Group, & Low, D. E. (1999). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome—A comparative observational study. Clin Inf Dis, 28, 800–807.Google Scholar
  91. Kawabata, S., Kunitomo, E., Terao, Y., Nakagawa, I., Kikuchi, K., Totsuka, K., & Hamada, S. (2001). Systemic and mucosal immunizations with fibronectin-binding protein FBP54 induce protective immune responses against Streptococcus pyogenes challenge in mice. Infect Immun, 69, 924–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Keefer, C. S., Inglefinger, F. J., & Spink, W. W. (1937). Significance of hemolytic streptococci bacteraemia: A study of two hundred and forty six patients. Arch Intern Med, 60, 1084–1097.Google Scholar
  93. Keefer, C. S., Rantz, L. A., & Rammelkamp, C. H. (1941). Hemolytic streptococcal pneumonia and empyema: A study of 55 cases with special reference to treatment. Ann Intern Med, 14, 1533–1550.Google Scholar
  94. Keller, R., Fischer, W., Keist, R., & Bassetti, S. (1992). Macrophage response to bacteria: Induction of marked secretory and cellular activities by lipoteichoic acids. Infect Immun, 60, 3664–3672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kengatharan, K. M., De Kimpe, S. J., & Thiemermann, C. (1996). Role of nitric oxide in the circulatory failure and organ injury in a rodent model of Gram-positive shock. Br J Pharmacol, 119, 1411–1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kiska, D. L., Thiede, B., Caracciolo, J., Jordan, M., Johnson, D., Kaplan, E. L., Gruninger, R. P., Lohr, J. A., Gilligan, P. H., & Denny, F. W., Jr. (1997). Invasive group A streptococcal infections in North Carolina: Epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic and serotype analysis of causative organisms. J Infect Dis, 176, 992–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Klinman, D. M., Yi, A. K., Beaucage, S. L., Conover, J., & Krieg, A. M. (1996). CpG motifs present in bacteria DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interferon gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, 2879–2883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kotb, M. (1995). Bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins as superantigens. Clin Microbiol Rev, 8, 411–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kotb, M. (1998). Superantigens of Gram-positive bacteria: Structure-function analyses and their implications for biological activity. Curr Opin Microbiol, 1, 56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kraus, W., & Beachey, E. H. (1988). Renal autoimmune epitope of group A streptococci specified by M protein tetrapeptide Ile-Arg-Leu-Arg. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 85, 4516–4520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kreikemeyer, B., Talay, S. R., & Chhatwal, G. S. (1995). Characterization of a novel fibronectin-binding surface protein in group A streptococci. Microb Pathog, 19, 299–315.Google Scholar
  102. Krieg, A. M. (1995). CpG DNA: A pathogenic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus? J Clin Immunol, 15, 284–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kuo, C. F., Wu, J. J., Lin, K. Y., Tsai, P. J., Lee, S. C., Jin, Y. T., Lei, H. Y., & Lin, Y. S. (1998). Role of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B in the mouse model of group A streptococcal infection. Infect Immun, 66, 3931–3935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lamothe, F., D’Amico, P., Ghosn, P., Tremblay, C., Braidy, J., & Patenaude, J. V (1995). Clinical usefulness of intravenous human immunoglobulins in invasive group A streptococcal infections: Case report and review. Clin Inf Dis, 21, 1469–1470.Google Scholar
  105. Lancefield, R. C. (1962). Current knowledge of the type specific M antigens of group A streptococci. J Immunol, 89, 307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Laupland, K. B., Davies, H. D., Low, D. E., Schwartz, B., Green, K., & McGeer, A. (2000). Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicella-zoster virus infection. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. Pediatrics, 105, E60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Leung, D. Y., Cotran, R. S., Kurt-Jones, E., Burns, J. C., Newburger, J. W., & Pober, J. S. (1989). Endothelial cell activation and high interleukin-1 secretion in the pathogenesis of acute Kawasaki disease. Lancet, 2, 1298–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lieberman, D., Schlaeffer, F., Boldur, I., Lieberman, D., Horowitz, S., Friedman, M. G., Leiononen, M., Horovitz, O., Manor, E., & Porath, A. (1996). Multiple pathogens in adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: A one year prospective study of 346 consecutive patients. Thorax, 51, 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lim, I., Shaw, D. R., Stanley, D. P., Lumb, R., & McLennan, G. (1989). A prospective hospital study of the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia. Med J Aust, 151, 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Limbago, B., Penumalli, V., Weinrick, B., & Scott, J. R. (2000). Role of streptolysin O in a mouse model of invasive group A streptococcal disease. Infect Immun, 68, 6384–6390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lissner, R., Struff, W. G., Autenrieth, I. B., Woodcock, B. G., & Karch, H. (1999). Efficacy and potential clinical applications of Pentaglobin, an IgM-enriched immunoglobulin concentrate suitable for intravenous infusion. Eur J Surg Suppl, 584, 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Low, D. E., Schwartz, B., & McGeer, A. (1997). The reemergence of severe group A streptococcal disease: An evolutionary perspective. In W. M. Scheld, D. Armstrong, & J. M. Hughes (Eds.), Emerging infections 1 (pp. 93–123). Washington, DC: ASM Press.Google Scholar
  113. Lukomski, S., Nakashima, K., Abdi, I., Cipriano, V. J., Ireland, R. M., Reid, S. D., Adams, G. G., & Musser, J. M. (2000). Identification and characterization of the scl geneencoding a group A Streptococcus extracellular protein virulence factor with similarity to human collagen. Infect Immun, 68, 6542–6553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lukomski, S., Sreevatsan, S., Amberg, C., Reichardt, W., Woischnik, M., Podbielski, A., & Musser, J. M. (1997). Inactivation of Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease significantly decreases mouse lethality of serotype M3 and M49 strains. J Clin Invest, 99, 2574–2580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. MacCallum, W. G. (1919). The pathology of the pneumonia in the United States army camps during the winter of 1917–1918 (Monograph No. 10). New York: Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.Google Scholar
  116. Mahieu, L. M., Holm, S. E., Goossens, H. J., & Van Acker, K. J. (1995). Congenital streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with absence of antibodies against streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. J Pediatr, 127, 987–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Marrack, P., & Kappler, J. (1990). The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science, 248, 705–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Marston, B. J., Plouffe, J. F., File, T. M., Jr., Hackman, B. A., Salstrom, S. J., Lipman, H. B., Kolczak, M. S., & Breiman, R. F. (1997). Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Results of a population-based active surveillance study in Ohio. The Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Arch Intern Med, 157, 1709–1718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Martin, P. R., & Hoiby, E. A. (1990). Streptococcal serogroup A epidemic in Norway 1987–1988. Scand J Infect Dis, 22, 421–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mascini, E. M., Jansze, M., Schellekens, J. F., Musser, J. M., Faber, J. A., Verhoef-Verhage, L. A., Schouls, L., van Leeuwen, W. J., Verhoef, J., & van Dijk, H. (2000). Invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Netherlands: Evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies. J Infect Dis, 181, 631–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mascini, E. M., Jansze, M., Schouls, L. M., Verhoef, J., & van Dijk, H. (2001). Penicillin and clindamycin differentially inhibit the production of pyrogenic exotoxins A and B by group A streptococci. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 18, 395–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mattsson, E., Verhage, L., Rollof, J., Fleer, A., Verhoef, J., & van Dijk, H. (1993). Peptidoglycan and teichoic acid from Staphylococcus epidermidis stimulate human monocytes to release tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 7, 281–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McCormick, J. K., Yarwood, J. M., & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: An update. Annu Rev Microbiol, 55, 77–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McGeer, A., Willey, B., Schwartz, B., Green, K., Bernston, A., Trpeski, L., Talbot, J., Group A Streptococcal Study, & Low, D. E. (1998). Epidemiology of invasive GAS disease due to M3 serotypes in Ontario, Canada. 38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Abstract no. 577. Abstract.Google Scholar
  125. McLellan, D. G., Chiang, E. Y., Courtney, H. S., Hasty, D. L., Wei, S. C., Hu, M. C., Walls, M. A., Bloom, J. J., & Dale, J. B. (2001). Spa contributes to the virulence of type 18 group A streptococci. Infect Immun, 69, 2943–2949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Medaglini, D., Pozzi, G., King, T. P., & Fischetti, V. A. (1995). Mucosal and systemic immune responses to a recombinant protein expressed on the surface of the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii after oralcolonization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 92, 6868–6872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Medzihtov, R., & Janeway, C. J., Jr. (2000). Innate immunity. N Engl J Med, 5, 338–344.Google Scholar
  128. Metlay, J. P., Hermann, J., Cetron, M. S., Fine, M. J., Farley, M. M., Whitney, C., & Breiman, R. F. (2000). Impact of penicillin susceptibility on medical outcomes for adult patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis, 30, 520–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mollick, J. A., Miller, G. G., Musser, J. M., Cook, R. G., Grossman, D., & Rich, R. R. (1993). A novel superantigen isolated from pathogenic strains of Streptococcus pyogenes with aminoterminal homology to staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C. J Clin Invest, 92, 710–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Morath, S., Geyer, A., & Hartung, T. (2001). Structure-function relationship of cytokine induction by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus. J Exp Med, 193, 393–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Moses, A. E., Wessels, M. R., Zalcman, K., Alberti, S., Natanson-Yaron, S., Menes, T., & Hanski, E. (1997). Relative contributions of hyaluronic acid capsule and M protein to virulence in a mucoid strain of the group A Streptococcus. Infect Immun, 65, 64–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Mouthon, L., Kaveri, S. V., Spalter, S. H., Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Lefranc, C., Desai, R., & Kazatchkine, M. D. (1996). Mechanisms of action of intravenous immune globulin in immune-mediated diseases. Clin Exp Immunol, 104(Suppl. 1), 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Muller, M. P., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., & Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study. (2001). Successful outcomes in six patients treated conservatively for suspected necrotizing fasciitis (NF) due to group A streptococcus (GAS). 41st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Ref Type: Abstract.Google Scholar
  134. Muller, M. P., McGeer, A. J., Low, D. E., & the Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. (2000). Clinical and epidemiological features of group A Streptococcal pneumonia in Ontario, Canada: 1992 to 1996. 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Ref Type: Abstract.Google Scholar
  135. Nadal, D., Lauener, R. P., & Braegger, C. P. (1993). T cell activation and cytokine release in Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. J Pediatr, 122, 727–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Nakashima, K., Ichiyama, S., Linuma, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Ohta, M., Ooe, K., Shimizu, Y., Igarashi, H., Murai, T., & Shimokata, K. (1997). A clinical and bacteriologic investigation of invasive Streptococcal infections in Japan on the basis of serotypes, toxin production, and genomic DNA fingerprints. Clin Infect Dis, 25, 260–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Navarre, W. W., & Schneewind, O. (1999). Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria and mechanisms of their targeting to the cell wall envelope. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 63, 174–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Norrby-Teglund, A., Basma, H., Andersson, J., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., & Kotb, M. (1998). Varying titers of neutralizing antibodies to Streptococcal superantigens in different preparations of normal polyspecific immunoglobulin G: Implications for therapeutic efficacy [see comments]. Clin Infect Dis, 26, 631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Norrby-Teglund, A., Ihendyane, N., Kansal, R., Basma, H., Kotb, M., Andersson, J., & Hammarstrom, L. (2000). Relative neutralizing activity in polyspecific IgM, IgA, and IgG preparations against group A Streptococcal superantigens. Clin Infect Dis, 31, 1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Norrby-Teglund, A., Kaul, R., Low, D. E., McGeer, A., Andersson, J., Andersson, U., & Kotb, M. (1996a). Evidence for the presence of Streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in normal polyspecific IgG (IVIG). Infect Immun, 64, 5395–5398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Norrby-Teglund, A., Kaul, R., Low, D. E., McGeer, A., Newton, D. W., Andersson, J., Andersson, U., & Kotb, M. (1996b). Plasma from patients with severe group A Streptococcal infections treated with normal polyspecific IgG (IVIG) inhibitsStreptococcal superantigen-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine production. J Immunol, 156, 3057–3064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Norrby-Teglund, A., Pauksens, K., Holm, S. E., & Norgren, M. (1994). Relation between low capacity of human sera to inhibit Streptococcal mitogens and serious manifestations of disease. J Inf Dis, 170, 585–591.Google Scholar
  143. Norrby-Teglund, A., & Stevens, D. L. (1998). Novel therapies in Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: Attenuation of virulence factor expression and modulation of the host response. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 11, 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Pancholi, V., & Fischetti, V A. (1992). A major surface protein on group A streptococci is a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase with multiple binding activity. J Exp Med, 176, 415–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pancholi, V., & Fischetti, V. A. (1998). Alpha-enolase, a novel strong plasmin(ogen) binding protein on the surface of pathogenic streptococci. J Biol Chem, 273, 14503–14515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Parker, M. T. (1979). Necropsy studies of the bacterial complications of influenzae. J Infect, 1(Suppl 2), 9–16.Google Scholar
  147. Patel, R., Rouse, M. S., Florez, M. V., Piper, K. E., Cockerill, F. R., Wilson, W. R., & Steckelberg, J. M. (2000). Lack of benefit of intravenous immune globulin in a murine model of group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. J Infect Dis, 181, 230–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Perez, C. M., Kubak, B. M., Cryer, H. G., Salehmugodam, S., Vespa, P., & Farmer, D. (1997). Adjunctive treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome using intravenous immunoglobulin: Case report and review. Am J Med, 102, 111–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Peterson, C. L., Mascola, L., Chao, S. M., Lieberman, J. M., Arcinue, E. L., Blumberg, D. A., Kim, K. S., Kovacs, A., Wong, V. K., & Brunell, P. A. (1996a). Children hospitalized for varicella: A prevaccine review. J Pediatr, 129, 529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Peterson, C. L., Vugia, D. J., Meyers, H. B., Chao, S. M., Vogt, J., Lanson, J., Brunell, P. A., Kim, K. S., & Mascola, L. (1996b). Risk factors for invasive group A streptococcal infections in children with varicella: A case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 15, 151–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Poutsiaka, D. D., Clark, B. D., Vannier, E., & Dinarello, C. A. (1991). Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 beta by peripheral blood mononuclear cells is differentially regulated. Blood, 78, 1275–1281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Proft, T., Moffatt, S. L., Berkahn, C. J., & Fraser, J. D. (1999). Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med, 189, 89–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pruksakorn, S., Currie, B., Brandt, E., Martin, D., Galbraith, A., Phornphutkul, C., Hunsakunachai, S., Manmontri, A., & Good, M. F. (1994). Towards a vaccine for rheumatic fever: Identification of a conserved target epitope on M protein of group A streptococci. Lancet, 344, 639–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Quinn, R. W. (1982). Epidemiology of group A streptococcal infections—their changing frequency and severity. Yale J Biol Med, 55, 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Raeder, R., Harokopakis, E., Hollingshead, S., & Boyle, M. D. (2000). Absence of SpeB production in virulent large capsular forms of group A streptococcal strain 64. Infect Immun, 68, 744–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Raeder, R., Woischnik, M., Podbielski, A., & Boyle, M. D. (1998). A secreted streptococcal cysteine protease can cleave a surface-expressed M1 protein and alter the immunoglobulin binding properties. Res Microbiol, 149, 539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rakonjac, J. V., Robbins, J. C., & Fischetti, V. A. (1995). DNA sequence of the serum opacity factor of group A streptococci: Identification of a fibronectin-binding repeat domain. Infect Immun, 63, 622–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rasmussen, M., & Bjorck, L. (2001). Unique regulation of SclB—a novel collagen-like surface protein of Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol, 40, 1427–1438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rasmussen, M., Eden, A., & Bjorck, L. (2000). SclA, a novel collagen-like surface protein of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun, 68, 6370–6377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rasmussen, M., Muller, H. P., & Bjorck, L. (1999). Protein GRAB of Streptococcus pyogenes regulates proteolysis at the bacterial surface by binding alpha2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem, 274, 15336–15344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Riesenfeld-Orn, L, Wolpe, S., Garcia-Bustos, J. F, Hoffmann, M. K., & Tuomanen, E. (1989). Production of interleukin-1 but not tumor necrosis factor by human monocytes stimulated with pneumococcal cell surface components. Infect Immun, 57, 1890–1893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ruiz de Souza, V., Carreno, M. P., Kaveri, S. V., Ledur, A., Sadeghi, H., Cavaillon, J. M., Kazatchkine, M. D., & Haeffner-Cavaillon, N. (1995). Selective induction of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8 in human monocytes by normal polyspecific IgG (intravenous immunoglobulin). Eur J Immunol, 25, 1267–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ruoff, K. L. (1995). Streptococcus. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, & R. H. Yolken (Eds.), Manual of clinical microbiology, (pp. 299–307). Washington: ASM Press.Google Scholar
  164. Salvadori, L. G., Blake, M. S., McCarty, M., Tai, J. Y., & Zabriskie, J. B. (1995). Group A streptococcus-liposome ELISA antibody titers to group A polysaccharide and opsonophagocytic capabilities of the antibodies. J Infect Dis, 171, 593–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Samuelsson, A., Towers, T. L., & Ravetch, J. V. (2001). Anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG mediated through the inhibitory Fc receptor. Science, 291, 484–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schrager, H. M., Alberti, S., Cywes, C., Dougherty, G. J., & Wessels, M. R. (1998). Hyaluronic acid capsule modulates M protein-mediated adherence and acts as a ligand for attachment of group A Streptococcus to CD44 on human keratinocytes. J Clin Invest, 101, 1708–1716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Schuchat, A., Hilger, X, Zell, E., Farley, M. M., Reingold, A., Harrison, L., Lefkowitz, L., Danila, R., Stefonek, K., Barrett, N., Morse, D., & Pinner, R. (2001). Active bacterial core surveillance of the emerging infections program network. Emerg Infect Dis, 7, 92–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Schulze, K., Medina, E., Talay, S. R., Towers, R. J., Chhatwal, G. S., & Guzman, C. A. (2001). Characterization of the domain of fibronectin-binding protein I of Streptococcus pyogenes responsible for elicitation of a protective immune response. Infect Immun, 69, 622–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schwartz, B., Facklam, R. R., & Breiman, R. F. (1990). Changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection in the USA. Lancet, 336, 1167–1171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Shanley, T. P., Schrier, D., Kapur, V., Kehoe, M., Musser, J. M., & Ward, P. A. (1996). Streptococcal cysteine protease augments lung injury induced by products of group A streptococci. Infect Immun, 64, 870–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sharief, M. K., Ingram, D. A., Swash, M., & Thompson, E. J. (1999). I.v. immunoglobulin reduces circulating proinflammatory cytokines in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neurology, 52, 1833–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Sharkawy, A., Low, D. E., Saginur, R., Gregson, D., Schwartz, B., Jessamine, P., Green, K., & McGeer, A. (2002). Severe group A Streptococcal soft-tissue infections in Ontario: 1992–1996. Clin Infect Dis, 34, 454–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Simpson, W. A., & Beachey, E. H. (1983). Adherence of group A streptococci to fibronectin on oral epithelial cells. Infect Immun, 39, 275–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Skansen-Saphir, U., Andersson, J., Bjorck, L., & Andersson, U. (1994). Lymphokine production induced by Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin-A is selectively down-regulated by pooled human IgG. Eur J Immunol, 24, 916–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Spika, J. S., Peterson, P. K., Wilkinson, B. J., Hammerschmidt, D. E., Verbrugh, H. A., Verhoef, J., & Quie, P. G. (1982). Role of peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus in leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and complement activation associated with bacteremia. J Infect Dis, 146, 227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sriskandan, S., & Cohen, J. (1999). Gram-positive sepsis. Mechanisms and differences from Gramnegative sepsis. Infect Dis Clin North Am, 13, 397–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sriskandan, S., McKee, A., Hall, L., & Cohen, J. (1997). Comparative effects of clindamycin and ampicillin on superantigenic activity of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Antimicrob Chemother, 40, 275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stalhammar-Carlemalm, M., Areschoug, T., Larsson, C., & Lindahl, G. (1999). The R28 protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is related to several group B Streptococcal surface proteins, confers protective immunity and promotes binding to human epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol, 33, 208–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Standiford, T. J., Arenberg, D. A., Danforth, J. M., Kunkel, S. L., Van Otteren, G. M., & Strieter, R. M. (1994). Lipoteichoic acid induces secretion of interleukin-8 from humanblood monocytes: A cellular and molecular analysis. Infect Immun, 62, 119–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Stegmayr, B., Bjorck, S., Holm, S., Nisell, J., Rydvall, A., & Settergren, B. (1992). Septic shock induced by group A Streptococcal infection: Clinical and therapeutic aspects. Scand J Infect Dis, 24, 589–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Stevens, D. L. (1992). Invasive group A streptococcus infections. Clin Infect Dis, 14, 2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Stevens, D. L. (1999). The flesh-eating bacterium: What’s next? J Infect Dis, 179(Suppl. 2), S366–S374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Stevens, D. L., Gibbons, A. E., Bergstrom, R., & Winn, V. (1988). The Eagle effect revisited: Efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal myositis. J Infect Dis, 158, 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Stevens, D. L., Tanner, M. H., Winship, J., Swarts, R., Ries, K. M., Schlievert, P. M., & Kaplan, E. (1989). Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A. N Eng J Med, 321, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Stevens, D. L., Yan, S., & Bryant, A. E. (1993). Penicillin-binding protein expression at different growth stages determines penicillin efficacy in vitro and in vivo: An explanation for the inoculum effect. J Infect Dis, 167, 1401–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Stockbauer, K. E., Magoun, L., Liu, M., Burns, E. H., Jr., Gubba, S., Renish, S., Pan, X., Bodary, S. C., Baker, E., Coburn, J., Leong, J. M., & Musser, J. M. (1999). A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 96, 242–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stromberg, A., Romanus, V., & Burman, L. G. (1991). Outbreaks of group A streptococcal bacteremia in Sweden: An epidemiologic and clinical study. J Infect Dis, 164, 595–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Stylianos, S., Wakabayashi, G., Gelfand, J. A., & Harris, B. H. (1991). Experimental hemorrhage and blunt trauma do not increase circulating tumor necrosis factor. J Trauma, 31, 1063–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Svensson, M. D., Scaramuzzino, D. A., Sjobring, U., Olsen, A., Frank, C., & Bessen, D. E. (2000a). Role for a secreted cysteine proteinase in the establishment of host tissue tropism by group A streptococci. Mol Microbiol, 38, 242–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Svensson, N., Oberg, S., Henriques, B., Holm, S., Kallenius, G., Romanus, V., & Giesecke, J. (2000b). Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden in 1994 and 1995: Epidemiology and clinical spectrum. Scand J Infect Dis, 32, 609–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Takei, S., Arora, Y. K., & Walker, S. M. (1993). Intravenous immunoglobulin contains antibodies inhibitory to activation of T-cells by staphylococcal superantigens. J Clin Invest, 91, 602–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. The Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. (1993). Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Rationale and consensus definition. JAMA, 269, 384, 390–391.Google Scholar
  193. Timmerman, C. P., Mattsson, E., Martinez-Martinez, L., De Graaf, L., Van Strijp, J. A., Verbrugh, H. A., Verhoef, J., & Fleer, A. (1993). Induction of release of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes by staphylococci and staphylococcal peptidoglycans. Infect Immun, 61, 4167–4172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Tuomanen, E., Liu, H., Hengstler, B., Zak, O., & Tomasz, A. (1985). The induction of meningeal inflammation by components of the pneumococcal cell wall. J Infect Dis, 151, 859–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ulrich, R. G., Olson, M. A., & Bavari, S. (1998). Development of engineered vaccines effective against structurally related bacterial superantigens. Vaccine, 16, 1857–1864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Upton, M., Carter, P. E., Orange, G., & Pennington, T. H. (1996). Genetic heterogeneity of M type 3 group A streptococci causing severe infections in Tayside, Scotland. J Clin Microbiol, 34, 196–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Visvanathan, K., Charles, A., Bannan, J., Pugach, P., Kashfi, K., & Zabriskie, J. B. (2001). Inhibition of bacterial superantigens by peptides and antibodies. Infect Immun, 69, 875–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vugia, D. J., Peterson, C. L., Meyers, H. B., Kim, K. S., Arrieta, A., Schlievert, P. M., Kaplan, E. L., & Werner, S. B. (1996). Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children with varicella in Southern California. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 15, 146–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Wang, F. D., Liu, I. M., & Liu, C. Y. (2000a). In vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and other antibiotics against ampicillin-resistant enterococcus faecium. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei.), 63, 119–123.Google Scholar
  200. Wang, J. E., Jorgensen, P. F., Almlof, M., Thiemermann, C., Foster, S. J., Aasen, A. O., & Solberg, R. (2000b). Peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induce tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 production in both T cells and monocytes in a human whole blood model. Infect Immun, 68, 3965–3970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Weisman, L. E., Cruess, D. E, & Fischer, G. W. (1994). Opsonic activity of commercially available standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 13, 1122–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Welch, C. C., Tombridge, T. L., Baker, W. J., & Kinney, R. J. (1961). Beta-hemolytic streptococcal pneumonia. Report of an outbreak in a military population. Am J Med Sci, 242, 157–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Wessels, M. R., & Bronze, M. S. (1994). Critical role of the group A streptococcal capsule in pharyngeal colonization and infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91, 12238–12242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Wexler, D. E., Chenoweth, D. E., & Cleary, P. P. (1985). Mechanism of action of the group A streptococcal C5a inactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 82, 8144–8148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Wheeler, M. C., Roe, M. H., Kaplan, E. L., Schlievert, P. M., & Todd, J. K. (1991). Outbreak of group A streptococcus septicemia in children. Clinical, epidemiologic, and microbiological correlates [see comments]. JAMA, 266, 533–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wilson, G. J., Talkington, D. F., Gruber, W., Edwards, K., & Dermody, T. S. (1995). Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis following varicella in children: Case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis, 20, 1333–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Winram, S. B., & Lottenberg, R. (1996). The plasmin-binding protein Plr of group A streptococci is identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Microbiology, 142(Pt. 8), 2311–2320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Yan, S., Bohach, G. A., & Stevens, D. L. (1994). Persistent acylation of high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins by penicillin induces the postantibiotic effect in Streptococcus pyogenes. J Infect Dis, 170, 609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Yan, S., Mendelman, P. M., & Stevens, D. L. (1993). The in vitro antibacterial activity of ceftriaxone against Streptococcus pyogenes is unrelated to penicillin-binding protein 4. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 110, 313–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Yang, K. D., Bathras, J. M., Shigeoka, A. O., James, J., Pincus, S. H., & Hill, H. R. (1989). Mechanisms of bacterial opsonization by immune globulin intravenous: Correlation of complement consumption with opsonic activity and protective efficacy. J Infect Dis, 159, 701–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Yong, J. M. (1994). Necrotising fasciitis. Lancet, 343, 1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Norrby-Teglund
  • Allison McGeer
  • Malak Kotb
  • Donald E. Low

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations